ABOUT THIS COLLECTION

The Global Registry of Acute Coronary Events (GRACE) (1999-2009) was an international registry designed to track in-hospital and long-term outcomes of patients presenting with acute coronary syndrome (ACS). With nearly 250 hospitals in 30 countries, GRACE enrolled over 102,000 patients. The GRACE risk score has been developed into an app and it has been integrated into electronic medical records systems used in daily clinical management of ACS patients worldwide. The United Kingdom national Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE) guideline has recommended employing the GRACE risk score since 2010. This collection showcases publications about the GRACE2 (Expanded GRACE) project and project research.

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Recently Published

  • Has the ClOpidogrel and Metoprolol in Myocardial Infarction Trial (COMMIT) of early beta-blocker use in acute coronary syndromes impacted on clinical practice in Canada? Insights from the Global Registry of Acute Coronary Events (GRACE)

    Edwards, Jeremy; Goodman, Shaun G.; Yan, Raymond T.; Welsh, Robert C.; Kornder, Jan; DeYoung, J. Paul; Chauret, Denis; Picard, Jean-Pierre; Eagle, Kim A.; Yan, Andrew T. (2011-02-15)
    BACKGROUND: The COMMIT/CCS-2 trial, published in 2005, demonstrated no net benefit of early beta-blocker (BB) therapy in acute coronary syndromes (ACS). We sought to assess the short-term impact of this landmark trial by comparing the use of early BB therapy in patients with a broad spectrum of ACS before and after 2005. METHODS: Using data from the Global Registry of Acute Coronary Events and Canadian Registry of Acute Coronary Events, we compared the rates of BB use within the first 24 hours of presentation in the periods 1999 to 2005 and 2006 to 2008, after stratifying patients by the type of ACS (ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction [STEMI] and non-ST-segment elevation ACS [NSTEACS]) and clinical presentation. RESULTS: Of the 14,231 patients with ACS, 77.7% received BB therapy within 24 hours of presentation (78.5% and 77.4% in the STEMI and NSTEACS groups, respectively). The early use of BB declined in the STEMI group (80.3% to 76.7%, P = .005) but increased in the NSTEACS group (75.4% to 78.9%, P < .001) after 2005. Long-term BB use, higher systolic blood pressure, and higher heart rate were independent predictors of early BB use. Conversely, patients who were female, older, Killip class >1, and had cardiac arrest at presentation were less likely to receive early BB. Multivariable analysis showed a trend toward lower use of BB among patients with STEMI (adjusted odds ratio 0.76, 95% CI 0.57-1.00, P = .055) and a trend toward more frequent BB use among patients with NSTEACS (adjusted odds ratio 1.22, 95% CI 0.96-1.55, P = .11) after 2005. The temporal trends in the early use of BB differed between patients with STEMI and patients with NSTEACS (P for interaction with period <.001). CONCLUSIONS: Most patients with STEMI or NSTEACS were treated with early BB therapy. In accordance with the COMMMIT/CCS-2 trial, patients with lower systolic blood pressure and higher Killip class in the "real world" less frequently received early BB therapy. Since the publication of COMMIT/CCS-2, there has been no significant change in the use of BB in patients with STEMI or NSTEACS after controlling for their clinical characteristics.
  • Association between smoking, outcomes, and early clopidogrel use in patients with acute coronary syndrome: insights from the Global Registry of Acute Coronary Events

    Sibbald, Matthew; Yan, Andrew T.; Huang, Wei; Fox, Keith A. A.; Gore, Joel M.; Steg, Phillippe Gabriel; Eagle, Kim A.; Brieger, David; Montalescot, Gilles; Goodman, Shaun G. (2010-11-26)
    BACKGROUND: Smoking induces CYP1A2, thereby enhancing clopidogrel conversion to its active metabolite. We sought to determine the association between clopidogrel use and clinical outcomes in smokers versus nonsmokers with a broad spectrum of acute coronary syndrome (ACS). METHODS: We examined the association between early clopidogrel use in-hospital and 6-month outcomes among 44,426 patients with ACS in relation to smoking status in the Global Registry of Acute Coronary Events. We tested for heterogeneity of clopidogrel effect among smokers versus nonsmokers in separate multivariable models that adjusted for (1) established prognosticators in the Global Registry of Acute Coronary Events risk score and (2) independent predictors of major bleeding. RESULTS: Rates of in-hospital mortality, death/myocardial infarction, and major bleeding were 4.3%, 5.9%, and 2.5%, respectively. Current smokers (n = 12,149) were more likely to be younger men without documented vascular disease; had lower rates of hypertension, hyperlipidemia, and diabetes; and more frequently presented with ST elevation (all P < .0001). Early clopidogrel use (55%) was associated with a reduction in the composite endpoint of mortality and myocardial infarction both in-hospital and at 6 months among current smokers and nonsmokers. There was no interaction between current smoking and clopidogrel use for ischemic endpoints. Major bleeding associated with early clopidogrel use was actually lower among current smokers compared with nonsmokers. CONCLUSIONS: Despite prior observations of smoking-enhanced clopidogrel effects, early clopidogrel use among smokers presenting with ACS compared with nonsmokers was not independently associated with a greater reduction in cardiovascular events. In contrast with nonsmokers, clopidogrel use among smokers was not associated with excess bleeding, perhaps because of unmeasured confounders.
  • Comparison of baseline characteristics, management and outcome of patients with non-ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndrome in versus not in clinical trials

    Hutchinson-Jaffe, Adam B.; Goodman, Shaun G.; Yan, Raymond T.; Wald, Ron; Elbarouni, Basem; Rose, Barry; Eagle, Kim A.; Lai, Christopher C.; Baer, Carolyn; Langer, Anatoly; et al. (2010-11-10)
    Previous studies have questioned the external validity of randomized controlled trial results of acute coronary syndrome (ACS) because of potential selection bias toward healthier patients. We sought to evaluate differences in clinical characteristics and management of patients admitted with non-ST-elevation ACS according to participation in clinical trials over the previous decade. The Canadian ACS I (1999 to 2001), ACS II (2002-2003), GRACE (2004-2007), and CANRACE (2008) were prospective, multicenter registries of patients admitted to hospitals with ACS. We examined 13,556 patients with non-ST-elevation ACS, of whom 1,126 (8.3%) participated in clinical trials. Data were collected on baseline characteristics, medication use at admission and discharge, in-hospital procedures, and in-hospital adverse events. Patients enrolled in clinical trials were younger, more likely to be men, and had fewer co-morbidities. They were significantly more likely to be on several guideline-recommended medications and were significantly more likely to undergo invasive procedures, including coronary angiography, percutaneous coronary intervention, and coronary bypass surgery (all p values <0.001). Unadjusted in-hospital (2.1% vs 0.7%, p = 0.001) and 1-year (8.9% vs 6.3%, p = 0.037) mortality rates were higher in non-enrolled patients. In multivariable analysis, patients who were older, women, had a history of heart failure, and increased creatinine levels on presentation were less likely to be enrolled into clinical trials. In conclusion, significant differences persist in baseline characteristics, treatment, and outcomes between patients enrolled and those not enrolled in clinical trials. Consequently, generalization of ACS clinical trials over the previous decade to the "real-world" patient may remain in question.
  • Temporal trend of in-hospital major bleeding among patients with non ST-elevation acute coronary syndromes

    Elbarouni, Basem; Elmanfud, Omran; Yan, Raymond T.; Fox, Keith A. A.; Kornder, Jan; Rose, Barry; Spencer, Frederick A.; Welsh, Robert C.; Wong, Graham C.; Goodman, Shaun G.; et al. (2010-09-10)
    BACKGROUND: Although randomized controlled trials support the use of intensive medical and invasive therapies for non-ST segment elevation acute coronary syndromes (NSTE-ACS), major bleeding is a serious treatment complication. We sought to determine the temporal trend of in-hospital major bleeding among patients with NSTE-ACS, in relation to the evolving management pattern. METHODS: We identified 14 111 NSTE-ACS patients enrolled in 4 successive, prospective, multicenter registries (ACS I, 1999-2001; ACS II, 2002-2003; GRACE, 2004-2007; and CANRACE, 2008) in Canada between 1999 and 2008. We collected data on patient characteristics, use of cardiac medications and procedures on standardized case report forms. In all registries, major bleeding was defined a priori as life threatening or fatal bleeding, bleeding requiring transfusion of >/=2 U of packed red cells, or resulting in an absolute decrease in hemoglobin of >30g/L. RESULTS: A total of 14 111 patients had a final diagnosis of NSTE-ACS and were included in this study (3294 in the ACS-I registry, 1956 in the ACS-II registry, 7543 in GRACE, and 1318 in CANRACE). Over time, there was a substantial increase in the use of dual anti-platelet (aspirin and thienopyridine) therapy (P for trend <.001), and in rates of in-hospital cardiac catheterization and percutaneous coronary intervention (both Ps for trend <.001). Overall, major bleeding was relatively infrequent (1.7%). There was no significant increase in the unadjusted rates of major bleeding over time (P for trend = .19). In multivariable analysis adjusting for GRACE risk score and intensive treatment, enrolment period was not an independent predictor of bleeding (P for trend = .98). There was no interaction between the enrolment period and the use of intensive medical and invasive management. CONCLUSION: Despite more widespread use of dual anti-platelet therapies and invasive cardiac procedures in the management of NSTE-ACS, the rate of major bleeding remains relatively low and has not increased significantly over time. Our findings suggest that physicians selectively target treatment for their patients, and these evidence-based therapies can be safely administered to ACS patients in clinical practice.
  • Disparities in management patterns and outcomes of patients with non-ST-elevation acute coronary syndrome with and without a history of cerebrovascular disease

    Lee, Tony C.; Goodman, Shaun G.; Yan, Raymond T.; Grondin, Francois R.; Welsh, Robert C.; Rose, Barry; Gyenes, Gabor; Zimmerman, Rodney H.; Brossoit, Real; Saposnik, Gustavo; et al. (2010-04-13)
    Cerebrovascular (CVD) disease is commonly associated with coronary artery disease and adversely affects outcome. The goal of the present study was to examine the temporal management patterns and outcomes in relation to previous CVD in a contemporary "real-world" spectrum of patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS). From 1999 to 2008, 14,070 patients with non-ST-segment elevation ACS were recruited into the Canadian Acute Coronary Syndrome I (ACS I), ACS II, Global Registry of Acute Coronary Events (GRACE/GRACE(2)), and Canadian Registry of Acute Coronary Events (CANRACE) prospective multicenter registries. We stratified the study patients according to a history of CVD and compared their treatment and outcomes. Patients with a history of CVD were older, more likely to have pre-existing coronary artery disease, elevated creatinine, higher Killip class, and ST-segment deviation on admission. Despite presenting with greater GRACE risk scores (137 vs 117, p <0.001), patients with previous CVD were less likely to receive evidence-based antiplatelet and antithrombin therapies during the initial 24 hours of hospital admission. They were also less likely to undergo in-hospital coronary angiography and revascularization. These disparities in medical and invasive management were preserved temporally across all 4 registries. Patients with concomitant CVD had worse in-hospital outcomes. Previous CVD remained an independent predictor of in-hospital mortality (adjusted odds ratio 1.43, 95% confidence interval 1.06 to 1.92, p = 0.019) after adjusting for other powerful prognosticators in the GRACE risk score. However, it was independently associated with a lower use of in-hospital coronary angiography (adjusted odds ratio 0.70, 95% confidence interval 0.60 to 0.83, p <0.001). Underestimation of patient risk was the most common reason for not pursuing an invasive strategy. Revascularization was independently associated with lower 1-year mortality (adjusted odds ratio 0.48, 95% confidence interval 0.33 to 0.71, p <0.001), irrespective of a history of CVD. In conclusion, for patients presenting with non-ST-segment elevation-ACS, a history of CVD was independently associated with worse outcomes, which might have been, in part, because of the underuse of evidence-based medical and invasive therapies.
  • Evaluation of left ventricular ejection fraction in non-ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndromes and its relationship to treatment

    Jedrzkiewicz, Sean; Goodman, Shaun G.; Yan, Raymond T.; Grondin, Francois R.; Gallo, Richard; Welsh, Robert C.; Lai, Kevin; Huynh, Thao; Yan, Andrew T.; Canadian Acute Coronary Syndrome I and II Registries Investigators; et al. (2010-04-07)
    BACKGROUND: In-hospital assessment of left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) in non-ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndrome (NSTE-ACS) is emphasized in current practice guidelines. There are limited data regarding the evaluation of LVEF and clinical characteristics and in-hospital management in the "real world." METHODS: Registries including the Canadian Acute Coronary Syndrome (ACS) I and II, Global Registry of Acute Coronary Events (main GRACE/expanded GRACE(2)), and Canadian Registry of Acute Coronary Events (CANRACE) enrolled 13,703 NSTE-ACS patients across Canada between 1999 and 2008. Patients were stratified by in-hospital LVEF measurement, and LVEF was categorized as normal, mildly, or moderately to severely impaired. We compared clinical characteristics, cardiac procedures, and clinical outcomes across these groups. Multivariable logistic regression identified factors independently associated with the assessment of LVEF. RESULTS: Overall, 8,116 patients (59.2%) had LVEF measurement, and of the 7,667 patients with available LVEF data, 4,470 (58.3%) had normal, 1,916 (25%) mildly impaired, and 1,281 (16.7%) moderately to severely impaired LVEF. Patients with LVEF assessment more frequently (all P < .001) underwent cardiac catheterization, percutaneous coronary intervention or coronary bypass surgery, and had higher (both P < .001) rates of myocardial (re) infarction and heart failure. In-hospital reinfarction, higher Killip class, abnormal biomarker, hospital stay >10 days, and on-site cardiac catheterization facility were independently associated with LVEF assessment. Despite increasing LVEF assessment over time (P for trend < .001), 31.2% of patients in the most recent registry (2008) had no in-hospital LVEF assessment. CONCLUSIONS: In-hospital LVEF assessment is not performed in many NSTE-ACS patients. The LVEF assessment, associated with increased use of evidence-based therapies and invasive cardiac procedures, was obtained more frequently in patients with myocardial (re) infarction, heart failure on presentation, and prolonged hospital stay.
  • Management patterns of non-ST segment elevation acute coronary syndromes in relation to prior coronary revascularization

    Elbarasi, Esam; Goodman, Shaun G.; Yan, Raymond T.; Welsh, Robert C.; Kornder, Jan; Wong, Graham C.; Dery, Jean-Pierre; Anderson, Frederick A. Jr.; Gore, Joel M.; Fox, Keith A. A.; et al. (2010-01-28)
    BACKGROUND: Contemporary guidelines support an early invasive strategy for non-ST elevation acute coronary syndrome (NSTE-ACS) patients who had prior coronary revascularization. However, little is known about the management pattern of these patients in "real world." METHODS: We analyzed 3 consecutive Canadian registries (ACS I, ACS II, and Global Registry of Acute Coronary Events [GRACE]/expanded-GRACE) that recruited 12,483 NSTE-ACS patients from June 1999 to December 2007. We stratified the study population according to prior coronary revascularization status into 4 groups and compared their clinical characteristics, in-hospital use of medications, and cardiac procedures. RESULTS: Of the 12,483 NSTE-ACS patients, 71.2% had no prior revascularization, 14.2% had percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) only, 9.5% had coronary artery bypass graft surgery (CABG) only, and 5% had both PCI and CABG. Compared to their counterparts without prior revascularization, patients with previous PCI and/or CABG were more likely to be male, to have diabetes, myocardial infarction, and heart failure but less likely to have ST-segment deviation or positive cardiac biomarker on presentation. Early use of evidence-based medications was higher among patients with previous PCI only and lower among patients with previous CABG only. After adjusting for possible confounders including GRACE risk score, prior PCI was independently associated with in-hospital use of cardiac catheterization (adjusted odds ratio [OR] 1.18, 95% CI 1.04-1.34, P = .008). In contrast, previous CABG was an independent negative predictor (adjusted OR .77, 95% CI 0.68-0.87, P < .001). There was no significant interaction (P = .93) between previous PCI and CABG. CONCLUSIONS: The NSTE-ACS patients with previous PCI were more likely to be treated invasively. Conversely, patients with prior CABG less frequently received invasive therapy. Future studies should determine the appropriateness of this treatment discrepancy.
  • Underutilization of clopidogrel and glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitors in non-ST-elevation acute coronary syndrome patients: the Canadian global registry of acute coronary events (GRACE) experience

    Banihashemi, Behnam; Goodman, Shaun G.; Yan, Raymond T.; Welsh, Robert C.; Meta, Shamir R.; Montalescot, Gilles; Kornder, Jan; Wong, Graham C.; Gyenes, Gabor; Steg, Phillippe Gabriel; et al. (2009-12-05)
    BACKGROUND: There are limited contemporary data on the early use of clopidogrel or glycoprotein (Gp) IIb/IIIa inhibitors, alone versus combination therapies, in non-ST-elevation acute coronary syndrome (NSTE-ACS). METHODS: This study included 5,806 Canadian NSTE-ACS patients with elevated cardiac biomarker and/or ST deviation on presentation in the prospective GRACE between 2003-2007. We stratified the study population according to the management strategy (non-invasive vs invasive) and into low-(GRACE risk score or=141). RESULTS: Overall, 3,893 patients (67.1%) received early ( CONCLUSIONS: In this contemporary NSTE-ACS population, both clopidogrel and GpIIb/IIIa inhibitors were targeted toward patients treated with an invasive strategy but paradoxically toward the lower-risk group. In particular, clopidogrel appeared to be underused among conservatively managed patients despite its proven efficacy, whereas GpIIb/IIIa inhibitors were administered to only a minority of the high-risk patients with elevated cardiac biomarkers. Our findings emphasize the ongoing need to promote the optimal use of evidence-based antiplatelet therapies among high-risk patients with NSTE-ACS.
  • Validation of the Global Registry of Acute Coronary Event (GRACE) risk score for in-hospital mortality in patients with acute coronary syndrome in Canada

    Elbarouni, Basem; Goodman, Shaun G.; Yan, Raymond T.; Welsh, Robert C.; Kornder, Jan; DeYoung, J. Paul; Wong, Graham C.; Rose, Barry; Grondin, Francois R.; Gallo, Richard; et al. (2009-09-25)
    BACKGROUND: The Global Registry of Acute Coronary Event (GRACE) risk score was developed in a large multinational registry to predict in-hospital mortality across the broad spectrum of acute coronary syndromes (ACS). Because of the substantial regional variation and temporal changes in patient characteristics and management patterns, we sought to validate this risk score in a contemporary Canadian population with ACS. METHODS: The main GRACE and GRACE(2) registries are prospective, multicenter, observational studies of patients with ACS (June 1999 to December 2007). For each patient, we calculated the GRACE risk score and evaluated its discrimination and calibration by the c statistic and the Hosmer-Lemeshow goodness-of-fit test, respectively. To assess the impact of temporal changes in management on the GRACE risk score performance, we evaluated its discrimination and calibration after stratifying the study population into prespecified subgroups according to enrollment period, type of ACS, and whether the patient underwent coronary angiography or revascularization during index hospitalization. RESULTS: A total of 12,242 Canadian patients with ACS were included; the median GRACE risk score was 127 (25th and 75th percentiles were 103 and 157, respectively). Overall, the GRACE risk score demonstrated excellent discrimination (c statistic 0.84, 95% CI 0.82-0.86, P < .001) for in-hospital mortality. Similar results were seen in all the subgroups (all c statistics >/=0.8). However, calibration was suboptimal overall (Hosmer-Lemeshow P = .06) and in various subgroups. CONCLUSIONS: GRACE risk score is a valid and powerful predictor of adverse outcomes across the wide range of Canadian patients with ACS. Its excellent discrimination is maintained despite advances in management over time and is evident in all patient subgroups. However, the predicted probability of in-hospital mortality may require recalibration in the specific health care setting and with advancements in treatment.
  • Influence of age on use of cardiac catheterization and associated outcomes in patients with non-ST-elevation acute coronary syndromes

    Bagnall, Alan J.; Goodman, Shaun G.; Fox, Keith A. A.; Yan, Raymond T.; Gore, Joel M.; Cheema, Asim N.; Huynh, Thao; Chauret, Denis; Fitchett, David H.; Langer, Anatoly; et al. (2009-06-26)
    Randomized controlled trials support the use of an early invasive strategy in high-risk patients with non-ST-segment elevation (NSTE) acute coronary syndromes (ACS). Although risk increases with age, limited data are available to support this strategy in older patients. The aims of this study were to examine temporal trends in the management and outcomes of NSTE ACS in elderly patients and to explore reasons for the lower use of early angiography in the aged population. Data from 11,732 patients with NSTE ACS were collected from 3 consecutive Canadian registries (ACS I, ACS II, and Global Registry of Acute Coronary Events [GRACE]/GRACE2) from 1999 to 2007. Rates of in-hospital cardiac catheterization, revascularization, infarction or reinfarction, and death were stratified by age (<65, 65 to 74, and > or = 75 years). Although overall, rates of in-hospital catheterization and revascularization increased over time (p <0.001), the largest increase occurred in patients aged <65 years. The strongest independent negative predictor of the use of cardiac catheterization was age > or = 75 years (adjusted odds ratio 0.45, 95% confidence interval 0.37 to 0.56, p <0.001). Use of an early invasive approach was associated with a reduction in 1-year mortality across all age groups, but the absolute difference was greatest in patients aged > or = 75 years. The underestimation of risk by physicians (ascertained in ACS II) was the most common reason for choosing a conservative strategy. In conclusion, despite an overall increased use of an early invasive strategy, elderly patients with NSTE ACS remain significantly less likely to undergo cardiac catheterization and revascularization and are often erroneously perceived to be at low risk by their physicians. Future studies should determine whether more aggressive treatment of these high-risk elderly patients improves outcomes.
  • Temporal trends and patterns of early clopidogrel use across the spectrum of acute coronary syndromes

    Rao, Rajeev V.; Goodman, Shaun G.; Yan, Raymond T.; Spencer, Frederick A.; Fox, Keith A. A.; DeYoung, J. Paul; Rose, Barry; Grondin, Francois R.; Gallo, Richard; Gore, Joel M.; et al. (2009-04-01)
    BACKGROUND: Randomized trials have established efficacy of clopidogrel in various types of acute coronary syndromes (ACS). The objective of this study was to examine the temporal trends and patterns of early clopidogrel use (within the first 24 hours of hospitalization) across the spectrum of patients with ACS in Canada. METHODS: Using the multinational, prospective GRACE (Global Registry of Acute Coronary Events) and GRACE(2), we identified 11,177 patients who were admitted for ACS from January 2003 to December 2007 in Canada. Demographic information, clinical features, and treatment were recorded. We examined the early use of clopidogrel over time and in relation to the type of ACS, clinical features on presentation, and the mode of reperfusion therapy. RESULTS: Of the 11,177 patients with ACS, 3,091 (27.7%) had ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI), 5,194 (46.5%) had non-STEMI, and 2,892 (25.9%) had unstable angina; the rates of early clopidogrel administration were 63.0%, 66.6%, and 57.2%, respectively (P < .001). Overall, there was a significant increase in clopidogrel use over the period studied (P for trend < .001). In patients with non-ST-elevation ACS (non-STEMI and unstable angina), clopidogrel use was higher among those with positive cardiac biomarkers compared to those without (67.1% vs 59.8%, P < .001) but similar in the groups with and without ST deviation. There was an inverse relationship between GRACE risk score and rates of early clopidogrel administration. In patients with STEMI receiving fibrinolytic therapy, only 55.7% of patients <65 years old received clopidogrel compared with 47.0% and 42.6% of patients 65 to 74 and >75 years old, respectively (P for trend < .001). CONCLUSIONS: Although early use of clopidogrel therapy has increased over time across the spectrum of ACS, a significant proportion of eligible patients still do not receive this evidence-based therapy. There is a need to optimize the use of proven antiplatelet therapies to improve clinical outcome.
  • Temporal management patterns and outcomes of non-ST elevation acute coronary syndromes in patients with kidney dysfunction

    Wong, Jorge A.; Goodman, Shaun G.; Yan, Raymond T.; Wald, Ron; Bagnall, Alan J.; Welsh, Robert C.; Wong, Graham C.; Kornder, Jan; Eagle, Kim A.; Steg, Phillippe Gabriel; et al. (2009-02-10)
    AIMS: To examine: (i) the temporal changes in the management pattern; (ii) the reasons for any treatment disparities; (iii) the relationship between invasive treatment and outcome, among acute coronary syndrome (ACS) patients with vs. without kidney dysfunction. METHODS AND RESULTS: Canadian ACS I, ACS II registries and Global Registry of Acute Coronary Events (GRACE) were prospective, multi-centre, observational studies of patients with ACS. From 1999 to 2007, non-ST elevation (NSTE) ACS patients were recruited in ACS I (n = 3295; 1999-2001), ACS II (n = 1956; 2002-2003), and GRACE (n = 6491; 2004-2007) in Canada. Using the four-variable Modified Diet in Renal Disease equation, we stratified the study population (n = 11,377) into three groups based on their estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), and examined their treatment and outcome. While in-hospital use of coronary angiography and revascularization increased over time in all groups (P < 0.001), patients with kidney dysfunction were less likely to undergo invasive management (P < 0.001). Unadjusted 1 year mortality was lower among patients receiving in-hospital coronary angiography within all eGFR categories (> or =60 mL/min/1.73 m(2): 2.5 vs. 7.6%, P < 0.001; 30-59 mL/min/1.73 m(2): 8.0 vs. 14.6%, P < 0.001; <30 mL/min/1.73 m(2): 27.5 vs. 41.5%, P = 0.043). In-hospital revascularization was independently associated with lower 1-year mortality (adjusted OR = 0.52, 95% CI 0.36-0.77, P = 0.001), irrespective of eGFR (P for heterogeneity = 0.39). Underestimation of patient risk was the most common barrier to an invasive treatment strategy. CONCLUSION: Despite temporal increases in invasive management of NSTE-ACS, patients with kidney dysfunction are more commonly treated conservatively, with an associated worse outcome. In-hospital revascularization was independently associated with improved survival, irrespective of eGFR. Randomized controlled trials involving patients with kidney dysfunction are needed to confirm whether more aggressive treatment will improve their poor outcome.
  • [Treatment of the acute coronary syndrome in Germany: experiences in a German cluster of the GRACE registry]

    Tebbe, U.; Bramlage, P.; von Lows of Menar, P.; Lawall, H.; Gaudron, P.; Luders, S.; Klaus, A.; Lengfelder, W.; Scholz, K. H.; Maziewjewski, S.; et al. (2007-09-21)
    BACKGROUND: The acute coronary syndrome (ACS) remains a major cause of mortality and morbidity in the western world. The Global Registry of Acute Coronary Events (GRACE) documents inpatients with all types of ACS and a follow-up at three months in Germany and worldwide. METHODS: The data of the German Cluster Detmold were compared with data from the worldwide GRACE registry (31,070 patients). Data from 849 patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI), non-ST elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI) and unstable angina (UA) were collected from October 2001 to September 2005 in eight participating hospitals in the GRACE2 Cluster Detmold. RESULTS: Compared with the worldwide GRACE data the patients in the Cluster Detmold had longer pre-hospital admission times (STEMI patients < 1 h: 13.9 % vs. 17.0 %; p < 0.05); more frequent interventions (PCI 60.1 % vs. 48.7%; p < 0.001) and less thrombolysis (17.9 vs. 42.5%; p < 0.001) in STEMI patients; more frequent use of platelet inhibitors (clopidogrel and ticlopidine, 93.4 % vs. 89.4%; p < 0.001) and unfractionated heparin (69.8 % vs. 36.5; p < 0.001), and less frequent use of low molecular weight heparin (31.1 % vs. 51.2%; p < 0.001); more frequent use of RAS blocking agents (80.2 vs. 66.6, p < 0.001) and beta blockers (87.4 vs. 78.8, p < 0.001) and less frequent use of lipid lowering agents (23.5 vs. 72.5%; p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Current management of ACS in Germany closely follows the recommendations of the German society of Cardiology. Differences in practice may account for the observed substantially lower event rates in Germany during hospitalization, but there is still room for improvement in the pre-hospital phase und in the degree to which pharmacotherapy is used for secondary prevention.
  • [Management of acute coronary syndromes in a new French coronary intensive care unit. The first four years of activity in the GRACE registry (Global Registry of Acute Coronary Events)]

    Philippe, F.; Larrazet, F.; Dibie, A.; Bouabdallah, K.; Carbognani, D.; Folliguet, T.; Czitrom, D.; Lagier, A.; Laborde, F.; Cohen, A.; et al. (2005-04-15)
    The GRACE registry provides the opportunity to analyse management of acute coronary syndromes in the real word and the impact of hospital characteristics. In this setting, we compare the activity of a new coronary intensive care unit with regional data. METHODS: From January 2000 to December 2003, 376 eligible patients were involved (22% of regional inclusion). GRACE standard diagnosis were the following, for our centrer (for the cluster): ST elevation myocardial infarction 28% (37%), non-ST elevation myocardial infarction 32% (31%), unstable angina 33% (24%). Demographic characteristics were similar with a median age of 64 (vs 66) and a large majority of male (74 vs 81%). Medical history and cardiovascular risk factors were comparable. Predictors of hospital mortality were observed at the same rate: cardiogenic shock (3 vs 3%), congestive heart failure > Killip 2 (4 vs 4%), left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) lower than 40% (17 vs 16%), recurrent ischemic symptoms (8 vs 8%). Coronary artery bypass grafts were required in 5% (vs 2%). RESULTS: Drugs prescription rates were similar: aspirin at admission (95%) and at discharge (95%), betablocker at admission (70%) and at discharge (85%), statin at admission (< 30% in 2000, > 60% in 2003) and at discharge (< 60% in 2000 and > 80% in 2003), ticlopidin-clopidogrel at admission (< 20% in 2000 and > 40% in 2003), ACE inhibitor for LVEF < 40%, intravenous GPIIblIIa, and low molecular weight heparin (90%). Cardiac catheterisation (90%) and percutaneous coronary interventions (80%) were performed at the same rates in our center and in the cluster. Hospital death was similar (2 vs 4%). Discharge status was home for a large majority of patients (63 vs 76%). The median length of stay was five days and shorter than three days for patients with unstable angina. CONCLUSION: Based on GRACE registry data, the present evaluation revealed that our new center offered evidence-based medical and interventional therapy in patients with acute coronary syndromes at the same level than experienced institutions with similar results for hospital death and length of stay.