ABOUT THIS COLLECTION
Studying the Treatment of Acute Hypertension (STAT) (2007-2009) was a US-based, multicenter, observational, cross-sectional survey of the routine management practices and outcomes for patients with acute, severe hypertension treated in a non-operative, critical care setting with intravenous antihypertensive therapy. The objectives of STAT were to describe immediate and long-term outcomes of patients with acute, severe hypertension by recording clinical and demographic characteristics of hospitalized patients; to explore variations in practice patterns; to analyze resource utilization; and to identify factors leading to treatment decisions from the perspectives of the patient, their physician, the institution, and the system-of-care. STAT enrolled over 1500 patients from 25 hospitals, all in the USA. This collection showcases publications about the project and project research.
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Clinical practices, complications, and mortality in neurological patients with acute severe hypertension: The Studying the Treatment of Acute hyperTension (STAT) registryOBJECTIVE:: To determine the demographic and clinical features, hospital complications, and predictors of 90-day mortality in neurologic patients with acute severe hypertension. DESIGN:: Studying the Treatment of Acute hyperTension (STAT) was a multicenter (n = 25) observational registry of adult critical care patients with severe hypertension treated with intravenous therapy. SETTING:: Emergency department or intensive care unit. PATIENTS:: A qualifying blood pressure measurement >180 mm Hg systolic or >110 mm Hg diastolic (>140/90 mm Hg for subarachnoid hemorrhage) was required for inclusion in the STAT registry. Patients with a primary neurologic admission diagnosis were included in the present analysis. INTERVENTIONS:: All patients were treated with at least one parenteral (bolus or continuous infusion) antihypertensive agent. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS:: Of 1,566 patients included in the STAT registry, 432 (28%) had a primary neurologic diagnosis. The most common diagnoses were subarachnoid hemorrhage (38%), intracerebral hemorrhage (31%), and acute ischemic stroke (18%). The most common initial drug was labetalol (48%), followed by nicardipine (15%), hydralazine (15%), and sodium nitroprusside (13%). Mortality at 90 days was substantially higher in neurologic than in non-neurologic patients (24% vs. 6%, p < .0001). Median initial blood pressure was 183/95 mm Hg and did not differ between survivors and nonsurvivors. In a multivariable analysis among neurologic patients who died experienced lower minimal blood pressure values (median 103/45 vs. 118/55 mm Hg, p < .0001) and were less likely to experience recurrent hypertension requiring intravenous treatment (29% vs. 51%, p = .0001) than those who survived. Mortality was also associated with an increased frequency of neurologic deterioration (32% vs. 10%, p < .0001). CONCLUSION:: Neurologic emergencies account for approximately 30% of hospitalized patients with severe acute hypertension, and the majority of those who die. Mortality in hypertensive neurologic patients is associated with lower minimum blood pressure values, less rebound hypertension, and a higher frequency of neurologic deterioration. Excessive blood pressure reduction may contribute to poor outcome after severe brain injury.
Hypertensive heart failure: patient characteristics, treatment, and outcomesBACKGROUND: Acute heart failure (AHF) is a common, poorly characterized manifestation of hypertensive emergency. We sought to describe characteristics, treatment, and outcomes of patients with severe hypertension complicated by AHF. METHODS AND RESULTS: The observational retrospective Studying the Treatment of Acute hypertension (STAT) registry records data on emergency department and hospitalized patients receiving intravenous therapy for blood pressure (BP) greater than 180/110 mm Hg in 25 US hospitals. A subset of patients with HF was defined as pulmonary edema on chest x-ray (CXR) or an elevated B-type natriuretic peptide level (BNP > 500 or NTproBNP > 900 pg/mL) in patients with creatinine level 2.5 mg/dL or less. Remaining STAT patients, after excluding those with a primary neurologic diagnosis, constitute the non-HF cohort. An adverse composite outcome was defined as mechanical ventilation, intensive care unit (ICU) admission, hospital length of stay more than 1 week, or death within 30 days. Of 1199 patients, 302 (25.2%) had AHF. Acute HF patients and non-AHF patients were similar in age, sex, and overall mortality, but AHF patients were more commonly African American, with a history of HF, diabetes or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and prior hypertension admissions. Heart failure patients had higher creatinine and natriuretic peptide levels but lower ejection fraction. They were more likely admitted to the ICU; receive electrocardiograms, bilevel positive airway pressure ventilation, and CXRs; and be readmitted within 90 days. Finally, BP decreases lower than 120 mm Hg within 12 hours were associated with an increased rate of the composite adverse outcome. CONCLUSIONS: Acute HF as a manifestation of hypertensive emergency is common, more likely in African Americans, and requires more clinical resources than patients with non-HF-related severe hypertension. Accurate BP control is critical, as declines less than 120 mm Hg were associated with increased adverse event rates.
Patterns of antihypertensive treatment in patients with acute severe hypertension from a nonneurologic cause: Studying the Treatment of Acute Hypertension (STAT) registrySTUDY OBJECTIVE: To assess antihypertensive treatment practices and outcomes for patients with acute severe hypertension requiring hospitalization. DESIGN: Subanalysis of a multicenter, observational, cross-sectional study. DATA SOURCE: The STAT registry (data from 25 hospitals). PATIENTS: A total of 1184 consecutive adults with acute severe hypertension (systolic blood pressure [SBP] ≥ 180 mm Hg, diastolic blood pressure ≥ 110 mm Hg), without a neurologic reason for admission, receiving two or more intermittent intravenous antihypertensive doses or a continuous intravenous infusion within 24 hours of hospitalization. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Patients started intravenous antihypertensive therapy 1.3 (median [interquartile range (IQR) 0.5-3.2]) hours after the qualifying SBP (median 204 [IQR 190-221] mm Hg). Labetalol (27%), metoprolol (21%), and nitroglycerin (20%) were the most frequent initial intravenous choices. For the 43% of patients administered two or more intravenous agents sequentially, the 24% receiving three or more, and the 8% receiving four or more, median SBPs at the time of the second, third, and fourth additions were 186 (IQR 168-211), 176 (IQR 152-196), and 164 (IQR 143-193) mm Hg, respectively. Most common continuous intravenous infusions were nitroglycerin (30%), nicardipine (13%), and labetalol (7%). After the first intravenous agent, an SBP decrease of 10-25% was achieved at 1 and 6 hours in 48% and 72%, respectively. Of the 6% without at least a 10% decrease in SBP during the entire hospitalization, labetalol (28%), hydralazine (21%), and metoprolol (17%) were the most frequent initial intravenous choices. Hypotension (SBP ≤ 90 mm Hg) occurred in 5% and was most common with intravenous nitroglycerin (39%). Oral antihypertensives were started within 1 and 6 hours after the first intravenous therapy in 13% and 34% of patients, respectively, with many patients (61%) receiving three or more oral agents during hospitalization. CONCLUSION: Pharmacologic treatment of acute severe hypertension in patients with nonneurologic causes is heterogeneous and often not consistent with Joint National Committee recommendations. Patients received numerous intravenous agents, experienced variable decreases in SBP, often failed to receive timely oral therapy, and a clinically relevant proportion developed hypotension.
Predictors of 90-day readmission among patients with acute severe hypertension. The cross-sectional observational Studying the Treatment of Acute hyperTension (STAT) studyBACKGROUND: Acute severe hypertension can be a life-threatening emergency. The objective of this study was to describe the frequency of rehospitalization for patients with acute severe hypertension and to identify clinical predictors of 90-day rehospitalization. METHODS: In this observational cross-sectional study, consecutive patients were identified retrospectively (January 2007 to April 2008) through uniform data query of hospital pharmacy databases in 25 hospitals in the United States. Eligible patients were > or =18 years old, had systolic blood pressure >180 mm Hg and/or diastolic blood pressure >110 mm Hg, and had received intravenous antihypertensive therapy within 24 hours of presentation. Data were collected on patient demographics, medical history, laboratory findings, antihypertensive therapies, resource utilization, hospital-associated events, readmission within 90 days of hospital discharge, and death up to 6 months following the index hospitalization. RESULTS: The 90-day readmission rate was 35% (354/1,009) of patients discharged home alive and with known readmission status; 41% (144/354) were readmitted more than once. Of these 354 patients, readmission was for acute severe hypertension in 29% (n = 101). Eighteen (1.9%) patients died between hospital discharge and 90 days. Factors associated with readmission for hypertension included previous hospitalization for acute severe hypertension, history of drug abuse, and presenting with seizures or shortness of breath. Patients with an admitting diagnosis of hypertension were 94% more likely to be readmitted. CONCLUSIONS: More than one third of patients discharged home after hospitalization for severe hypertension were rehospitalized at least once within 90 days, more than one quarter for acute severe hypertension. Further studies are warranted to determine the impact of other variables on readmission rates and clinical outcomes in this population.
Acute kidney injury and cardiovascular outcomes in acute severe hypertensionBACKGROUND: Little is known about the association of kidney dysfunction and outcome in acute severe hypertension. This study aimed to measure the association between baseline chronic kidney disease (estimated glomerular filtration rate), acute kidney injury (AKI, decrease in estimated glomerular filtration rate > or =25% from baseline) and outcome in patients hospitalized with acute severe hypertension. METHODS AND RESULTS: The Studying the Treatment of Acute Hypertension (STAT) registry enrolled patients with acute severe hypertension, defined as > or =1 blood pressure measurement >180 mm Hg systolic and/or >110 mm Hg diastolic and treated with intravenous antihypertensive therapy. Data were compared across groups categorized by admission estimated glomerular filtration rate and AKI during admission. On admission, 79% of the cohort (n=1566) had at least mild chronic kidney disease (estimated glomerular filtration rate/min in 46%,/min in 22%). Chronic kidney disease patients were more likely to develop heart failure (P CONCLUSIONS: Chronic kidney disease is a common comorbidity among patients admitted with acute severe hypertension, and AKI is a frequent form of acute target organ dysfunction, particularly in those with baseline chronic kidney disease. Any degree of AKI is associated with a greater risk of morbidity and mortality.
Practice patterns, outcomes, and end-organ dysfunction for patients with acute severe hypertension: the Studying the Treatment of Acute hyperTension (STAT) registryBACKGROUND: Limited data are available on the care of patients with acute severe hypertension requiring hospitalization. We characterized contemporary practice patterns and outcomes for this population. METHODS: STAT is a 25-institution, US registry of consecutive patients with acute severe hypertension (>180 mm Hg systolic and/or >110 mm Hg diastolic; >140 and/or >90 for subarachnoid hemorrhage) treated with intravenous therapy in a critical care setting. RESULTS: One thousand five hundred eighty-eight patients were enrolled (January 2007 to April 2008). Median age was 58 years (interquartile range 49-70 years), 779 (49%) were women, and 892 (56%) were African American; 27% (n = 425) had a prior admission for acute hypertension and 486 (31%) had chronic kidney disease. Median qualifying blood pressure (BP) was 200 (186, 220) systolic and 110 (93, 123) mm Hg diastolic. Initial intravenous antihypertensive therapies used to control BP varied, with 1,009 (64%) patients requiring multiple drugs. Median time to achieve a systolic BP(hemorrhage) was 4.0 (0.8, 12) hours; 893 (60%) had reelevation to >180 (>140 for subarachnoid hemorrhage) after initial control; and 63 (4.0%) developed iatrogenic hypotension. Hospital mortality was 6.9% (n = 109) with an aggregate 90-day mortality rate of 11% (174/1,588); 59% (n = 943) had acute/worsening end-organ dysfunction during hospitalization. The 90-day readmission rate was 37% (523/1,415), of which one quarter (132/523) was due to recurrent acute severe hypertension. CONCLUSION: This study highlights heterogeneity in care, BP control, and outcomes of patients hospitalized with acute severe hypertension.