The mission of the Department of Radiology at UMass Chan Medical School is to bring scientific advances in medical imaging to clinical application. This collection showcases journal articles and other publications written by faculty and researchers of the Department of Radiology.


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Recently Published

  • Multifocal emphysematous osteomyelitis, a do not miss diagnosis for the emergency radiologist: a case report with literature review

    Saha, Debajyoti; Tai, Ryan; Kapare, Vaishali; Joshi, Ganesh (2024-01-25)
    Emphysematous osteomyelitis (EO) is an uncommon fatal condition with high morbidity and mortality. Simultaneous involvement of the axial and appendicular skeleton with multifocal disease is even rarer, with only a few cases being reported in the literature. We present a case of multifocal emphysematous osteomyelitis in a 56-year-old woman with concurrent emphysematous pyelonephritis complicated by psoas and epidural abscesses. The causative organism in our patient was Escherichia coli. Emergency radiologists should be aware of this condition and differentiate it from other benign entities that can present with intraosseous gas. Prompt diagnosis is important given the high morbidity and mortality with this condition. This case report emphasizes the specific pattern of intraosseous gas seen with EO, which can help diagnose EO with confidence.
  • Appropriate Use of Medical Interpreters in the Breast Imaging Clinic

    Feliciano-Rivera, Yara Z; Yepes, Monica M; Sanchez, Priscila; Kalambo, Megan; Elahi, Fatima; Wahab, Rifat A; Jackson, Tatianie; Mehta, Tejas S; Net, Jose (2024-01-24)
    More than 25 million Americans have limited English-language proficiency (LEP) according to the U.S. Census Bureau. This population experiences challenges accessing health care and is least likely to receive preventive health care, including screening mammogram. In a setting where the breast radiologist does not speak the language of their patient, using certified medical interpreter services is fundamental. Medical interpreter use is associated with improved clinical care and patient satisfaction and can potentially increase adherence to screening mammograms and follow-up in patients with LEP. Title VI of the Civil Rights Act requires interpreter services for patients with LEP who are receiving federal financial assistance. Failure to provide interpretative services when necessary is considered discriminatory and illegal. The use of untrained medical interpreters, including ad hoc interpreters (eg, family, friends, or untrained staff), is associated with more medical errors, violation of confidentiality, and poor health outcomes. Types of medical interpretation services available to address language barriers include in-person interpretation, telephone and video remote interpretation, and qualified bilingual staff. Proper training and certification of medical interpreters is essential to prevent misinterpretations and ensure patient safety. When using an interpreter service, speak to and maintain eye contact with the patient, address the patient directly and seat the interpreter next to or slightly behind the patient, use visual aids whenever possible, and have the patient repeat the information to verify comprehension. Breast radiologists can address disparities in breast cancer screening and treatment by promoting effective communication.
  • Community Radiology Beyond the Relative Value Unit

    Mehta, Tejas S; Rosen, Max P (2024-01-23)
    Academic institutions receive direct and indirect financial benefits based on the communities they serve, including research funding, which is essential for advancing medicine. To strive for social equity and to minimize disparities in outcomes between populations, diversity in research participation that is representative of the global population is necessary. Diversity in members of the clinical research team is also important because it fosters scientific innovation, increases the likelihood of participation in under-resourced populations, and enhances public trust.
  • Sex Differences in Outcomes of Late-Window Endovascular Stroke Therapy

    Abdalkader, Mohamad; Ning, Shen; Qureshi, Muhammad M; Haussen, Diogo C; Strbian, Daniel; Nagel, Simon; Demeestere, Jelle; Puetz, Volker; Mohammaden, Mahmoud H; Olive Gadea, Marta; et al. (2024-01-22)
    Background: The association between sex and outcome after endovascular thrombectomy of acute ischemic stroke is unclear. The aim of this study was to compare the clinical and safety outcomes between men and women treated with endovascular thrombectomy in the late 6-to-24-hour window period. Methods: This multicenter, retrospective observational cohort study included consecutive patients who underwent endovascular thrombectomy of anterior circulation stroke in the late window from 66 clinical sites in 10 countries from January 2014 to May 2022. The primary outcome was the 90-day ordinal modified Rankin Scale score. Secondary outcomes included 90-day functional independence (FI), return of Rankin (RoR) to prestroke baseline, FI or RoR, symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage, and mortality. Multivariable and inverse probability of treatment weighting methods were used. We explored the interaction of sex with baseline characteristics on the outcomes ordinal modified Rankin Scale and FI or RoR. Results: Of 1932 patients, 1055 were women and 877 were men. Women were older (77 versus 69 years), had higher rates of atrial fibrillation, hypertension, and greater prestroke disability, but there was no difference in baseline National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score. Inverse probability of treatment weighting analysis showed no difference between women and men in ordinal modified Rankin Scale (odds ratio, 0.98 [95% CI, 0.79-1.21]), FI or RoR (odds ratio, 0.98 [95% CI, 0.78-1.22]), severe disability or mortality (odds ratio, 0.99 [95% CI, 0.80-1.23]). The multivariable analysis of the above end points was concordant. There were no interactions between baseline characteristics and sex on the outcomes of ordinal modified Rankin Scale and FI or RoR. Conclusions: In late presenting patients with anterior circulation stroke treated with endovascular thrombectomy in the 6 to 24-hour window, there was no difference in clinical or safety outcomes between men and women.
  • The impact of postoperative aspirin in patients undergoing Woven EndoBridge: a multicenter, institutional, propensity score-matched analysis

    Dmytriw, Adam A; Musmar, Basel; Salim, Hamza; Aslan, Assala; Cancelliere, Nicole M; McLellan, Rachel M; Algin, Oktay; Ghozy, Sherief; Dibas, Mahmoud; Lay, Sovann V; et al. (2024-01-18)
    Background: The Woven EndoBridge (WEB) device is frequently used for the treatment of intracranial aneurysms. Postoperative management, including the use of aspirin, varies among clinicians and institutions, but its impact on the outcomes of the WEB has not been thoroughly investigated. Methods: This was a retrospective, multicenter study involving 30 academic institutions in North America, South America, and Europe. Data from 1492 patients treated with the WEB device were included. Patients were categorized into two groups based on their postoperative use of aspirin (aspirin group: n=1124, non-aspirin group: n=368). Data points included patient demographics, aneurysm characteristics, procedural details, complications, and angiographic and functional outcomes. Propensity score matching (PSM) was applied to balance variables between the two groups. Results: Prior to PSM, the aspirin group exhibited significantly higher rates of modified Rankin scale (mRS) mRS 0-1 and mRS 0-2 (89.8% vs 73.4% and 94.1% vs 79.8%, p<0.001), lower rates of mortality (1.6% vs 8.6%, p<0.001), and higher major compaction rates (13.4% vs 7%, p<0.001). Post-PSM, the aspirin group showed significantly higher rates of retreatment (p=0.026) and major compaction (p=0.037) while maintaining its higher rates of good functional outcomes and lower mortality rates. In the multivariable regression, aspirin was associated with higher rates of mRS 0-1 (OR 2.166; 95% CI 1.16 to 4, p=0.016) and mRS 0-2 (OR 2.817; 95% CI 1.36 to 5.88, p=0.005) and lower rates of mortality (OR 0.228; 95% CI 0.06 to 0.83, p=0.025). However, it was associated with higher rates of retreatment (OR 2.471; 95% CI 1.11 to 5.51, p=0.027). Conclusions: Aspirin use post-WEB treatment may lead to better functional outcomes and lower mortality but with higher retreatment rates. These insights are crucial for postoperative management after WEB procedures, but further studies are necessary for validation.
  • Raising Cultural Awareness and Addressing Barriers to Breast Imaging Care for Black Women

    Jackson, Tatianie; Wahab, Rifat A; Bankston, Karen; Mehta, Tejas S (2023-12-23)
    Health care disparities, which are differences in the attainment of full health potential among population groups, have been documented across medical conditions, clinical settings, and diagnostic and treatment modalities. Deeply rooted health care disparities due to many factors have affected how Black women (BW) view medical care including screening mammography. This article explores health care disparities around breast cancer in BW and how patient distrust, provider biases, race, and social determinants of health continue to have negative effects on breast cancer outcomes in BW, despite medical advances in breast cancer detection and management. In addition, this article addresses the importance of culturally competent care for BW around breast cancer awareness, screening, and treatment, and offers strategies to address disparities and rebuild trust.
  • Evaluation of ChatGPT and Google Bard Using Prompt Engineering in Cancer Screening Algorithms

    Nguyen, Daniel; Swanson, Daniel; Newbury, Alex; Kim, Young H (2023-12-15)
    Large language models (LLMs) such as ChatGPT and Bard have emerged as powerful tools in medicine, showcasing strong results in tasks such as radiology report translations and research paper drafting. While their implementation in clinical practice holds promise, their response accuracy remains variable. This study aimed to evaluate the accuracy of ChatGPT and Bard in clinical decision-making based on the American College of Radiology Appropriateness Criteria for various cancers. Both LLMs were evaluated in terms of their responses to open-ended (OE) and select-all-that-apply (SATA) prompts. Furthermore, the study incorporated prompt engineering (PE) techniques to enhance the accuracy of LLM outputs. The results revealed similar performances between ChatGPT and Bard on OE prompts, with ChatGPT exhibiting marginally higher accuracy in SATA scenarios. The introduction of PE also marginally improved LLM outputs in OE prompts but did not enhance SATA responses. The results highlight the potential of LLMs in aiding clinical decision-making processes, especially when guided by optimally engineered prompts. Future studies in diverse clinical situations are imperative to better understand the impact of LLMs in radiology.
  • A role for mutations in AK9 and other genes affecting ependymal cells in idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus

    Yang, Hong Wei; Lee, Semin; Berry, Bethany C; Yang, Dejun; Zheng, Shaokuan; Carroll, Rona S; Park, Peter J; Johnson, Mark D (2023-12-15)
    Idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus (iNPH) is an enigmatic neurological disorder that develops after age 60 and is characterized by gait difficulty, dementia, and incontinence. Recently, we reported that heterozygous CWH43 deletions may cause iNPH. Here, we identify mutations affecting nine additional genes (AK9, RXFP2, PRKD1, HAVCR1, OTOG, MYO7A, NOTCH1, SPG11, and MYH13) that are statistically enriched among iNPH patients. The encoded proteins are all highly expressed in choroid plexus and ependymal cells, and most have been associated with cilia. Damaging mutations in AK9, which encodes an adenylate kinase, were detected in 9.6% of iNPH patients. Mice homozygous for an iNPH-associated AK9 mutation displayed normal cilia structure and number, but decreased cilia motility and beat frequency, communicating hydrocephalus, and balance impairment. AK9+/- mice displayed normal brain development and behavior until early adulthood, but subsequently developed communicating hydrocephalus. Together, our findings suggest that heterozygous mutations that impair ventricular epithelial function may contribute to iNPH.
  • Braid stability after flow diverter treatment of intracranial aneurysms: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    Ortega-Gutierrez, Santiago; Rodriguez-Calienes, Aaron; Vivanco-Suarez, Juan; Cekirge, H Saruhan; Hanel, Ricardo A; Dibas, Mahmoud; Lamin, Saleh; Rice, Hal; Saatci, Isil; Fiorella, David; et al. (2023-12-14)
    Background: The aim of this study was to evaluate the overall rates of braid changes associated with flow diverter (FD) treatment for intracranial aneurysms (IAs). Additionally, we sought to provide an overview of the currently reported definitions related to these complications. Methods: A systematic search was conducted from the inception of relevant literature up to April 2023, encompassing six databases. The included studies focused on patients with IAs treated with FDs. We considered four main outcome measures as FD braid changes: (1) fish-mouthing, (2) device braid narrowing, (3) device braid collapsing, and (4) device braid deformation. The data from these studies were pooled using a random-effects model. Results: A total of 48 studies involving 3572 patients were included in the analysis. Among them, 14 studies (39%) provided definitions for fish-mouthing. However, none of the included studies offered specific definitions for device braid narrowing, collapsing, or deformation, despite reporting rates for these complications in six, five, and three studies, respectively. The pooled rates for braid changes were as follows: 3% (95% CI 2% to 4%, I2=27%) for fish-mouthing, 7% (95% CI 2% to 20%, I2=85%) for narrowing, 1% (95% CI 0% to 3%, I2=0%) for collapsing, and 1% (95% CI 1% to 4%, I2=0%) for deformation. Conclusion: The findings of this study suggest that FD treatment for IAs generally exhibits low rates of fish-mouthing, device braid narrowing, collapsing, and deformation. However, the lack of standardized definitions hinders the ability to compare device outcomes objectively, emphasizing the need for uniform definitions for FD braid changes in future prospective studies on FD.
  • Trastuzumab Deruxtecan‒Related Interstitial Lung Disease/Pneumonitis: Computed Tomography Imaging Patterns to Guide Diagnosis and Management

    Nishino, Mizuki; Kusumoto, Masahiko; Bankier, Alexander A; Kurihara, Yasuyuki; Zhang, Lin; Rasheed, Zeshaan; Meinhardt, Gerold; Arunachalam, Meena; Taitt, Corina; Wang, Qiang; et al. (2023-12-07)
    Purpose: Trastuzumab deruxtecan (T-DXd) is an antibody-drug conjugate approved for the treatment of several advanced cancers; however, severe or fatal interstitial lung disease/pneumonitis can occur. We characterized the computed tomography (CT) patterns of T-DXd‒related pneumonitis as a marker for its clinical severity. Materials and methods: Ninety patients with advanced cancers who developed T-DXd‒related pneumonitis in two completed single-arm clinical trials were included. Three radiologists independently characterized the CT patterns of pneumonitis at diagnosis, for analyses of those patterns' relationships with clinical severity and pneumonitis outcome. Results: T-DXd‒related pneumonitis most commonly presented with cryptogenic organizing pneumonia (COP) pattern, observed in 65 patients (72%), followed by a newly identified COP/hypersensitivity pneumonitis (HP) pattern (13%), acute interstitial pneumonia (AIP)/acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) pattern (11%), and HP pattern (3%). A subset of cases with COP pattern demonstrated an atypical distribution with upper and peripheral lung involvement (6/65; 9%). CT patterns were associated with Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events severity grades of pneumonitis, with the AIP/ARDS pattern having higher grades compared with others (P < .0001). Fatal pneumonitis was more common in the AIP/ARDS pattern than in others (P = .005). The onset of pneumonitis was earlier in the AIP/ARDS pattern compared with others (median time to onset: at 17.9 v 32.7 weeks of therapy; P = .019). Pneumonitis was treated by withholding T-DXd with or without corticosteroids in most patients (78/90; 87%). Conclusion: T-DXd‒related pneumonitis most commonly demonstrated a COP pattern, with a subset having an atypical distribution. The AIP/ARDS pattern was indicative of severe, potentially fatal pneumonitis, and requires immediate clinical attention to mitigate serious adverse events.
  • Breast Imaging Fellowship Training in the United States: A National Survey of Fellowship Program Directors

    Weinstein, Joshua D; Mehta, Rashmi J; Mehta, Tejas S; Kavandi, Hadiseh; Brook, Alexander; Phillips, Jordana (2023-11-30)
    Objective: To provide an updated characterization of breast imaging fellowship programs in the United States to identify opportunities for improvement and standardization. Methods: An anonymous survey was e-mailed to program directors of breast imaging fellowship programs listed on the Society of Breast Imaging website. The survey was open from April 23, 2021, through May 27, 2021. The survey was deemed exempt by the IRB. Results: Forty-seven of 80 (59%) program directors responded, of which 36/47 (77%) represented programs dedicated 100% to breast imaging, and 11/47 (23%) represented programs dedicated 50%-75% to breast imaging. Common elements to most programs include tumor boards (47/47, 100%), journal clubs (39/47, 83%), case-based teaching sessions (35/47, 74%), didactic lectures (40/47, 85%), and participation in radiology-pathology conferences (29/47, 62%). Mammography Quality and Standards Act audit training (22/47, 47%), mammography quality control training (22/47, 47%), and formal communication training (19/47, 40%) were less common. Most programs provide exposure to wire (42/47, 89%) and wire-free localization procedures (45/47, 96%), but exposure to contrast-enhanced mammography (13/47, 28%) and molecular breast imaging (4/47, 9%) was limited. A small majority of programs (25/47, 53%) do not require weekday call; however, more (31/47, 66%) have weekend call responsibilities. Many programs (29/47, 62%) offer at least 3 weeks of elective time, which may be clinical or nonclinical. Conclusion: Breast imaging fellowship programs vary in curricula, modality exposure, and academic policies. The results of this survey can help guide further efforts to standardize and optimize fellowship training.
  • Migrated coronary stent into the left internal carotid artery: a rescue technique

    Kühn, Anna Luisa; Singh, Jasmeet; Puri, Ajit S (2023-11-08)
    Coronary stent dislodgement and migration is a rare phenomenon that can potentially result in life-threatening complications. We encountered the unusual case of a coronary artery stent that stripped from its delivery balloon and embolised into the left internal carotid artery during percutaneous coronary intervention. Such an event is a stressful experience for the interventional cardiologist but also an uncommonly encountered situation for a neurointerventionalist whose expertise may be sought to help navigate the situation. Planning the interventional approach and taking into consideration the tools available as well as potential complications is crucial to maximise the chances of best possible outcome for the patient. We were able to retrieve the stent safely and successfully, but, at the same time, we were prepared to manage any adverse events in the best way possible.
  • ACR Appropriateness Criteria® Breast Implant Evaluation: 2023 Update

    Chetlen, Alison; Niell, Bethany L; Brown, Ann; Baskies, Arnold M; Battaglia, Tracy; Chen, Andrew; Jochelson, Maxine S; Klein, Katherine A; Malak, Sharp F; Mehta, Tejas S; et al. (2023-11-01)
    This document discusses the appropriate initial imaging in both asymptomatic and symptomatic patients with breast implants. For asymptomatic patients with saline implants, no imaging is recommended. If concern for rupture exists, ultrasound is usually appropriate though saline rupture is often clinically evident. The FDA recently recommended patients have an initial ultrasound or MRI examination 5 to 6 years after initial silicone implant surgery and then every 2 to 3 years thereafter. In a patient with unexplained axillary adenopathy with current or prior silicone breast implants, ultrasound and/or mammography are usually appropriate, depending on age. In a patient with concern for silicone implant rupture, ultrasound or MRI without contrast is usually appropriate. In the setting of a patient with breast implants and possible implant-associated anaplastic large cell lymphoma, ultrasound is usually appropriate as the initial imaging. The American College of Radiology Appropriateness Criteria are evidence-based guidelines for specific clinical conditions that are reviewed annually by a multidisciplinary expert panel. The guideline development and revision process support the systematic analysis of the medical literature from peer reviewed journals. Established methodology principles such as Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation or GRADE are adapted to evaluate the evidence. The RAND/UCLA Appropriateness Method User Manual provides the methodology to determine the appropriateness of imaging and treatment procedures for specific clinical scenarios. In those instances where peer reviewed literature is lacking or equivocal, experts may be the primary evidentiary source available to formulate a recommendation.
  • Comparison of Contrast-enhanced Mammography with MRI Utilizing an Enriched Reader Study: A Breast Cancer Study (CONTRRAST Trial).

    Phillips, Jordana; Mehta, Tejas S; Portnow, Leah H; Fishman, Michael D C; Zhang, Zheng; Pisano, Etta D (2023-11-01)
    Background Despite growing interest in using contrast-enhanced mammography (CEM) for breast cancer screening as an alternative to breast MRI, limited literature is available. Purpose To determine whether CEM is noninferior to breast MRI or abbreviated breast MRI (AB MRI) and superior to two-dimensional mammography in an asymptomatic population simulating those who would present for screening and then undergo diagnostic work-up. Materials and Methods This enriched reader study used CEM and MRI data prospectively collected from asymptomatic individuals at a single institution from December 2014 to March 2020. Case sets were obtained at screening, as part of work-up for a screening-detected finding, or before biopsy of a screening-detected abnormality. All images were anonymized and randomized, and all 12 radiologists interpreted them. For CEM interpretation, readers were first shown low-energy images as a surrogate for digital mammography and asked to give a forced Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System score for up to three abnormalities. The highest score was used as the case score. Readers then reviewed the full CEM examination and scored it similarly. After a minimum 1-month washout, the readers similarly interpreted AB MRI and full MRI examinations. Receiver operating characteristic analysis, powered to test CEM noninferiority to full MRI, was performed. Results The study included 132 case sets (14 negative, 74 benign, and 44 malignant; all female participants; mean age, 54 years ± 12 [SD]). The mean areas under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUCs) for digital mammography, CEM, AB MRI, and full MRI were 0.79, 0.91, 0.89, and 0.91, respectively. CEM was superior to digital mammography (P < .001). No evidence of a difference in AUC was found between CEM and AB MRI and MRI. Conclusion In an asymptomatic study sample, CEM was noninferior to full MRI and AB MRI and was superior to digital mammography. Clinical trial registration no. NCT03482557 and NCT02275871 © RSNA, 2023 Supplemental material is available for this article.
  • Cryo-EM structure of the human cardiac myosin filament

    Dutta, Debabrata; Nguyen, Vu; Campbell, Kenneth S; Padrón, Raúl; Craig, Roger (2023-11-01)
    Pumping of the heart is powered by filaments of the motor protein myosin that pull on actin filaments to generate cardiac contraction. In addition to myosin, the filaments contain cardiac myosin-binding protein C (cMyBP-C), which modulates contractility in response to physiological stimuli, and titin, which functions as a scaffold for filament assembly1. Myosin, cMyBP-C and titin are all subject to mutation, which can lead to heart failure. Despite the central importance of cardiac myosin filaments to life, their molecular structure has remained a mystery for 60 years2. Here we solve the structure of the main (cMyBP-C-containing) region of the human cardiac filament using cryo-electron microscopy. The reconstruction reveals the architecture of titin and cMyBP-C and shows how myosin's motor domains (heads) form three different types of motif (providing functional flexibility), which interact with each other and with titin and cMyBP-C to dictate filament architecture and function. The packing of myosin tails in the filament backbone is also resolved. The structure suggests how cMyBP-C helps to generate the cardiac super-relaxed state3; how titin and cMyBP-C may contribute to length-dependent activation4; and how mutations in myosin and cMyBP-C might disturb interactions, causing disease5,6. The reconstruction resolves past uncertainties and integrates previous data on cardiac muscle structure and function. It provides a new paradigm for interpreting structural, physiological and clinical observations, and for the design of potential therapeutic drugs.
  • First pass effect as an independent predictor of functional outcomes in medium vessel occlusions: An analysis of an international multicenter study

    Radu, Răzvan Alexandru; Costalat, Vincent; Fahed, Robert; Ghozy, Sherief; Siegler, James E; Shaikh, Hamza; Khalife, Jane; Abdalkader, Mohamad; Klein, Piers; Nguyen, Thanh N; et al. (2023-10-27)
    Introduction: First pass effect (FPE), achievement of complete recanalization (mTICI 2c/3) with a single pass, is a significant predictor of favorable outcomes for endovascular treatment (EVT) in large vessel occlusion stroke (LVO). However, data concerning the impact on functional outcomes and predictors of FPE in medium vessel occlusions (MeVO) are scarce. Patients and methods: We conducted an international retrospective study on MeVO cases. Multivariable logistic modeling was used to establish independent predictors of FPE. Clinical and safety outcomes were compared between the two study groups (FPE vs non-FPE) using logistic regression models. Good outcome was defined as modified Rankin Scale 0-2 at 3 months. Results: Eight hundred thirty-six patients with a final mTICI ⩾ 2b were included in this analysis. FPE was observed in 302 patients (36.1%). In multivariable analysis, hypertension (aOR 1.55, 95% CI 1.10-2.20) and lower baseline NIHSS score (aOR 0.95, 95% CI 0.93-0.97) were independently associated with an FPE. Good outcomes were more common in the FPE versus non-FPE group (72.8% vs 52.8%), and FPE was independently associated with favorable outcome (aOR 2.20, 95% CI 1.59-3.05). 90-day mortality and intracranial hemorrhage (ICH) were significantly lower in the FPE group, 0.43 (95% CI, 0.25-0.72) and 0.55 (95% CI, 0.39-0.77), respectively. Conclusion: Over 2/3 of patients with MeVOs and FPE in our cohort had a favorable outcome at 90 days. FPE is independently associated with favorable outcomes, it may reduce the risk of any intracranial hemorrhage, and 3-month mortality.
  • Stent-assisted Woven EndoBridge device for the treatment of intracranial aneurysms: an international multicenter study

    Diestro, Jose Danilo Bengzon; Dibas, Mahmoud; Adeeb, Nimer; Regenhardt, Robert W; Vranic, Justin E; Guenego, Adrien; Lay, Sovann V; Renieri, Leonardo; Balushi, Ali Al; Shotar, Eimad; et al. (2023-10-20)
    Objective: The Woven EndoBridge (WEB) device is an intrasaccular flow disruptor designed for wide-necked bifurcation aneurysms. These aneurysms may require the use of a concomitant stent. The objective of this study was to determine the clinical and radiological outcomes of patients undergoing stent-assisted WEB treatment. In addition, the authors also sought to determine the predictors of a concomitant stent in aneurysms treated with the WEB device. Methods: The data for this study were taken from the WorldWideWEB Consortium, an international multicenter cohort including patients treated with the WEB device. Aneurysms were classified into two groups based on treatment: stent-assisted WEB and WEB device alone. The authors compared clinical and radiological outcomes of both groups. Univariable and multivariable binary logistic regression analyses were performed to determine factors that predispose to stent use. Results: The study included 691 intracranial aneurysms (31 with stents and 660 without stents) treated with the WEB device. The adequate occlusion status did not differ between the two groups at the latest follow-up (83.3% vs 85.6%, p = 0.915). Patients who underwent stenting had more thromboembolic (32.3% vs 6.5%, p < 0.001) and procedural (16.1% vs 3.0%, p < 0.001) complications. Aneurysms treated with a concomitant stent had wider necks, greater heights, and lower dome-to-neck ratios. Increasing neck size was the only significant predictor for stent use. Conclusions: This study demonstrates that there is no difference in the degree of aneurysm occlusion between the two groups; however, complications were more frequent in the stent group. In addition, a wider aneurysm neck predisposes to stent assistance in WEB-treated aneurysms.
  • Leveraging Differences in AI and Human "Vision" to Improve Breast Cancer Detection

    Mehta, Tejas S (2023-10-17)
    Screening mammography is the single most effective test to reduce breast cancer mortality. Despite improvements in mammography technology, including digital breast tomosynthesis, it remains an imperfect test, with one in eight cancers missed at time of interpretation. Supplemental imaging with US, contrast-enhanced MRI, or contrast-enhanced mammography has been recommended in women with higher-than-average risk to improve breast cancer detection. However, challenges arise for women who are not identified as being at higher-than-average risk or who may not have access to these tests. Artificial intelligence (AI) models using deep learning technology have the potential to find cancers not identified by humans, improving the efficacy of screening mammography.
  • Imaging Preferences in Women With a History of Breast Cancer Receiving Contrast-Enhanced Mammography

    Moravia, Lyndia P; Mosaddhegi, Julie; Mehta, Tejas S; Qureshi, Muhammad M; Phillips, Jordana (2023-10-09)
    Objective: There is interest in contrast-enhanced mammography (CEM) to screen breast cancer survivors, yet it is unclear whether they would accept CEM as their annual exam. The purpose of this study was to understand patient preferences to guide CEM implementation for screening. Methods: Consecutive women with breast cancer history who had CEM as their annual mammogram from July 2020 to August 2021 at a single academic institution completed an 18-question survey regarding prior contrast imaging, CEM experience, and comparison to other breast imaging exams. Response proportions were calculated, and chi-square or Fisher's exact test were used to evaluate associations of demographics with responses. Results: A total of 78% (104/133) of women undergoing CEM provided results. Most were satisfied with CEM (99%, 103/104), had nothing to complain about (87%, 90/104), did not find CEM anxiety provoking (69%, 72/104), felt comfortable having contrast for annual imaging (94%, 98/104), were willing to accept the small risk of a contrast reaction if CEM would find their cancer (93%, 97/104), and would like to have CEM for their exam next year (95%, 99/104). Compared with mammography, 23% (24/104) reported CEM was a better experience, and 63% (66/104) reported CEM was about the same. Of those who had prior MRI, the majority reported CEM was better (53%, 29/55) and would prefer CEM if both MRI and CEM had an equal chance of detecting cancer (73%, 41/56). Most preferences did not differ significantly according to demographics. Conclusion: Most women surveyed considered CEM to be satisfactory and preferred compared to other breast screening modalities.
  • First United States multicenter experience with the new-generation FRED X surface-modified flow diversion stent: feasibility, safety, and short-term efficacy

    Abbas, Rawad; Lan, Matthews; Naamani, Kareem El; Atallah, Elias; Salem, Mohamed; Burkhardt, Jan-Karl; Kühn, Anna Luisa; Puri, Ajit; Monteiro, Andre; Levy, Elad I; et al. (2023-10-06)
    Objective: Flow diversion created a paradigm shift in the treatment of intracranial aneurysms. The new flow redirection endoluminal device with X technology (FRED X) is the latest update of the recent Food and Drug Administration-approved FRED. The FRED X is engineered to reduce material thrombogenicity and enhance vessel healing. In this study, the authors aimed to evaluate the feasibility and early safety and efficacy of the new FRED X. Methods: The authors retrospectively collected and analyzed data from patients who had undergone flow diversion with the new FRED X at four tertiary cerebrovascular centers in the United States from February 2022 through July 2022. Results: Forty-four patients with 45 aneurysms treated using 46 devices comprised the overall study cohort and were divided into two groups: 39 patients with unruptured aneurysms and 5 patients with ruptured aneurysms. The mean patient age was 57.7 ± 9.1 years, and most patients were female (84%). Ninety-one percent of the aneurysms were saccular, with the majority (93%) located in the anterior circulation, specifically the posterior communicating (27%) and carotid ophthalmic (27%) territories. The mean maximum aneurysm diameter was 5.6 ± 4.6 mm, and 20% of the lesions had been previously treated. The mean procedure time was 61.6 minutes, with a mean cumulative fluoroscopy time of 24.6 minutes. Additionally, 7% of the lesions received adjunct treatment. Stent placement was successful in 100% of cases, achieving good wall apposition and complete neck coverage. Further, immediate aneurysm contrast stasis > 90% was observed in 61% of cases. Symptomatic postoperative complications occurred in 3 patients in the unruptured cohort and 1 patient in the ruptured cohort. All patients in the study were discharged on dual antiplatelet regimens with a modified Rankin Scale score of 0. At 6 months after treatment, 89% of cases had adequate occlusion, with < 6% of cases having asymptomatic in-stent stenosis. All patients had excellent functional outcomes. Conclusions: FRED X for the treatment of an intracranial aneurysm is technically feasible alone or in conjunction with intrasaccular embolization. In addition, the study results showed very promising early safety and efficacy. Follow-up studies should establish the long-term safety and efficacy profiles of this new stent.

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