Now showing items 1-20 of 1257

    • Correction of multiplexing artefacts in multi-pinhole SPECT through temporal shuttering, de-multiplexing of projections, and alternating reconstruction

      Pells, Sophia; Zeraatkar, Navid; Kalluri, Kesava S; Moore, Stephen C; May, Micaehla; Furenlid, Lars R; Kupinski, Matthew A; Kuo, Phillip H; King, Michael A (2024-06-06)
      Objective.Single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) with pinhole collimators can provide high-resolution imaging, but is often limited by low sensitivity. Acquiring projections simultaneously through multiple pinholes affords both high resolution and high sensitivity. However, the overlap of projections from different pinholes on detectors, known as multiplexing, has been shown to cause artefacts which degrade reconstructed images.Approach.Multiplexed projection sets were considered here using an analytic simulation model of AdaptiSPECT-C-a brain-dedicated multi-pinhole SPECT system. AdaptiSPECT-C has fully adaptable aperture shutters, so can acquire projections with a combination of multiplexed and non-multiplexed frames using temporal shuttering. Two strategies for reducing multiplex artefacts were considered: an algorithm to de-multiplex projections, and an alternating reconstruction strategy for projections acquired with a combination of multiplexed and non-multiplexed frames. Geometric and anthropomorphic digital phantoms were used to assess a number of metrics.Main results.Both de-multiplexing strategies showed a significant reduction in image artefacts and improved fidelity, image uniformity, contrast recovery and activity recovery (AR). In all cases, the two de-multiplexing strategies resulted in superior metrics to those from images acquired with only mux-free frames. The de-multiplexing algorithm provided reduced image noise and superior uniformity, whereas the alternating strategy improved contrast and AR.Significance.The use of these de-multiplexing algorithms means that multi-pinhole SPECT systems can acquire projections with more multiplexing without degradation of images.
    • ACR Appropriateness Criteria® Female Breast Cancer Screening: 2023 Update

      Niell, Bethany L; Jochelson, Maxine S; Amir, Tali; Brown, Ann; Adamson, Megan; Baron, Paul; Bennett, Debbie L; Chetlen, Alison; Dayaratna, Sandra; Freer, Phoebe E; et al. (2024-06-01)
      Early detection of breast cancer from regular screening substantially reduces breast cancer mortality and morbidity. Multiple different imaging modalities may be used to screen for breast cancer. Screening recommendations differ based on an individual's risk of developing breast cancer. Numerous factors contribute to breast cancer risk, which is frequently divided into three major categories: average, intermediate, and high risk. For patients assigned female at birth with native breast tissue, mammography and digital breast tomosynthesis are the recommended method for breast cancer screening in all risk categories. In addition to the recommendation of mammography and digital breast tomosynthesis in high-risk patients, screening with breast MRI is recommended. The American College of Radiology Appropriateness Criteria are evidence-based guidelines for specific clinical conditions that are reviewed annually by a multidisciplinary expert panel. The guideline development and revision process support the systematic analysis of the medical literature from peer reviewed journals. Established methodology principles such as Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation or GRADE are adapted to evaluate the evidence. The RAND/UCLA Appropriateness Method User Manual provides the methodology to determine the appropriateness of imaging and treatment procedures for specific clinical scenarios. In those instances where peer reviewed literature is lacking or equivocal, experts may be the primary evidentiary source available to formulate a recommendation.
    • Facilitating Culturally Competent Breast Imaging Care in South Asian Patients

      Sharma, Nidhi; Mehta, Tejas S; Wahab, Rifat A; Patel, Miral M (2024-05-24)
      South Asians are a rapidly growing subset of the Asian population in the United States. They comprise people from multiple countries with diverse beliefs, languages, and cultural identities and values. The incidence of breast cancer is rising in South Asian women in the United States, with earlier onset and predilection for HER2-enriched tumors. Despite the rising incidence of breast cancer, participation in screening remains lower than other populations. Health care inequities in South Asian women are multifactorial and may be due to traditional health beliefs and practices, language barriers, cultural differences, and lack of overall awareness. Developing a culturally sensitive environment in breast imaging clinic practice can lead to improved patient care and adherence. Given the scarcity of data specific to the South Asian population in United States, there is a need for health service researchers and practice leaders to obtain more high-quality data to understand the needs of South Asian patient populations.
    • A Case Study Identifying Barriers to Breast Cancer Screening and Strategies for Improved Access and Participation in an Underserved Community

      Vijayaraghavan, Gopal R (2024-05-20)
      A complex interplay of racial, ethnic, and social determinants are the drivers for disparity in access to screening, quality of care and health outcomes in diverse populations.
    • Safety and clinical outcomes of endovascular therapy versus medical management in late presentation of large ischemic stroke

      Mujanovic, Adnan; Strbian, Daniel; Demeestere, Jelle; Marto, João Pedro; Puetz, Volker; Nogueira, Raul G; Abdalkader, Mohamad; Nagel, Simon; Raymond, Jean; Ribo, Marc; et al. (2024-05-17)
      Introduction: The benefit of endovascular therapy (EVT) among stroke patients with large ischemic core (ASPECTS 0-5) in the extended time window outside of trial settings remains unclear. We analyzed the effect of EVT among these stroke patients in real-world settings. Patients and methods: The CT for Late Endovascular Reperfusion (CLEAR) study recruited patients from 66 centers in 10 countries between 01/2014 and 05/2022. The extended time-window was defined as 6-24 h from last-seen-well to treatment. The primary outcome was shift of the 3-month modified Rankin scale (mRS) score. Safety outcomes included symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage (sICH) and mortality. Outcomes were analyzed with ordinal and logistic regressions. Results: Among 5098 screened patients, 2451 were included in the analysis (median age 73, 55% women). Of patients with ASPECTS 0-5 (n = 310), receiving EVT (n = 209/310) was associated with lower 3-month mRS when compared to medical management (median 4 IQR 3-6 vs 6 IQR 4-6; aOR 0.4, 95% CI 0.2-0.7). Patients undergoing EVT had higher sICH (11.2% vs 4.0%; aOR 4.1, 95% CI 1.2-18.8) and lower mortality (31.6% vs 58.4%, aOR 0.4; 95% CI 0.2-0.9) compared to medically managed patients. The relative benefit of EVT was comparable between patients with ASPECTS 0 and 5 and 6-10 in the extended time window (interaction aOR 0.9; 95% CI 0.5-1.7). Conclusion: In the extended time window, patients with ASPECTS 0-5 may have preserved relative treatment benefit of EVT compared to patients with ASPECTS 6-10. These findings are in line with recent trials showing benefit of EVT among real-world patients with large ischemic core in the extended time window. Trial registration number:; Unique identifier: NCT04096248.
    • Outcomes of Bridging Intravenous Thrombolysis Versus Endovascular Therapy Alone in Late-Window Acute Ischemic Stroke

      Demeestere, Jelle; Qureshi, Muhammad M; Vandewalle, Lieselotte; Wouters, Anke; Strbian, Daniel; Nogueira, Raul G; Nagel, Simon; Yamagami, Hiroshi; Puetz, Volker; Abdalkader, Mohamad; et al. (2024-05-15)
      Background: Studies comparing bridging intravenous thrombolysis (IVT) with direct endovascular therapy (EVT) in patients with acute ischemic stroke who present late are limited. We aimed to compare the clinical outcomes and safety of bridging IVT in patients with acute ischemic stroke due to anterior circulation large vessel occlusion who underwent EVT 6 to 24 hours after time last known well. Methods: We enrolled patients with anterior circulation large vessel occlusion stroke and a National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score of ≥6 from 20 centers across 10 countries in the multicenter retrospective CLEAR study (CT for Late Endovascular Reperfusion) between January 2014 and May 2022. We used inverse probability of treatment weighting modeling adjusted for clinical and imaging confounders to compare functional outcomes, reperfusion success, symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage, and mortality between EVT patients with and without prior IVT. Results: Of 5098 patients screened for eligibility, we included 2749 patients, of whom 549 received bridging IVT before EVT. The timing of IVT was not recorded. Witnessed stroke onset and transfer rates were higher in the bridging IVT group (25% versus 12% and 77% versus 55%, respectively, P value for both <0.0001), and time intervals between stroke onset and treatment were shorter (time last known well-start of EVT median 560 minutes [interquartile range, 432-791] versus 724 minutes [interquartile range, 544-912]; P<0.0001). After adjustment for confounders, there was no difference in functional outcome at 3 months (adjusted common odds ratio for modified Rankin Scale shift, 1.03 [95% CI, 0.89-1.19]; P=0.72) or successful reperfusion (adjusted odds ratio, 1.19 [95% CI, 0.81-1.75]; P=0.39). There were no safety concerns associated with bridging IVT versus direct EVT (symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage: adjusted odds ratio, 0.75 [95% CI, 0.38-1.48]; P=0.40; mortality: adjusted odds ratio, 1.14 [95% CI, 0.89-1.46]; P=0.31). Results were unchanged when the analysis was limited to patients who received IVT >6 hours after last known well. Conclusions: In patients with an anterior circulation large vessel occlusion stroke who underwent EVT 6 to 24 hours from last known well, bridging IVT was not associated with a difference in outcomes compared with direct EVT. Registration: URL:; Unique identifier: NCT04096248.
    • Volumetric microscopy of cerebral arteries with a miniaturized optical coherence tomography imaging probe

      Pereira, Vitor M; Lylyk, Pedro; Cancelliere, Nicole; Lylyk, Pedro N; Lylyk, Ivan; Anagnostakou, Vania; Bleise, Carlos; Nishi, Hidehisa; Epshtein, Mark; King, Robert M; et al. (2024-05-15)
      Endovascular interventions are increasingly becoming the preferred approach for treating strokes and cerebral artery diseases. These procedures rely on sophisticated angiographical imaging guidance, which encounters challenges because of limited contrast and spatial resolution. Achieving a more precise visualization of the underlying arterial pathology and neurovascular implants is crucial for accurate procedural decision-making. In a human study involving 32 patients, we introduced the clinical application of a miniaturized endovascular neuro optical coherence tomography (nOCT) imaging probe. This technology was designed to navigate the tortuous paths of the cerebrovascular circulation and to offer high-resolution imaging in situ. The nOCT probe is compatible with standard neurovascular microcatheters, integrating with the procedural workflow used in clinical routine. Equipped with a miniaturized optical fiber and a distal lens, the probe illuminates the tissue and collects the backscattered, near-infrared light. While rotating the fiber and the lens at high speed, the probe is rapidly retracted, creating a spiral-shaped light pattern to comprehensively capture the arterial wall and implanted devices. Using nOCT, we demonstrated volumetric microscopy of cerebral arteries in patients undergoing endovascular procedures. We imaged the anterior and posterior circulation of the brain, including distal segments of the internal carotid and middle-cerebral arteries, as well as the vertebral, basilar, and posterior cerebral arteries. We captured a broad spectrum of neurovascular pathologies, such as brain aneurysms, ischemic stroke, arterial stenoses, dissections, and intracranial atherosclerotic disease. nOCT offered artifact-free, high-resolution visualizations of intracranial artery pathology and neurovascular devices.
    • Mid-term safety and efficacy in small intracranial aneurysm coiling: results from TARGET nano prospective independent core lab adjudicated multicenter registry

      Ashouri, Yazan; Paul, Alexandra R; Puri, Ajit S; Liaw, Nicholas; Majjhoo, Aniel; Taqi, Asif; Rai, Ansaar; Badruddin, Aamir; Alshekhlee, Amer; Naravetla, Bharath; et al. (2024-05-13)
      Background: The primary objective is to evaluate the safety and effectiveness of Stryker second generation Target® Nano Coils in the treatment of ruptured and unruptured small (<7 mm) intracranial aneurysms. Methods: The TARGET Registry is a prospective, two-arm study with independent medical event monitoring and core-lab adjudication. This paper describes the second arm of the TARGET registry. Patients with de novo intracranial aneurysms were embolized with 2nd generation TARGET Nano coils in 12 US centers. The primary efficacy outcome was adequate aneurysm occlusion (RR occlusion grade I-II) on follow-up. Primary safety outcome was treatment-related morbidity and mortality. Secondary outcomes included aneurysm packing density immediately post-procedure, immediate adequate occlusion, aneurysm re-access rate, retreatment rate and clinical outcomes using modified ranking scale. A secondary analysis investigated the influence of using Nano-predominant coils (≥2/3 of total coil-length) vs. non-Nano-predominant coils (<2/3 of total length). Results: 150 patients with 155 aneurysms met the inclusion and exclusion criteria. (31%) patients with ruptured and (69%) with unruptured aneurysms were treated using TARGET coils. Median age was 58.8 (SD 12.7), 74.7% were females, and 80% were Caucasians. Mean follow-up was 5.23 (SD 2.27) months. Peri-procedural mortality was seen in 2.0% of patients. Good outcome at discharge (mRS 0-2) was seen in 81.3% of the cohort. The median packing density (SD) was 29.4% (14.9). Mid-term complete/near complete occlusion rate was seen in 96% of aneurysms and complete obliteration was seen in 75.2% of aneurysms. Patients treated predominantly with Nano coils had higher PD (32.6% vs. 26.1%, p < 0.001). There was no significant difference in clinical and angiographic outcomes. The mid-term mRS0-2 was achieved in 106/109 (97.2%) patients. All-cause mortality was 5/115 (4.3%). Conclusion: In the multicenter TARGET Registry, 75.8% of aneurysms achieved mid-term complete occlusion, and 96% achieved complete/near complete occlusion with excellent independent functional outcome.
    • Outcomes of mechanical thrombectomy in anticoagulated patients with acute distal and medium vessel stroke

      Salim, Hamza; Musmar, Basel; Adeeb, Nimer; Yedavalli, Vivek; Lakhani, Dhairya; Grewal, Sahibjot Singh; El Naamani, Kareem; Henninger, Nils; Sundararajan, Sri Hari; Kühn, Anna Luisa; et al. (2024-05-10)
      Background: Stroke remains a major health concern globally, with oral anticoagulants widely prescribed for stroke prevention. The efficacy and safety of mechanical thrombectomy (MT) in anticoagulated patients with distal medium vessel occlusions (DMVO) are not well understood. Methods: This retrospective analysis involved 1282 acute ischemic stroke (AIS) patients who underwent MT in 37 centers across North America, Asia, and Europe from September 2017 to July 2023. Data on demographics, clinical presentation, treatment specifics, and outcomes were collected. The primary outcomes were functional outcomes at 90 days post-MT, measured by modified Rankin Scale (mRS) scores. Secondary outcomes included reperfusion rates, mortality, and hemorrhagic complications. Results: Of the patients, 223 (34%) were on anticoagulation therapy. Anticoagulated patients were older (median age 78 vs 74 years; p < 0.001) and had a higher prevalence of atrial fibrillation (77% vs 26%; p < 0.001). Their baseline National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) scores were also higher (median 12 vs 9; p = 0.002). Before propensity score matching (PSM), anticoagulated patients had similar rates of favorable 90-day outcomes (mRS 0-1: 30% vs 37%, p = 0.1; mRS 0-2: 47% vs 50%, p = 0.41) but higher mortality (26% vs 17%, p = 0.008). After PSM, there were no significant differences in outcomes between the two groups. Conclusion: Anticoagulated patients undergoing MT for AIS due to DMVO did not show significant differences in 90-day mRS outcomes, reperfusion, or hemorrhage compared to non-anticoagulated patients after adjustment for covariates.
    • I saw the 'puff of smoke' sign before it vanished into thin air

      Suh, Lyle; Puri, Ajit S; Singh, Jasmeet; Kuhn, Anna Luisa (2024-05-10)
      Moyamoya is characterized as a non-atherosclerotic and non-inflammatory vasculopathy that leads to progressive stenosis of the intracranial internal carotid arteries as well as the Circle of Willis. While it can be idiopathic (Moyamoya disease) or associated with another condition (Moyamoya syndrome), there is a characteristic 'puff of smoke' sign that can be appreciated on cerebral angiography.
    • Noncontrast CT Selected Thrombectomy vs Medical Management for Late-Window Anterior Large Vessel Occlusion

      Nguyen, Thanh N; Nogueira, Raul G; Qureshi, Muhammad M; Nagel, Simon; Raymond, Jean; Abdalkader, Mohamad; Demeestere, Jelle; Marto, João Pedro; Sheth, Sunil A; Puetz, Volker; et al. (2024-05-06)
      Background and objectives: There is uncertainty whether patients with large vessel occlusion (LVO) presenting in the late 6-hour to 24-hour time window can be selected for endovascular therapy (EVT) by noncontrast CT (NCCT) and CT angiography (CTA) for LVO detection. We evaluated the clinical outcomes of patients selected for EVT by NCCT compared with those medically managed in the extended time window. Methods: This multinational cohort study was conducted at 66 sites across 10 countries. Consecutive patients with proximal anterior LVO stroke selected for EVT by NCCT or medically managed and presenting within 6-24 hours of time last seen well (TSLW) from January 2014 to May 2022 were included. The primary end point was the 90-day ordinal shift in the modified Rankin Scale (mRS) score. Inverse probability treatment weighting (IPTW) and multivariable methods were used. Results: Of 5,098 patients screened, 839 patients were included, with a median (interquartile range) age of 75 (64-83) years; 455 (54.2%) were women. There were 616 patients selected to undergo EVT by NCCT (73.4%) and 223 (26.6%) who were medically managed. In IPTW analyses, there was a more favorable 90-day ordinal mRS shift in patients selected by NCCT to EVT vs those who were medically managed (odds ratio [OR] 1.99, 95% CI 1.53-2.59; p < 0.001). There were higher rates of 90-day functional independence (mRS 0-2) in the EVT group (40.1% vs 18.4%, OR 3.31, 95% CI 2.11-5.20; p < 0.001). sICH was nonsignificantly higher in the EVT group (8.5% vs 1.4%, OR 3.77, 95% CI 0.72-19.7, p = 0.12). Mortality at 90 days was lower in the EVT vs MM group (23.9% vs 32.3%, OR 0.61, 95% CI 0.45-0.83, p = 0.002). Discussion: In patients with proximal anterior LVO in the extended time window, there was a lower rate of disability and mortality in patients selected with NCCT and CTA to EVT compared with those who were medically managed. These findings support the use of NCCT as a simpler and more inclusive approach to patient selection in the extended window. Trial registration information: This study was registered at under NCT04096248. Classification of evidence: This study provides Class III evidence that for patients with proximal anterior circulation occlusion presenting with ischemic stroke from 6 to 24 hours, compared with medical management, those undergoing thrombectomy based on NCCT have reduced disability and mortality at 90 days.
    • Association of preprocedural antiplatelet use with decreased thromboembolic complications for intracranial aneurysms undergoing intrasaccular flow disruption

      Diestro, Jose Danilo Bengzon; Adeeb, Nimer; Musmar, Basel; Salim, Hamza; Aslan, Assala; Cancelliere, Nicole M; McLellan, Rachel M; Algin, Oktay; Ghozy, Sherief; Lay, Sovann V; et al. (2024-05-03)
      Objective: This study was conducted to investigate the impact of antiplatelet administration in the periprocedural period on the occurrence of thromboembolic complications (TECs) in patients undergoing treatment using the Woven EndoBridge (WEB) device for intracranial wide-necked bifurcation aneurysms. The primary objective was to assess whether the use of antiplatelets in the pre- and postprocedural phases reduces the likelihood of developing TECs, considering various covariates. Methods: A retrospective multicenter observational study was conducted within the WorldWideWEB Consortium and comprised 38 academic centers with endovascular treatment capabilities. Univariable and multivariable logistic regression analyses were performed to determine the association between antiplatelet use and TECs, adjusting for covariates. Missing predictor data were addressed using multiple imputation. Results: The study comprised two cohorts: one addressing general thromboembolic events and consisting of 1412 patients, among whom 103 experienced TECs, and another focusing on symptomatic thromboembolic events and comprising 1395 patients, of whom 50 experienced symptomatic TECs. Preprocedural antiplatelet use was associated with a reduced likelihood of overall TECs (OR 0.32, 95% CI 0.19-0.53, p < 0.001) and symptomatic TECs (OR 0.49, 95% CI 0.25-0.95, p = 0.036), whereas postprocedural antiplatelet use showed no significant association with TECs. The study also revealed additional predictors of TECs, including stent use (overall: OR 4.96, 95% CI 2.38-10.3, p < 0.001; symptomatic: OR 3.24, 95% CI 1.26-8.36, p = 0.015), WEB single-layer sphere (SLS) type (overall: OR 0.18, 95% CI 0.04-0.74, p = 0.017), and posterior circulation aneurysm location (symptomatic: OR 18.43, 95% CI 1.48-230, p = 0.024). Conclusions: The findings of this study suggest that the preprocedural administration of antiplatelets is associated with a reduced likelihood of TECs in patients undergoing treatment with the WEB device for wide-necked bifurcation aneurysms. However, postprocedural antiplatelet use did not show a significant impact on TEC occurrence.
    • Outcomes with General Anesthesia Compared to Conscious Sedation for Endovascular Treatment of Medium Vessel Occlusions: Results of an International Multicentric Study

      Radu, Răzvan Alexandru; Costalat, Vincent; Romoli, Michele; Musmar, Basel; Siegler, James E; Ghozy, Sherief; Khalife, Jane; Salim, Hamza; Shaikh, Hamza; Adeeb, Nimer; et al. (2024-04-30)
      Background: Optimal anesthetic strategy for the endovascular treatment of stroke is still under debate. Despite scarce data concerning anesthetic management for medium and distal vessel occlusions (MeVOs) some centers empirically support a general anesthesia (GA) strategy in these patients. Methods: We conducted an international retrospective study of MeVO cases. A propensity score matching algorithm was used to mitigate potential differences across patients undergoing GA and conscious sedation (CS). Comparisons in clinical and safety outcomes were performed between the two study groups GA and CS. The favourable outcome was defined as a modified Rankin Scale (mRS) 0-2 at 90 days. Safety outcomes were 90-days mortality and symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage (sICH). Predictors of a favourable outcome and sICH were evaluated with backward logistic regression. Results: After propensity score matching 668 patients were included in the CS and 264 patients in the GA group. In the matched cohort, either strategy CS or GA resulted in similar rates of good functional outcomes (50.1% vs. 48.4%), and successful recanalization (89.4% vs. 90.2%). The GA group had higher rates of 90-day mortality (22.6% vs. 16.5%, p < 0.041) and sICH (4.2% vs. 0.9%, p = 0.001) compared to the CS group. Backward logistic regression did not identify GA vs CS as a predictor of good functional outcome (OR for GA vs CS = 0.95 (0.67-1.35)), but GA remained a significant predictor of sICH (OR = 5.32, 95% CI 1.92-14.72). Conclusion: Anaesthetic strategy in MeVOs does not influence favorable outcomes or final successful recanalization rates, however, GA may be associated with an increased risk of sICH and mortality.
    • Safety and effectiveness assessment of the surpass evolve (SEASE): a post-market international multicenter study

      Vivanco-Suarez, Juan; Dibas, Mahmoud; Lopes, Demetrius Klee; Hanel, Ricardo A; Martínez-Galdámez, Mario; Rodriguez-Calienes, Aaron; Cortez, Gustavo M; Fifi, Johanna T; Devarajan, Alex; Toth, Gabor; et al. (2024-04-25)
      Background: Flow diverters are the first-line treatment for specific intracranial aneurysms (iA). Surpass Evolve (SE) is a new-generation 64-wire flow diverter with a high braid angle. Current literature on the SE is limited. We aimed to report the first international real-world experience evaluating the safety and effectiveness of the SE. Methods: The Safety and Effectiveness Assessment of the Surpass Evolve (SEASE) was a multicenter retrospective international post-marketing cohort study including consecutive patients treated with SE for iAs between 2020 and 2022. Demographic, clinical, and angiographic data were collected. Primary effectiveness was independent core lab adjudicated complete occlusion rates (Raymond-Roy Class 1) at last follow-up. Primary safety were major ischemic/hemorrhagic events and mortality. Results: In total, 305 patients with 332 aneurysms underwent SE implantation. The patients had a median age of 59 [50-67] years, and 256 (83.9%) were female. The baseline modified Rankin scale score was 0-2 in 291 patients (96.7%). Most aneurysms were unruptured (285, 93.4%) and saccular (309, 93.1%). Previous treatment was present in 76 (22.9%) patients. The median aneurysm size was 5.1 [3.4-9.0] mm, and the median neck width was 3.6 [2.7-5.1] mm. Most aneurysms were in the internal carotid artery C6 ophthalmic segment (126, 38.0%), followed by the communicating segment (58, 17.5%). At median 10.2 [6.4-12.9] months follow-up, 233 (73.0%) aneurysms achieved complete occlusion. After adjusting for confounders, complete occlusion remained consistent. Major stroke and procedure-related mortality were reported in 6 (2%) and 2 (0.7%) cases, respectively. Conclusion: These results demonstrate that SE has a consistently high effectiveness and favorable safety for the treatment of iAs.
    • Face-off Droop: A Case Report of Pediatric Stroke

      Robertson, Duncan; Peirce, Hayden F; Nicpon, Marek D; Otterson, Eric M; O'Connor, Laurel; Rissmiller, Julia G; Binder, Zachary W (2024-04-24)
      Introduction: Cerebrovascular accidents rarely occur in children; the incidence of ischemic stroke in patients <16 years of age is between 0.6-7.9/100,000. However, they are the fourth most common cause of acute neurological deficits in the pediatric population, and possible cases should be evaluated with a high index of suspicion to ensure timely intervention. Case report: We describe a previously healthy 17-year-old male who presented to the pediatric emergency department with a left facial droop and hemiparesis consistent with a stroke. The patient's age and lack of comorbidities made this an extremely uncommon presentation. Our patient's neurologic symptoms were believed to have been caused by a recent traumatic clavicular injury sustained two weeks prior, which subsequently led to vascular insult. Conclusion: Cerebrovascular accidents are an important cause of morbidity and mortality in pediatric patients. Cerebrovascular accidents in children are most often secondary to congenital causes; however, care should be taken to assess for acquired causes, such as trauma to major blood vessels. While rarely implicated in traumatic injuries, arterial structures posterior to the medial clavicle can result in severe complications.
    • ARISE I Consensus Review on the Management of Intracranial Aneurysms

      Tjoumakaris, Stavropoula I; Hanel, Ricardo; Mocco, J; Ali-Aziz Sultan, M; Froehler, Michael; Lieber, Barry B; Coon, Alexander; Tateshima, Satoshi; Altschul, David J; Narayanan, Sandra; et al. (2024-04-22)
      Background: Intracranial aneurysms (IAs) remain a challenging neurological diagnosis associated with significant morbidity and mortality. There is a plethora of microsurgical and endovascular techniques for the treatment of both ruptured and unruptured aneurysms. There is no definitive consensus as to the best treatment option for this cerebrovascular pathology. The Aneurysm, Arteriovenous Malformation, and Chronic Subdural Hematoma Roundtable Discussion With Industry and Stroke Experts discussed best practices and the most promising approaches to improve the management of brain aneurysms. Methods: A group of experts from academia, industry, and federal regulators convened to discuss updated clinical trials, scientific research on preclinical system models, management options, screening and monitoring, and promising novel device technologies, aiming to improve the outcomes of patients with IA. Results: Aneurysm, Arteriovenous Malformation, and Chronic Subdural Hematoma Roundtable Discussion With Industry and Stroke Experts suggested the incorporation of artificial intelligence to capture sequential aneurysm growth, identify predictors of rupture, and predict the risk of rupture to guide treatment options. The consensus strongly recommended nationwide systemic data collection of unruptured IA radiographic images for the analysis and development of machine learning algorithms for rupture risk. The consensus supported centers of excellence for preclinical multicenter trials in areas such as genetics, cellular composition, and radiogenomics. Optical coherence tomography and magnetic resonance imaging contrast-enhanced 3T vessel wall imaging are promising technologies; however, more data are needed to define their role in IA management. Ruptured aneurysms are best managed at large volume centers, which should include comprehensive patient management with expertise in microsurgery, endovascular surgery, neurology, and neurocritical care. Conclusions: Clinical and preclinical studies and scientific research on IA should engage high-volume centers and be conducted in multicenter collaborative efforts. The future of IA diagnosis and monitoring could be enhanced by the incorporation of artificial intelligence and national radiographic and biologic registries. A collaborative effort between academic centers, government regulators, and the device industry is paramount for the adequate management of IA and the advancement of the field.
    • The Impact of Preprocedural Platelet Function Testing on Periprocedural Complication Rates Associated With Pipeline Flow Diversion: An International Multicenter Study

      Vranic, Justin E; Dmytriw, Adam A; Berglar, Inka K; Alotaibi, Naif M; Cancelliere, Nicole M; Stapleton, Christopher J; Rabinov, James D; Harker, Pablo; Gupta, Rajiv; Bernstock, Joshua D; et al. (2024-04-18)
      Background and objectives: Dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) is necessary to minimize the risk of periprocedural thromboembolic complications associated with aneurysm embolization using pipeline embolization device (PED). We aimed to assess the impact of platelet function testing (PFT) on reducing periprocedural thromboembolic complications associated with PED flow diversion in patients receiving aspirin and clopidogrel. Methods: Patients with unruptured intracranial aneurysms requiring PED flow diversion were identified from 13 centers for retrospective evaluation. Clinical variables including the results of PFT before treatment, periprocedural DAPT regimen, and intracranial complications occurring within 72 h of embolization were identified. Complication rates were compared between PFT and non-PFT groups. Differences between groups were tested for statistical significance using the Wilcoxon rank sum, Fisher exact, or χ 2 tests. A P -value <.05 was statistically significant. Results: 580 patients underwent PED embolization with 262 patients dichotomized to the PFT group and 318 patients to the non-PFT group. 13.7% of PFT group patients were clopidogrel nonresponders requiring changes in their pre-embolization DAPT regimen. Five percentage of PFT group [2.8%, 8.5%] patients experienced thromboembolic complications vs 1.6% of patients in the non-PFT group [0.6%, 3.8%] ( P = .019). Two (15.4%) PFT group patients with thromboembolic complications experienced permanent neurological disability vs 4 (80%) non-PFT group patients. 3.7% of PFT group patients [1.5%, 8.2%] and 3.5% [1.8%, 6.3%] of non-PFT group patients experienced hemorrhagic intracranial complications ( P > .9). Conclusion: Preprocedural PFT before PED treatment of intracranial aneurysms in patients premedicated with an aspirin and clopidogrel DAPT regimen may not be necessary to significantly reduce the risk of procedure-related intracranial complications.
    • Robust thalamic nuclei segmentation from T1-weighted MRI using polynomial intensity transformation

      Vidal, Julie P; Danet, Lola; Péran, Patrice; Pariente, Jérémie; Bach Cuadra, Meritxell; Zahr, Natalie M; Barbeau, Emmanuel J; Saranathan, Manojkumar (2024-03-28)
      Accurate segmentation of thalamic nuclei, crucial for understanding their role in healthy cognition and in pathologies, is challenging to achieve on standard T1-weighted (T1w) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) due to poor image contrast. White-matter-nulled (WMn) MRI sequences improve intrathalamic contrast but are not part of clinical protocols or extant databases. In this study, we introduce histogram-based polynomial synthesis (HIPS), a fast preprocessing transform step that synthesizes WMn-like image contrast from standard T1w MRI using a polynomial approximation for intensity transformation. HIPS was incorporated into THalamus Optimized Multi-Atlas Segmentation (THOMAS) pipeline, a method developed and optimized for WMn MRI. HIPS-THOMAS was compared to a convolutional neural network (CNN)-based segmentation method and THOMAS modified for the use of T1w images (T1w-THOMAS). The robustness and accuracy of the three methods were tested across different image contrasts (MPRAGE, SPGR, and MP2RAGE), scanner manufacturers (PHILIPS, GE, and Siemens), and field strengths (3 T and 7 T). HIPS-transformed images improved intra-thalamic contrast and thalamic boundaries, and HIPS-THOMAS yielded significantly higher mean Dice coefficients and reduced volume errors compared to both the CNN method and T1w-THOMAS. Finally, all three methods were compared using the frequently travelling human phantom MRI dataset for inter- and intra-scanner variability, with HIPS displaying the least inter-scanner variability and performing comparably with T1w-THOMAS for intra-scanner variability. In conclusion, our findings highlight the efficacy and robustness of HIPS in enhancing thalamic nuclei segmentation from standard T1w MRI.
    • Dual Layer vs Single Layer Woven EndoBridge Device in the Treatment of Intracranial Aneurysms: A Propensity Score-Matched Analysis

      Dmytriw, Adam A; Salim, Hamza; Musmar, Basel; Aslan, Assala; Cancelliere, Nicole M; McLellan, Rachel M; Algin, Oktay; Ghozy, Sherief; Dibas, Mahmoud; Lay, Sovann V; et al. (2024-03-14)
      Background: The Woven EndoBridge (WEB) devices have been used for treating wide neck bifurcation aneurysms (WNBAs) with several generational enhancements to improve clinical outcomes. The original device dual-layer (WEB DL) was replaced by a single-layer (WEB SL) device in 2013. This study aimed to compare the effectiveness and safety of these devices in managing intracranial aneurysms. Methods: A multicenter cohort study was conducted, and data from 1,289 patients with intracranial aneurysms treated with either the WEB SL or WEB DL devices were retrospectively analyzed. Propensity score matching was utilized to balance the baseline characteristics between the two groups. Outcomes assessed included immediate occlusion rate, complete occlusion at last follow-up, retreatment rate, device compaction, and aneurysmal rupture. Results: Before propensity score matching, patients treated with the WEB SL had a significantly higher rate of complete occlusion at the last follow-up and a lower rate of retreatment. After matching, there was no significant difference in immediate occlusion rate, retreatment rate, or device compaction between the WEB SL and DL groups. However, the SL group maintained a higher rate of complete occlusion at the final follow-up. Regression analysis showed that SL was associated with higher rates of complete occlusion (OR: 0.19; CI: 0.04 to 0.8, p = 0.029) and lower rates of retreatment (OR: 0.12; CI: 0 to 4.12, p = 0.23). Conclusion: The WEB SL and DL devices demonstrated similar performances in immediate occlusion rates and retreatment requirements for intracranial aneurysms. The SL device showed a higher rate of complete occlusion at the final follow-up.
    • Reinjury Following Return to Play

      Watts, George J.; Tai, Ryan; Joshi, Ganesh; Garwood, Elisabeth R; Saha, Debajyoti (2024-03-14)
      Radiologists are frequently called on for guidance regarding return to play (RTP) for athletes and active individuals after sustaining a musculoskeletal injury. Avoidance of reinjury is of particular importance throughout the rehabilitative process and following resumption of competitive activity. Understanding reinjury risk estimation, imaging patterns, and correlation of clinical and surgical findings will help prepare the radiologist to identify reinjuries correctly on diagnostic imaging studies and optimize management for a safe RTP.