Now showing items 1-20 of 634

    • Persistent False Positive Covid-19 Rapid Antigen Tests

      Herbert, Carly; McManus, David D; Soni, Apurv (2024-02-22)
      Rapid antigen tests for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) are effective tools for the diagnosis of acute infection, particularly when used serially. The percentage of rapid antigen tests with false positive results is reported to be less than 1%. However, we have observed persons who repeatedly test positive with rapid antigen tests despite concurrent negative molecular tests; this infrequent phenomenon occurs predominantly among women and persons with autoimmune disorders.
    • Effect of Paxlovid Treatment on Long COVID Onset: An EHR-Based Target Trial Emulation from N3C [preprint]

      Preiss, Alexander; Bhatia, Abhishek; Zang, Chengxi; Aragon, Leyna V; Baratta, John M; Baskaran, Monika; Blancero, Frank; Brannock, M Daniel; Chew, Robert F; Díaz, Iván; et al. (2024-01-22)
      Preventing and treating post-acute sequelae of SARS-CoV-2 infection (PASC), commonly known as Long COVID, has become a public health priority. In this study, we examined whether treatment with Paxlovid in the acute phase of COVID-19 helps prevent the onset of PASC. We used electronic health records from the National Covid Cohort Collaborative (N3C) to define a cohort of 426,461 patients who had COVID-19 since April 1, 2022, and were eligible for Paxlovid treatment due to risk for progression to severe COVID-19. We used the target trial emulation (TTE) framework to estimate the effect of Paxlovid treatment on PASC incidence. Our primary outcome measure was a PASC computable phenotype. Secondary outcomes were the onset of novel cognitive, fatigue, and respiratory symptoms in the post-acute period. Paxlovid treatment did not have a significant effect on overall PASC incidence (relative risk [RR] = 0.99, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.96-1.01). However, its effect varied across the cognitive (RR = 0.85, 95% CI 0.79-0.90), fatigue (RR = 0.93, 95% CI 0.89-0.96), and respiratory (RR = 0.99, 95% CI 0.95-1.02) symptom clusters, suggesting that Paxlovid treatment may help prevent post-acute cognitive and fatigue symptoms more than others.
    • Assessing the effect of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors in the prevention of post-acute sequelae of COVID-19

      Sidky, Hythem; Hansen, Kristen A; Girvin, Andrew T; Hotaling, Nathan; Michael, Sam G; Gersing, Ken; Sahner, David K (2024-01-09)
      Background: Post-acute sequelae of COVID-19 (PASC) produce significant morbidity, prompting evaluation of interventions that might lower risk. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) potentially could modulate risk of PASC via their central, hypothesized immunomodulatory, and/or antiplatelet properties although clinical trial data are lacking. Materials and methods: This retrospective study was conducted leveraging real-world clinical data within the National COVID Cohort Collaborative (N3C) to evaluate whether SSRIs with agonist activity at the sigma-1 receptor (S1R) lower the risk of PASC, since agonism at this receptor may serve as a mechanism by which SSRIs attenuate an inflammatory response. Additionally, determine whether the potential benefit could be traced to S1R agonism. Presumed PASC was defined based on a computable PASC phenotype trained on the U09.9 ICD-10 diagnosis code. Results: Of the 17,908 patients identified, 1521 were exposed at baseline to a S1R agonist SSRI, 1803 to a non-S1R agonist SSRI, and 14,584 to neither. Using inverse probability weighting and Poisson regression, relative risk (RR) of PASC was assessed.A 29% reduction in the RR of PASC (0.704 [95% CI, 0.58-0.85]; P = 4 ×10-4) was seen among patients who received an S1R agonist SSRI compared to SSRI unexposed patients and a 21% reduction in the RR of PASC was seen among those receiving an SSRI without S1R agonist activity (0.79 [95% CI, 0.67 - 0.93]; P = 0.005).Thus, SSRIs with and without reported agonist activity at the S1R were associated with a significant decrease in the risk of PASC.
    • Within-host evolutionary dynamics and tissue compartmentalization during acute SARS-CoV-2 infection

      Farjo, Mireille; Koelle, Katia; Martin, Michael A; Gibson, Laura L; Walden, Kimberly K O; Rendon, Gloria; Fields, Christopher J; Alnaji, Fadi G; Gallagher, Nicholas; Luo, Chun Huai; et al. (2024-01-04)
      We detail the within-host evolutionary dynamics of SARS-CoV-2 during acute infection in 31 individuals using daily longitudinal sampling. We characterized patterns of mutational accumulation for unvaccinated and vaccinated individuals, and observed that temporal variant dynamics in both groups were largely stochastic. Comparison of paired nasal and saliva samples also revealed significant genetic compartmentalization between tissue environments in multiple individuals. Our results demonstrate how selection, genetic drift, and spatial compartmentalization all play important roles in shaping the within-host evolution of SARS-CoV-2 populations during acute infection.
    • Exploring patients' experiences with telehealth in obstetrics care during the COVID-19 pandemic: A qualitative study

      Alkawaldeh, Mohammad; Alkhawaldeh, Asma; Yeboah, Tracy (2023-12-20)
      Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate patients' experiences with telehealth provision of obstetrics and gynecology care during the COVID-19 pandemic qualitatively. Design and setting: In this study, a qualitative research design, namely descriptive phenomenology, was employed. Participants were recruited from the OB department at UMass Memorial Medical center in Worcester, MA, between 6/2020 and 7/2020. Methods: Between June 2020 and July 2020, in-depth interviews were conducted with 18 women receiving care at the Obstetrics and Maternal and Fetal Medicine clinics. Data were analyzed using qualitative thematic analysis, as outlined by Braun and Clarke. Results: Telehealth is a feasible and safe health-care tool that is available during these unprecedented times. This study provided qualitative evidence based on patients' perspectives and experiences. Participants' meanings in relation to their experiences of using telehealth services emerged from the data in four themes: the overall experience of using modern telehealth platforms, telehealth and its perceived benefits, telehealth and its perceived challenges, and telehealth and its potential future use. Conclusion: While this study highlights areas in telehealth implementation that require improvement, the overall positive experiences and consistent perceived benefits of most participants suggests that telehealth can be an important tool in healthcare delivery for appropriate patients and situations moving forward in a post-pandemic world. Impact: During the global pandemic, telehealth has been recognized to have the potential to play a critical role in healthcare delivery. Establishing qualitative evidence-based practices in the emerging field of telehealth for OB services is pivotal to mitigate potential safety, feasibility, and cost issues that could be associated with the rapid adoption of telehealth. Yet, this qualitative study However highlighted several challenges that are necessary to be addressed in order for telehealth to meet maximum effectiveness and functionality in the future.
    • U.S. nursing home leadership experiences with COVID-19 and its impact on residents and staff: A qualitative analysis

      Dubé, Catherine E; Nielsen, Natalia; McPhillips, Emily; Lee Hargraves, J; Cosenza, Carol; Jesdale, Bill; Lapane, Kate L (2023-12-19)
      Objectives: To explore experiences of U.S. (United States) nursing home leadership during the COVID-19 pandemic in their efforts to address resident loneliness and social isolation and to elicit stories about personal and professional impacts on themselves and staff. Design: Qualitative inquiry via three optional open-ended questions appended to a national self-administered survey of American nursing home leaders was employed. Textual data was analyzed using an iterative reflexive thematic approach. Setting and participants: A stratified sample frame defined by facility size (beds: 30-99, 100+) and quality ratings (1, 2-4, 5) was employed. Web survey links and paper surveys were sent to 1,676 nursing home directors of nursing between February and May 2022. Results: Open text responses were collected from 271 nursing homes. Broad themes included: 1) Addressing needs of residents & families; 2) Challenges; and 3) Personal experiences of nursing home leadership/staff. Respondents described trauma to residents, staff, and leadership. Resident loneliness was addressed using existing and newer technologies and innovative indoor and outdoor activities. Residents experienced fear, illness, loss, and sometimes death. Isolation from family and lack of touch were particularly difficult. Regulations were seen as punitive while ignoring emotional needs of residents. Staffing challenges and pressures to do more with less created additional stress. Leadership and staff made significant sacrifices resulting in physical, social, and emotional consequences. Beneficial outcomes included staff bonding, professional growth, and permanent implementation of new interventions. Conclusions and implications: New and creative interventions were successfully implemented to address social isolation and loneliness. Improved Wi-Fi and other nursing home infrastructure upgrades are needed to maintain them. Reimagining often conflicting overlapping federal, state, and local regulations, grounding them in good clinical judgement, and incentivizing performance improvement should be considered. Trauma experienced by staff needs to be addressed to deal with current and future workforce needs.
    • Acute Care Advanced Practice Providers' Use of Telehealth During the COVID-19 Pandemic

      Winterbottom, Fiona; Katz, Adam W; Skinner, Sarah; Carpenter, Dawn; Williams, Lisa-Mae; Kleinpell, Ruth (2023-12-15)
      Advanced practice registered nurses and physician assistants, collectively termed advanced practice providers (APPs), have been part of telehealth for many years. During the COVID-19 pandemic, APPs experienced the growth in roles, responsibilities, and tools used for telehealth care delivery. This article uses examples from 3 health systems to highlight the ways in which telehealth use was expanded due to the pandemic, how APP roles were altered across the United States during and after the pandemic, and implications for future practice.
    • Sample average treatment effect on the treated (SATT) analysis using counterfactual explanation identifies BMT and SARS-CoV-2 vaccination as protective risk factors associated with COVID-19 severity and survival in patients with multiple myeloma

      Mitra, Amit Kumar; Mukherjee, Ujjal Kumar; Mazumder, Suman; Madhira, Vithal; Bergquist, Timothy; Shao, Yu Raymond; LIu, Feifan; Song, Qianqian; Su, Jing; Kumar, Shaji; et al. (2023-12-07)
      Patients with multiple myeloma (MM), an age-dependent neoplasm of antibody-producing plasma cells, have compromised immune systems and might be at increased risk for severe COVID-19 outcomes. This study characterizes risk factors associated with clinical indicators of COVID-19 severity and all-cause mortality in myeloma patients utilizing NCATS' National COVID Cohort Collaborative (N3C) database. The N3C consortium is a large, centralized data resource representing the largest multi-center cohort of COVID-19 cases and controls nationwide (>16 million total patients, and >6 million confirmed COVID-19+ cases to date). Our cohort included myeloma patients (both inpatients and outpatients) within the N3C consortium who have been diagnosed with COVID-19 based on positive PCR or antigen tests or ICD-10-CM diagnosis code. The outcomes of interest include all-cause mortality (including discharge to hospice) during the index encounter and clinical indicators of severity (i.e., hospitalization/emergency department/ED visit, use of mechanical ventilation, or extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO)). Finally, causal inference analysis was performed using the Coarsened Exact Matching (CEM) and Propensity Score Matching (PSM) methods. As of 05/16/2022, the N3C consortium included 1,061,748 cancer patients, out of which 26,064 were MM patients (8,588 were COVID-19 positive). The mean age at COVID-19 diagnosis was 65.89 years, 46.8% were females, and 20.2% were of black race. 4.47% of patients died within 30 days of COVID-19 hospitalization. Overall, the survival probability was 90.7% across the course of the study. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed histories of pulmonary and renal disease, dexamethasone, proteasome inhibitor/PI, immunomodulatory/IMiD therapies, and severe Charlson Comorbidity Index/CCI were significantly associated with higher risks of severe COVID-19 outcomes. Protective associations were observed with blood-or-marrow transplant/BMT and COVID-19 vaccination. Further, multivariate Cox proportional hazard analysis showed that high and moderate CCI levels, International Staging System (ISS) moderate or severe stage, and PI therapy were associated with worse survival, while BMT and COVID-19 vaccination were associated with lower risk of death. Finally, matched sample average treatment effect on the treated (SATT) confirmed the causal effect of BMT and vaccination status as top protective factors associated with COVID-19 risk among US patients suffering from multiple myeloma. To the best of our knowledge, this is the largest nationwide study on myeloma patients with COVID-19.
    • Differential Viral Dynamics by Sex and Body Mass Index During Acute SARS-CoV-2 Infection: Results from a Longitudinal Cohort Study

      Herbert, Carly; Manabe, Yukari C; Filippaios, Andreas; Lin, Honghuang; Wang, Biqi; Achenbach, Chad; Kheterpal, Vik; Hartin, Paul; Suvarna, Thejas; Harman, Emma; et al. (2023-11-16)
      Background: There is evidence of an association of severe COVID-19 outcomes with increased body mass index (BMI) and male sex. However, few studies have examined the interaction between sex and BMI on SARS-CoV-2 viral dynamics. Methods: Participants conducted RT-PCR testing every 24-48 hours over a 15-day period. Sex and BMI were self-reported, and Ct values from E-gene were used to quantify viral load. Three distinct outcomes were examined using mixed effects generalized linear models, linear models, and logistic models, respectively: all Ct values (Model 1); nadir Ct value (model 2); and strongly detectable infection (at least one Ct value ≤28 during their infection) (Model 3). An interaction term between BMI and sex was included, and inverse logit transformations were applied to quantify the differences by BMI and sex using marginal predictions. Results: In total, 7,988 participants enrolled in this study, and 439 participants (Model 1) and 309 (Model 2 and 3) were eligible for these analyses. Among males, increasing BMI was associated with lower Ct values in a dose-response fashion. For participants with BMIs greater than 29, males had significantly lower Ct values and nadir Ct values than females. In total, 67.8% of males and 55.3% of females recorded a strongly detectable infection; increasing proportions of men had Ct values <28 with BMIs of 35 and 40. Conclusions: We observed sex-based dimorphism in relation to BMI and COVID-19 viral load. Further investigation is needed to determine the cause, clinical impact, and transmission implications of this sex-differential effect of BMI on viral load.
    • Effectiveness of a bivalent mRNA vaccine dose against symptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infection among U.S. Healthcare personnel, September 2022-May 2023

      Plumb, Ian D; Briggs Hagen, Melissa; Wiegand, Ryan; Dumyati, Ghinwa; Myers, Christopher; Harland, Karisa K; Krishnadasan, Anusha; James Gist, Jade; Abedi, Glen; Fleming-Dutra, Katherine E; et al. (2023-11-14)
      Background: Bivalent mRNA vaccines were recommended since September 2022. However, coverage with a recent vaccine dose has been limited, and there are few robust estimates of bivalent VE against symptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infection (COVID-19). We estimated VE of a bivalent mRNA vaccine dose against COVID-19 among eligible U.S. healthcare personnel who had previously received monovalent mRNA vaccine doses. Methods: We conducted a case-control study in 22 U.S. states, and enrolled healthcare personnel with COVID-19 (case-participants) or without COVID-19 (control-participants) during September 2022-May 2023. Participants were considered eligible for a bivalent mRNA dose if they had received 2-4 monovalent (ancestral-strain) mRNA vaccine doses, and were ≥67 days after the most recent vaccine dose. We estimated VE of a bivalent mRNA dose using conditional logistic regression, accounting for matching by region and four-week calendar period. We adjusted estimates for age group, sex, race and ethnicity, educational level, underlying health conditions, community COVID-19 exposure, prior SARS-CoV-2 infection, and days since the last monovalent mRNA dose. Results: Among 3,647 healthcare personnel, 1,528 were included as case-participants and 2,119 as control-participants. Participants received their last monovalent mRNA dose a median of 404 days previously; 1,234 (33.8%) also received a bivalent mRNA dose a median of 93 days previously. Overall, VE of a bivalent dose was 34.1% (95% CI, 22.6%-43.9%) against COVID-19 and was similar by product, days since last monovalent dose, number of prior doses, age group, and presence of underlying health conditions. However, VE declined from 54.8% (95% CI, 40.7%-65.6%) after 7-59 days to 21.6% (95% CI 5.6%-34.9%) after ≥60 days. Conclusions: Bivalent mRNA COVID-19 vaccines initially conferred approximately 55% protection against COVID-19 among U.S. healthcare personnel. However, protection waned after two months. These findings indicate moderate initial protection against symptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infection by remaining up-to-date with COVID-19 vaccines.
    • Locations of COVID-19 vaccination provision: Urban-rural differences

      Ryan, Grace W; Kahl, Amanda R; Callaghan, Don; Kintigh, Bethany; Askelson, Natoshia M (2023-11-13)
      Purpose: Our goal was to compare locations of COVID-19 vaccine provision in urban and rural communities over the course of the pandemic. Methods: We used the Iowa Immunization Registry Information System (IRIS) to identify the organizations providing COVID-19 vaccines (eg, pharmacies, public health departments, and medical providers). Proportions of first-dose vaccines by organization type and patient census-based statistical area were generated. We calculated Chi-square tests to assess differences among metropolitan, micropolitan, and noncore communities. Findings: IRIS data revealed that 64% (n = 2,043,251) of Iowans received their first COVID-19 vaccine between December 14, 2020, and December 31, 2022. For metropolitan-dwelling individuals, most first doses were administered at pharmacies (53%), with similar trends observed for micropolitan (49%) and noncore (42%) individuals. The second most common location for metropolitan individuals was medical practices (17%); public health clinics and departments were the second most common provider for micropolitan (26%) and noncore (33%) individuals. These trends shifted over time. In December 2020, hospitals were the most common vaccine provider for everyone, but by December 2022, medical providers were the most common source for metropolitan individuals, and pharmacies were most common for micropolitan and noncore individuals. Conclusions: Trends in the type of vaccine provider differentiated metropolitan residents from micropolitan and noncore residents. For the latter groups, local public health departments played a more significant role. Across all groups, pharmacists emerged as a critical vaccine provider. Our findings can be used to plan for seasonal vaccine campaigns as well as potential future mass vaccination campaigns.
    • "If You Don't Have the Heart to Help, You Cannot Do This Job": The Multidimensional Wellbeing of Community Health Workers Serving Refugees During the COVID-19 Pandemic

      Schuster, Roseanne C; Wachter, Karin; McRae, Kenna; McDaniel, Anne; Davis, Olga I; Nizigiyimana, Jeanne; Johnson-Agbakwu, Crista E (2023-11-11)
      Community health workers are members of two groups whose short- and long-term health has been uniquely shaped by the COVID-19 pandemic: health workers and the oft-marginalized populations that they serve. Yet, their wellbeing, particularly of those serving resettled refugees, before and during the pandemic has been largely overlooked. Drawing from a holistic conceptualization of wellness, this study examined the effects of the COVID-19 pandemic on a group of cultural health navigators (CHNs), who serve resettled refugees. We conducted semi-structured individual interviews with CHNs at a southwestern U.S. hospital system between July and August 2020, a critical time in the pandemic. Our analysis produced four themes that encapsulate the effects of the pandemic on CHN wellbeing: (1) "You fear for your life": Chronic risk of COVID-19 exposure takes a toll on physical, emotional, and environmental wellbeing; (2) "It is stressful because it is completely new": Uncertainty diminishes occupational, financial, and emotional wellbeing; (3) "If you don't have the heart to help, you cannot do this job": CHNs remain committed while facing challenges to their occupational wellbeing on multiple fronts; and (4) "Now, you cannot release your stress": Loss of and shifts in outlets integral to social and spiritual wellbeing. The findings deepen empirical understanding of how the pandemic affected the holistic wellbeing of CHNs, as they continued to serve their communities in a time of crisis. We discuss the implications for addressing the multidimensionality of community health worker wellbeing in research, policy, and practice.
    • Open science discovery of potent noncovalent SARS-CoV-2 main protease inhibitors

      Boby, Melissa L; Fearon, Daren; Ferla, Matteo; Filep, Mihajlo; Koekemoer, Lizbé; Robinson, Matthew C; Chodera, John D; Lee, Alpha A; London, Nir; von Delft, Annette; et al. (2023-11-10)
      We report the results of the COVID Moonshot, a fully open-science, crowdsourced, and structure-enabled drug discovery campaign targeting the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) main protease. We discovered a noncovalent, nonpeptidic inhibitor scaffold with lead-like properties that is differentiated from current main protease inhibitors. Our approach leveraged crowdsourcing, machine learning, exascale molecular simulations, and high-throughput structural biology and chemistry. We generated a detailed map of the structural plasticity of the SARS-CoV-2 main protease, extensive structure-activity relationships for multiple chemotypes, and a wealth of biochemical activity data. All compound designs (>18,000 designs), crystallographic data (>490 ligand-bound x-ray structures), assay data (>10,000 measurements), and synthesized molecules (>2400 compounds) for this campaign were shared rapidly and openly, creating a rich, open, and intellectual property-free knowledge base for future anticoronavirus drug discovery.
    • A Qualitative Investigation of the Experiences of Women with Perinatal Depression and Anxiety during the COVID-19 Pandemic

      Rokicki, Slawa; Mackie, Thomas I; D'Oria, Robyn; Flores, Mariella; Watson, Ashley; Byatt, Nancy; Suplee, Patricia (2023-11-09)
      Objectives: The COVID-19 pandemic has had significant impacts on maternal mental health. We explored the lived experiences of women with perinatal depression and anxiety to elucidate their perceptions of how the pandemic influenced their mental health and access to care. Methods: We conducted a qualitative descriptive study using semi-structured interviews. From March to October 2021, purposive sampling was used to recruit a socio-demographically diverse sample of women with self-reported perinatal depression or anxiety who were pregnant or within one year postpartum between March 2020 and October 2021. Interviews were conducted remotely and thematically analyzed. Results: Fourteen women were interviewed. Three major themes arose. Theme 1, Negative impacts of COVID-19 on symptoms of depression and anxiety, described how the pandemic magnified underlying symptoms of depression and anxiety, increased social isolation, generated anxiety due to fears of COVID-19 infection, and caused economic stress. In theme 2, Negative impacts of COVID-19 on access to and quality of health care, women described stressful and isolating delivery experiences, negative psychological impact of partners not being able to participate in their perinatal health care, interruptions and barriers to mental health treatment, and challenges in using telehealth services for mental health care. Theme 3, Positive impacts of COVID-19 on mental health, identified advantages of increased telehealth access and ability to work and study from home. Conclusions for practice: The COVID-19 pandemic negatively affected women with perinatal depression and anxiety by magnifying underlying symptoms, increasing stress and social isolation, and disrupting access to mental health care. Findings provide support for policies and interventions to prevent and address social isolation, as well as optimization of telehealth services to prevent and address gaps in perinatal mental health treatment.
    • Trends in COVID-19 vaccine administration across visit types in a safety net pediatric practice during the first year of authorization

      Ryan, Grace W; Goulding, Melissa; Beeler, Angela L; Nazarian, Beverly L; Pbert, Lori; Rosal, Milagros C; Lemon, Stephenie C (2023-11-06)
      We explored patterns of COVID-19 vaccination across pediatric visit types using electronic health record data from 7/1/2021 through 7/25/2022 in a pediatric safety-net clinic. We generated frequencies and descriptive statistics for patient demographic and vaccine administration variables. Analyses were stratified into age subgroups of 5-to-11-year-olds and 12- to-17-year-olds. 1,409 children received at least one dose of the COVID-19 vaccine and 2,197 doses were administered in this first year of vaccine delivery. Most vaccines given were first doses in the series (45%), followed by second doses (38%), and then booster doses (17%). First doses tended to be given at well-child (42%) or nurse visits (48%), while second doses were almost entirely given at nurse visits (87%) and booster doses at well-child visits (58%). Efforts to optimize COVID-19 vaccination could leverage clinic workflow systems to provide reminder prompts for vaccination for scheduling future doses and identify strategies to facilitate vaccination at non-well child visits, particularly for booster doses.
    • School Closures and ED Visits for Suicidality in Youths Before and During the COVID-19 Pandemic

      Dvir, Yael; Ryan, Clare; Lee, JungAe (2023-11-01)
      Emergency department (ED) visits for suspected suicide attempts among persons aged 12 to 25 years increased after May 2020. The public health response to the COVID-19 pandemic included widespread school closures. Schools offer well-documented support for youths and families. Describing the association between pandemic-related school closures and suicidality may inform future public health policy. Our study analyzed rates of youth ED suicidality visits (EDSVs), defined as visits for suicide and self-injury attempts, alongside patterns of school closure for Massachusetts and Texas.
    • The mobile vaccine equity enhancement program–a model program for enhancing equity in vaccine availability based at a large health care system

      Broach, John; Brown, Olga; McEachern, Caitlin; Forget, Janell; Lancette, Peter; Soucie, Norman; Inzerillo, Julie; Klugman, Robert; Tosi, Stephen; Haddad, Abraham; et al. (2023-10-17)
      The SARS CoV-2 (COVID-19) pandemic presented unprecedented challenges as communities attempted to respond to the administration of a novel vaccine that faced cold chain logistical requirements and vaccine hesitancy among many, as well as complicated phased rollout plans that changed frequently as availability of the vaccine waxed and waned. The COVID-19 pandemic also disproportionately affected communities of color and communities with barriers to accessing healthcare. In the setting of these difficulties, a program was created specifically to address inequity in vaccine administration with a focus on communities of color and linguistic diversity as well as those who had technological barriers to online sign-up processes common at mass vaccination sites. This effort, the Mobile Vaccine Equity Enhancement Program (MVeeP), delivered over 12,000 vaccines in 24 months through a reproducible set of practices that can inform equity-driven vaccine efforts in future pandemics.
    • "Like One Long Battle:" Employee Perspectives of the Simultaneous Impact of COVID-19 and an Electronic Health Record Transition

      Rucci, Justin M; Ball, Sherry; Brunner, Julian; Moldestad, Megan; Cutrona, Sarah L; Sayre, George; Rinne, Seppo (2023-10-05)
      Background: Healthcare organizations regularly manage external stressors that threaten patient care, but experiences handling concurrent stressors are not well characterized. Objective: To evaluate the experience of Veterans Affairs (VA) clinicians and staff navigating simultaneous organizational stressors-an electronic health record (EHR) transition and the COVID-19 pandemic-and identify potential strategies to optimize management of co-occurring stressors. Design: Qualitative case study describing employee experiences at VA's initial EHR transition site. Participants: Clinicians, nurses, allied health professionals, and local leaders at VA's initial EHR transition site. Approach: We collected longitudinal qualitative interview data between July 2020 and November 2021 once before and 2-4 times after the date on which the health system transitioned; this timing corresponded with local surges of COVID-19 cases. Interviewers conducted coding and analysis of interview transcripts. For this study, we focused on quotes related to COVID-19 and performed content analysis to describe recurring themes describing the simultaneous impact of COVID-19 and an EHR transition. Key results: We identified five themes related to participants' experiences: (1) efforts to mitigate COVID-19 transmission led to insufficient access to EHR training and support, (2) clinical practice changes in response to the pandemic impacted EHR workflows in unexpected ways, (3) lack of clear communication and inconsistent enforcement of COVID-19 policies intensified pre-existing frustrations with the EHR, (4) managing concurrent organizational stressors increased work dissatisfaction and feelings of burnout, and (5) participants had limited bandwidth to manage competing demands that arose from concurrent organizational stressors. Conclusion: The expected challenges of an EHR transition were compounded by co-occurrence of the COVID-19 pandemic, which had negative impacts on clinician experience and patient care. During simultaneous organizational stressors, health care facilities should be prepared to address the complex interplay of two stressors on employee experience.
    • Effectiveness of various COVID-19 vaccine regimens among 10.4 million patients from the National COVID Cohort Collaborative during Pre-Delta to Omicron periods - United States, 11 December 2020 to 30 June 2022

      Fu, Yuanyuan; Wu, Kaipeng; Wang, Zhanwei; Yang, Hua; Chen, Yu; Wu, Lang; Yanagihara, Richard; Hedges, Jerris R; Wang, Hongwei; Deng, Youping (2023-09-22)
      Objective: This study reports the vaccine effectiveness (VE) of COVID-19 vaccine regimens in the United States, based on the National COVID Cohort Collaborative (N3C) database. Methods: Data from 10.4 million adults, enrolled in the N3C from 11 December 2020 to 30 June 2022, were analyzed. VE against infection and death outcomes were evaluated across 13 vaccine regimens in recipient cohorts during the Pre-Delta, Delta, and Omicron periods. VE was estimated as (1-odds ratio) × 100% by multivariate logistic regression, using the unvaccinated cohort as reference. Results: Natural immunity showed a highly protective effect (70.33%) against re-infection, but the mortality risk among the unvaccinated population was increased after re-infection; vaccination following infection reduced the risk of re-infection and death. mRNA-1273 full vaccination plus mRNA-1273 booster showed the highest anti-infection effectiveness (47.59%) (95% CI, 46.72-48.45) in the overall cohort. In the type 2 diabetes cohort, VE against infection was highest with BNT162b2 full vaccination plus mRNA-1273 booster (61.19%) (95% CI, 53.73-67.75). VE against death was also highest with BNT162b2 full vaccination plus mRNA-1273 booster (89.56%) (95% CI, 85.75-92.61). During the Pre-Delta period, all vaccination regimens showed an anti-infection effect; during the Delta period, only boosters, mixed vaccines, and Ad26.COV2.S vaccination exhibited an anti-infection effect; during the Omicron period, none of the vaccine regimens demonstrated an anti-infection effect. Irrespective of the variant period, even a single dose of mRNA vaccine offered protection against death, thus demonstrating survival benefit, even in the presence of infection or re-infection. Similar patterns were observed in patients with type 2 diabetes. Conclusions: Although the anti-infection effect declined as SARS-CoV-2 variants evolved, all COVID-19 mRNA vaccines had sustained effectiveness against death. Vaccination was crucial for preventing re-infection and reducing the risk of death following SARS-CoV-2 infection.
    • Association of neighborhood-level sociodemographic factors with Direct-to-Consumer (DTC) distribution of COVID-19 rapid antigen tests in 5 US communities

      Herbert, Carly; Shi, Qiming; Baek, Jonggyu; Wang, Biqi; Kheterpal, Vik; Nowak, Christopher; Suvarna, Thejas; Singh, Aditi; Hartin, Paul; Durnam, Basyl; et al. (2023-09-22)
      Background: Many interventions for widescale distribution of rapid antigen tests for COVID-19 have utilized online, direct-to-consumer (DTC) ordering systems; however, little is known about the sociodemographic characteristics of home-test users. We aimed to characterize the patterns of online orders for rapid antigen tests and determine geospatial and temporal associations with neighborhood characteristics and community incidence of COVID-19, respectively. Methods: This observational study analyzed online, DTC orders for rapid antigen test kits from beneficiaries of the Say Yes! Covid Test program from March to November 2021 in five communities: Louisville, Kentucky; Indianapolis, Indiana; Fulton County, Georgia; O'ahu, Hawaii; and Ann Arbor/Ypsilanti, Michigan. Using spatial autoregressive models, we assessed the geospatial associations of test kit distribution with Census block-level education, income, age, population density, and racial distribution and Census tract-level Social Vulnerability Index. Lag association analyses were used to measure the association between online rapid antigen kit orders and community-level COVID-19 incidence. Results: In total, 164,402 DTC test kits were ordered during the intervention. Distribution of tests at all sites were significantly geospatially clustered at the block-group level (Moran's I: p < 0.001); however, education, income, age, population density, race, and social vulnerability index were inconsistently associated with test orders across sites. In Michigan, Georgia, and Kentucky, there were strong associations between same-day COVID-19 incidence and test kit orders (Michigan: r = 0.89, Georgia: r = 0.85, Kentucky: r = 0.75). The incidence of COVID-19 during the current day and the previous 6-days increased current DTC orders by 9.0 (95% CI = 1.7, 16.3), 3.0 (95% CI = 1.3, 4.6), and 6.8 (95% CI = 3.4, 10.2) in Michigan, Georgia, and Kentucky, respectively. There was no same-day or 6-day lagged correlation between test kit orders and COVID-19 incidence in Indiana. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that online ordering is not associated with geospatial clustering based on sociodemographic characteristics. Observed temporal preferences for DTC ordering can guide public health messaging around DTC testing programs.