The mission of the Center for Integrated Primary Care (CIPC) at UMass Chan Medical School is to develop, synthesize, and disseminate knowledge and skills for evidence-based approaches to integrated primary care and behavioral health services through work force development and practice based research. This collection showcases journal articles and other publications authored by CIPC faculty and researchers.


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Recently Published

  • A Systematic Review of the Adherence to Home-Practice Meditation Exercises in Patients with Chronic Pain

    Barceló-Soler, Alberto; Morillo-Sarto, Héctor; Fernández-Martínez, Selene; Monreal-Bartolomé, Alicia; Chambel, Maria José; Gardiner, Paula; López-Del-Hoyo, Yolanda; García-Campayo, Javier; Pérez-Aranda, Adrián (2023-03-02)
    Mindfulness-, compassion-, and acceptance-based (i.e., "third wave") psychotherapies are effective for treating chronic pain conditions. Many of these programs require that patients engage in the systematic home practice of meditation experiences so they can develop meditation skills. This systematic review aimed at evaluating the frequency, duration, and effects of home practice in patients with chronic pain undergoing a "third wave" psychotherapy. A comprehensive database search for quantitative studies was conducted in PubMed, Embase, and Web of Sciences Core Collection; 31 studies fulfilled the inclusion criteria. The reviewed studies tended to indicate a pattern of moderately frequent practice (around four days/week), with very high variability in terms of time invested; most studies observed significant associations between the amount of practice and positive health outcomes. Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction and Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Therapy were the most common interventions and presented low levels of adherence to home practice (39.6% of the recommended time). Some studies were conducted on samples of adolescents, who practiced very few minutes, and a few tested eHealth interventions with heterogeneous adherence levels. In conclusion, some adaptations may be required so that patients with chronic pain can engage more easily and, thus, effectively in home meditation practices.
  • Lessons Learned from Clinicians in a Federally Qualified Health Center: Steps Toward Eliminating Burnout

    Cauley, Andrew W; Green, Alexander R; Gardiner, Paula M (2022-12-12)
    Background: Burnout continues to impact health care workers and its effect takes a toll on their lives and wellbeing, especially in primary care. Relatively few studies have focused specifically on the perspective of clinicians in Federally Qualified Health Centers (FQHCs), which offer crucial, preventative health care services to vulnerable and underserved patient populations. Objective: To examine the perspectives of clinicians working at an FQHC in the Northeast United States after the implementation of a year-long wellness initiative. Design: A qualitative analysis of clinician's discussion during focus groups conducted after the wellness initiative. Subjects and Setting/Location: A total of 28 clinicians (primary care physicians and nurse practitioners) in an FQHC in the Northeast United States. Interventions: A one-year wellness initiative with programs and activities designed to bolster wellness. Outcome Measures: Analyzed NVIVO-coded transcripts of focus group discussion to generate codes and used modified grounded theory to extrapolate meaningful themes. Results: Five key themes emerged from the qualitative analysis: (1) clinicians often felt burdened by their workload and personally responsible when they were not able to provide optimal care to patients; (2) burnout was exacerbated by systemic problems at the FQHC; (3) medical assistants, medical scribes, schedulers, and other support staff played a crucial role in the wellness of the entire team; (4) perceived differences in priorities between administration and health care workers may have contributed to burnout; and (5) a communicative and stable team helped clinicians effectively care for their patients. Conclusions: Clinician burnout is a complex problem at FQHCs with many root causes. Addressing burnout and improving clinician wellness at FQHCs will require a multifaceted approach encompassing systemic, team, and individual components. The perspectives from the clinicians at our FQHC may inform wellness strategies for other safety net, clinical institutions in the primary care setting.
  • Practice integration profile revised: Improving item readability and completion

    Rose, Gail L; Weldon, Tara L; McEntee, Mindy L; Hitt, Juvena R; Kessler, Rodger; Littenberg, Benjamin; Macchi, C R; Martin, Matthew P; Mullin, Daniel J.; van Eeghen, Constance (2022-09-01)
    Introduction: The Practice Integration Profile (PIP) is a reliable, valid, and broadly used measure of the integration of behavioral health (BH) into primary care. The PIP assesses operational and procedural elements that are grounded in the AHRQ Lexicon for Behavioral Health and Primary Care Integration. Prior analyses of PIP data and feedback from users suggested the measure was in need of revisions. This article describes the process used to improve readability, clarity, and pragmatic utility of the instrument. Method: Two rounds of structured cognitive interviews were conducted with clinicians in primary care settings. After each round, interview transcripts were coded by an analytic team using an iterative and consensus-driven process. Themes were identified based on codes. Themes and recommendations for revisions were reviewed and modified by committee. Results: Based on feedback and a prior factor analysis of the PIP, revisions were undertaken to: (a) eliminate redundant or overlapping items; (b) clarify the meaning of items; (c) standardize the response categories, and (d) place items in the most appropriate domains. The resulting measure has 28 items in five domains. Discussion: PIP 2.0 will need further examination to confirm its continuing use as a foundational tool for evaluating integrated care. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2022 APA, all rights reserved).
  • Ethnically Diverse Midlife Women’s Menopausal Transition Symptom Experience and Access to Medical and Integrative Health Care: Informing the Development of an Integrative Medicine Group Visit for the Menopausal Transition [preprint]

    Taylor-Swanson, Lisa; Stoddard, Kari; Fritz, Julie; Anderson, Belinda “Beau”; Cortez, Melissa; Conboy, Lisa; Sheng, Xiaoming; Flake, Naomi; Sanchez-Birkhead, Ana; Stark, Louisa; et al. (2022-06-21)
    Objective: Individuals in the menopausal transition often seek healthcare in the United States. However, many individuals who seek healthcare do not receive treatments for their symptoms. And, some lack access to providers of both medical care and evidence-based integrative health interventions such as acupuncture, acupressure, or massage. A potential solution to this problem is medical group visits. Medical group visits are when multiple patients are seen by one provider. The present study gathered the opinions of diverse midlife women about interest in and desired design elements of medical group visits for menopause-related symptoms and concerns. Methods: We conducted one focus group with ethnically diverse midlife women to learn about their experiences in the menopausal transition, specifically their symptom experience, barriers, and facilitators to accessing medical and integrative health providers, and their interest in and suggestions for the design of an integrative medical group visit. Qualitative research methods were used to summarize session results. Results: Nine women participated and were diverse in terms of race/ethnicity and religious affiliation, and were highly educated. Themes included: an interest in participating in this conversation; that medical terms were mostly unfamiliar, and that terminology was less important than having a conversation; many symptoms were experienced; social factors affected participants, stressing the need for communication on this topic; receiving both unhelpful and helpful healthcare, a desire for whole person care; a need for information about what conditions Integrative Health interventions can treat, barriers to accessing both conventional and integrative care providers and facilitators include knowledge about insurance coverage and word of mouth. The group expressed great interest in the proposed integrative medical group visit (IMGV) model but expressed barriers such as a lack of time available, and needing childcare. Women indicated that an online format may help to overcome barriers. Conclusions: These findings highlight the importance of engagement with stakeholders before the design and implementation of IMGV and the great need among midlife women for education about the menopausal transition and relevant interventions and self-care.
  • Patient screening for integrated behavioral health in adult primary care: A rapid review of effective procedures

    Martin, Matthew P.; McEntee, Mindy L.; Mullin, Daniel J.; Suri, Yash; van Eeghen, Constance (2022-06-02)
    PURPOSE: Although many primary care clinics screen for behavioral health (BH) conditions using validated tools, it is not clear whether adult BH screening leads to better patient outcomes. Our objective was to determine the evidence base by reviewing effectiveness research for multiple strategies of BH screening in adult primary care identified in the Practice Integration Profile. METHOD: We conducted five rapid reviews of effectiveness research supporting BH screening strategies cited in the Practice Integration Profile. Each rapid review was conducted using an adapted REAL (Rapid Evidence Assessment of the Literature) methodology and a standardized search tailored for each screening strategy to identify evidence related to BH screening in primary care. RESULTS: The database search yielded 931 references. Following eligibility review and extraction, we evaluated data from 20 references examining five screening strategies. Results demonstrated limited support for all five strategies and high risk of bias within most studies. Outcomes associated with various BH screening strategies were rarely the focus of study. CONCLUSIONS: There is an absence of robust, well-structured evidence supporting many of the BH screening strategies advocated for in primary care. Stakeholders may wish to understand how to ensure value when developing a robust screening program that will improve patient health outcomes. Future research should advance the science of BH screen selection, timing, and implementation by answering new questions about screening strategies.
  • Our Whole Lives for Hypertension and Cardiac Risk Factors-Combining a Teaching Kitchen Group Visit With a Web-Based Platform: Feasibility Trial

    Gardiner, Paula; McGonigal, Lisa; Villa, Ariel; Kovell, Lara C.; Rohela, Pallavi; Cauley, Andrew; Rinker, Diana; Olendzki, Barbara C. (2022-05-16)
    BACKGROUND: Hypertension (HTN) affects millions of Americans. Our Whole Lives: an eHealth toolkit for Hypertension and Cardiac Risk Factors (OWL-H) is an eHealth platform that teaches evidence-based lifestyle strategies, such mindfulness and cooking skills, to improve self-management of HTN. OBJECTIVE: The primary goal of this pilot study was to evaluate the feasibility of OWL-H combined with teaching kitchen medical group visits (TKMGVs) in a low-income population of participants with HTN. METHODS: We conducted a pre-post 8-week study to assess the feasibility of a hybrid program (a web-based 9-module self-management program, which includes mindfulness and Mediterranean and Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension diet) accompanied by 3 in-person TKMGVs among patients with HTN. Data including demographics, platform use, and satisfaction after using OWL-H were examined. Outcome data collected at baseline and 8 weeks included the Mediterranean Diet Questionnaire, Hypertension Self-Care Profile Self-Efficacy Instrument, Blood Pressure Knowledge Questionnaire, and the number of self-reported blood pressure readings. For the statistical analysis, we used descriptive statistics, paired sample t tests (1-tailed), and qualitative methods. RESULTS: Of the 25 enrolled participants, 22 (88%) participants completed the study. Participants' average age was 57 (SD 12.1) years, and 46% (11/24) of them reported a household income < US $30,000 per year. Among the 22 participants who logged in to OWL-H, the average number of mindfulness practices completed was 7 and the average number of module sessions accessed was 4. In all, 73% (16/22) of participants reported that they were "very satisfied" with using OWL-H to help manage their HTN. Participants' blood pressure knowledge significantly increased from baseline (mean 5.58, SD 1.44) to follow-up (mean 6.13, SD 1.23; P=.03). Participants significantly increased their adherence to a Mediterranean diet from baseline (mean 7.65, SD 2.19) to follow-up (mean 9, SD 1.68; P=.004). Participants' self-efficacy in applying heart-healthy habits, as measured by the Hypertension Self-Care Profile Self-Efficacy Instrument, increased from baseline (mean 63.67, SD 9.06) to follow-up (mean 65.54, SD 7.56; P=.14). At the 8-week follow-up, 82% (18/22) of the participants had self-reported their blood pressure on the OWL-H platform at least once during the 8 weeks. CONCLUSIONS: The eHealth platform for HTN self-management, OWL-H, and accompanying in-person TKMGVs have the potential to effectively improve lifestyle management of HTN. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT03974334; https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT03974334.
  • Depression predicts chronic pain interference in racially diverse, income-disadvantaged patients

    Nephew, Benjamin C.; Incollingo Rodriguez, Angela C.; Melican, Veronica; Polcari, Justin J.; Nippert, Kathryn E.; Rashkovskii, Mikhail; Linnell, Lilly-Beth; Hu, Ruofan; Ruiz, Carolina; King, Jean A.; et al. (2021-12-15)
    BACKGROUND: Chronic pain is one of the most common reasons adults seek medical care in the US, with prevalence estimates ranging from 11% to 40%. Mindfulness meditation has been associated with significant improvements in pain, depression, physical and mental health, sleep, and overall quality of life. Group medical visits are increasingly common and are effective at treating myriad illnesses, including chronic pain. Integrative Medical Group Visits (IMGV) combine mindfulness techniques, evidence based integrative medicine, and medical group visits and can be used as adjuncts to medications, particularly in diverse underserved populations with limited access to non-pharmacological therapies. OBJECTIVE AND DESIGN: The objective of the present study was to use a blended analytical approach of machine learning and regression analyses to evaluate the potential relationship between depression and chronic pain in data from a randomized clinical trial of IMGV in diverse, income disadvantaged patients suffering from chronic pain and depression. METHODS: The analytical approach used machine learning to assess the predictive relationship between depression and pain and identify and select key mediators, which were then assessed with regression analyses. It was hypothesized that depression would predict the pain outcomes of average pain, pain severity, and pain interference. RESULTS: Our analyses identified and characterized a predictive relationship between depression and chronic pain interference. This prediction was mediated by high perceived stress, low pain self-efficacy, and poor sleep quality, potential targets for attenuating the adverse effects of depression on functional outcomes. CONCLUSIONS: In the context of the associated clinical trial and similar interventions, these insights may inform future treatment optimization, targeting, and application efforts in racialized, income disadvantaged populations, demographics often neglected in studies of chronic pain. TRIAL REGISTRATION: NCT from clinicaltrials.gov: 02262377. American Academy of Pain Medicine.
  • A Teaching Kitchen Medical Groups Visit with an eHealth Platform for Hypertension and Cardiac Risk Factors: A Qualitative Feasibility Study

    Rohela, Pallavi; Olendzki, Barbara C.; McGonigal, Lisa J.; Villa, Ariel; Gardiner, Paula (2021-11-01)
    Introduction: Our Whole Lives-Hypertension (OWL-H) is an eHealth toolkit for hypertension and cardiac risks factors. It is a hybrid online self-management platform that teaches blood pressure (BP) self-monitoring and evidence-based lifestyle modifications combined with in-person teaching kitchen medical group visit. Qualitative feedback from participants regarding the facilitators and barriers of using OWL-H has been discussed in this article. Methods: The OWL-H platform was pilot tested in a pre-post trial with two cohorts of participants with hypertension (N = 24). The online intervention utilized OWL-H for teaching mindfulness meditation, the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension nutrition plan, and evidence-based strategies for lifestyle modifications. Three in-person teaching kitchen medical group visits were held to demonstrate cooking skills to reinforce the online platform. Semi-structured focus group discussions (FGDs) were held after the intervention. Results: Fourteen of the 24 participants in the trial participated in the FGDs, and 1 participant provided feedback in a solo interview. Major themes that emerged included: (1) participants' request to tailor OWL-H's recipes and meal planning to suit their own dietary needs or preferences, to personalize the Home Practices (e.g., meditation) according to individual preferences (e.g., addition of nature sounds or guided visual imagery); (2) the strengths and weaknesses of OWL-H as a BP self-monitoring tool; (3) the need for community support in managing BP; and (4) participants noted lack of time, work and commute, Internet connectivity, stress, and sickness as obstacles in using OWL-H. Participants described feeling outpaced by the growth of technology and raised concerns of poor Internet connectivity hampering their use of OWL-H. Conclusion: OWL-H and the accompanying teaching kitchen medical group visit are potential tools to help reduce hypertension and cardiac risk factors. The intervention was found to have acceptability among people with lower income. Clinical Trials Registration#: NCT03974334.
  • The design and methods of the OPTIMUM study: A multisite pragmatic randomized clinical trial of a telehealth group mindfulness program for persons with chronic low back pain

    Greco, Carol M.; Gaylord, Susan A.; Faurot, Kim; Weinberg, Janice M.; Gardiner, Paula M.; Roth, Isabel; Barnhill, Jessica L.; Thomas, Holly N.; Dhamne, Sayali C.; Lathren, Christine; et al. (2021-10-01)
    Mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) is an evidence-based non-pharmacological approach for chronic low back pain (cLBP), yet it is not readily available or reimbursable within primary care clinics. Primary care providers (PCPs) who wish to avoid prescribing opioids and other medications typically have few options for their cLBP patients. We present the protocol of a pragmatic clinical trial entitled OPTIMUM (Optimizing Pain Treatment In Medical settings Using Mindfulness). OPTIMUM is offered online via telehealth and includes medical group visits (MGV) with a PCP and a mindfulness meditation intervention modeled on MBSR for persons with cLBP. In diverse health-care settings in the US, such as a safety net hospital, federally qualified health centers, and a large academic health system, 450 patients will be assigned randomly to the MGV + MBSR or to usual PCP care alone. Participants will complete self-report surveys at baseline, following the 8-week program, and at 6- and 12-month follow-up. Health care utilization data will be obtained through electronic health records and via brief monthly surveys completed by participants. The primary outcome measure is the PEG (Pain, enjoyment, and general activity) at the 6-month follow-up. Additionally, we will assess psychological function, healthcare resource use, and opioid prescriptions. This trial, which is part of the NIH HEAL Initiative, has the potential to enhance primary care treatment of cLBP by combining PCP visits with a non-pharmacological treatment modeled on MBSR. Because it is offered online and integrated into primary care, it is expected to be scalable and accessible to underserved patients. Clinical Trials.gov: NCT04129450.
  • Prevention of psychological trauma among health care providers during the COVID-19 pandemic

    Mullin, Daniel J.; Pearson, Sarah; Eisdorfer, Ethan; Mullarkey, Jenna; Dykhouse, Elizabeth C. (2021-09-01)
    The COVID-19 pandemic presented unique biological, psychological, and social threats to health care providers. The failure of local macrosystems placed providers at elevated risk of psychological and physical harm. To reduce the immediate risk of trauma to our local physician workforce, our team initiated a program of proactive psychological first aid in which physicians were regularly contacted by behavioral health colleagues to assess safety conditions and physician's well-being. When threats to the physician's safety were identified, these concerns were escalated to leadership and addressed when possible. When threats to well-being were identified, behavioral health team members provided supportive listening, and, if indicated, provided referral information for appropriate treatment resources. This paper reviews the rationale for this program, addresses ethical concerns, and proposes future directions for responding to threats to safety during events such as the COVID-19 pandemic.
  • Incorporating Acupuncture Into American Healthcare: Initiating a Discussion on Implementation Science, the Status of the Field, and Stakeholder Considerations

    Miller, David W.; Roseen, Eric J.; Stone, Jennifer A. M.; Gardiner, Paula; Olson, Juli; Rosen, Shellie; Wayne, Peter; Davis, Robert; Coeytaux, Remy (2021-08-25)
    Introduction: The field of implementation science is the study of methods that promote the uptake of evidence-based interventions into healthcare policy and practice. While acupuncture has gained significant traction in the American healthcare landscape, its journey has been somewhat haphazard and non-linear. Methods: In June 2019, a group of thirty diverse stakeholders was convened by the Society for Acupuncture Research with the support of a Patient Centered Outcomes Research Institute, Eugene Washington Engagement Award. This group of stakeholders represented a diverse mix of patients, providers, academicians, researchers, funders, allied health professionals, insurers, association leaders, certification experts, and military program developers. The collective engaged in discussion that explored acupuncture's status in healthcare, including reflections on its safety, effectiveness, best practices, and the actual implementation of acupuncture as seen from diverse stakeholder viewpoints. Objectives: A primary goal was to consider how to utilize knowledge from the field of implementation science more systematically and intentionally to disseminate information about acupuncture and its research base, through application of methods known to implementation science. The group also considered novel challenges that acupuncture may present to known implementation processes. Findings: This article summarizes the initial findings of this in-person meeting of stakeholders and the ongoing discussion among the subject matter experts who authored this report. The goal of this report is to catalyze greater conversation about how the field of implementation science might intersect with practice, access, research, and policymaking pertaining to acupuncture. Core concepts of implementation science and its relationship to acupuncture are introduced, and the case for acupuncture as an Evidence Based Practice (EBP) is established. The status of the field and current environment of acupuncture is examined, and the perspectives of four stakeholder groups--patients, two types of professional practitioners, and researchers--are explored in more detail.
  • Further Experience with the Practice Integration Profile: A Measure of Behavioral Health and Primary Care Integration

    Hitt, Juvena R.; Brennhofer, Stephanie A.; Martin, Matthew P.; Macchi, C. R.; Mullin, Daniel J.; van Eeghen, Constance; Littenberg, Benjamin; Kessler, Rodger S. (2021-08-09)
    Valid measures of behavioral health integration have the potential to enable comparisons of various models of integration, contribute to the overall development of high-quality care, and evaluate outcomes that are strategically aligned with standard improvement efforts. The Practice Integration Profile has proven to discriminate among clinic types and integration efforts. We continued the validation of the measure's internal consistency, intra-rater consistency, and inter-rater consistency with a separate and larger sample from a broader array of practices. We found that the Practice Integration Profile demonstrated a high level of internal consistency, suggesting empirically sound measurement of independent attributes of integration, and high reliability over time. The Practice Integration Profile provides internally consistent and interpretable results and can serve as both a quality improvement and health services research tool.
  • Depression predicts chronic pain interference in racially-diverse, low-income patients [preprint]

    Nephew, Benjamin C.; Incollingo Rodriguez, Angela C.; Melican, Veronica; Polcari, Justin J.; Nippert, Kathryn E.; Rashkovskii, Mikhail; Linnell, Lilly-Beth; Hu, Ruofan; Ruiz, Carolina; King, Jean A.; et al. (2021-07-06)
    Background Chronic pain is one of the most common reasons adults seek medical care in the US, with estimates of prevalence ranging from 11% to 40%. Mindfulness meditation has been associated with significant improvements in pain, depression, physical and mental health, sleep, and overall quality of life. Group medical visits are increasingly common and are effective at treating myriad illnesses including chronic pain. Integrative Medical Group Visits (IMGV) combine mindfulness techniques, evidence based integrative medicine, and medical group visits and can be used as adjuncts to medications, particularly in diverse underserved populations with limited access to non-pharmacological therapies. Objective and Design The objective of the present study was to use a blended analytical approach of machine learning and regression analyses to evaluate the potential relationship between depression and chronic pain in data from a randomized clinical trial of IMGV in socially diverse, low income patients suffering from chronic pain and depression. Methods This approach used machine learning to assess the predictive relationship between depression and pain and identify and select key mediators, which were then assessed with regression analyses. It was hypothesized that depression would predict the pain outcomes of average pain, pain severity, and pain interference. Results Our analyses identified and characterized a predictive relationship between depression and chronic pain interference. This prediction was mediated by high perceived stress, low pain self-efficacy, and poor sleep quality, potential targets for attenuating the adverse effects of depression on functional outcomes. Conclusions In the context of the associated clinical trial and similar interventions, these insights may inform future treatment optimization, targeting, and application efforts in racially diverse, low income populations, demographics often neglected in studies of chronic pain.
  • Patient engagement and presence in a virtual world world diabetes self-management education intervention for minority women

    Mitchell, Suzanne; Bragg, Alexa; Gardiner, Paula; De La Cruz, Barbara; Laird, Lance (2021-06-29)
    OBJECTIVE: We aim to explore how users' experience of presence in a virtual world (VW) learning environment enhanced patient engagement in DSME/S programs conducted in an online VW platform with minority women with type 2 diabetes. METHODS: We conducted an embedded, mixed methods study, using a convergent study design to analyze qualitative field notes and interview data and quantitative survey data gathered from the Women in Control 2.0 (WIC2) clinical trial participants. The WIC2 clinical trial compared a diabetes group visit program delivered using an online VW platform versus an in-person approach. RESULT: We enrolled 158 VW participants, of which 144 completed baseline data, 124 completed the post-intervention follow up survey, and 30 participated in key informant and focus group interviews. Overall, participants reported a sense of social (63.7%, mean 3.7/5.0), physical (63.1%, mean 3.6/5.0), and self (49.0%, mean 3.3/5.0) presence while engaged in VW group DSME/S. Three themes emerged from mixed methods analysis including, 1) Participants' identification with their avatars enhances a sense of self presence in a VW, 2) physical presence enables visualization and imaginative play modalities of social learning, and 3) social presence cultivates meaningful social support and psychological safety. CONCLUSION: Our research empirically supports the premise that participants' experience of three domains of presence (self, physical and social) in a VW environment enhances participant engagement in DSME/S programs. PRACTICE IMPLICATIONS: Further research is warranted to study optimal approaches to implementation and dissemination of this novel approach to patient education and engagement.
  • Project ECHO and primary care buprenorphine treatment for opioid use disorder: Implementation and clinical outcomes

    Anderson, James B.; Martin, Stephen A.; Gadomski, Anne; Krupa, Nicole; Mullin, Daniel J.; Cahill, Amber; Jenkins, Paul (2021-06-04)
    Background: Our rural health system sought to (1) increase the number of primary care clinicians waivered to prescribe buprenorphine for treatment of opioid use disorder (OUD) and (2) consequently increase the number of our patients receiving this treatment. Methods: We used the Project for Extension for Community Health Outcomes (ECHO) tele-education model as an implementation strategy. We examined the number of clinicians newly waivered, the number of patients treated with buprenorphine, the relationship between clinician engagement with ECHO training and rates of buprenorphine prescribing, and treatment retention at 180 days. Results: The number of clinicians with a waiver and number of patients treated increased during and after ECHO training. There was a moderate correlation between the number of ECHO sessions attended by a clinician and number of their buprenorphine prescriptions (r = 0.50, p = 0.01). The 180-day retention rate was 80.7%. Conclusions: Project ECHO was highly effective for increasing access to this evidence-based treatment. The high retention rate in this rural context indicates that most patients are increasing their likelihood of favorable outcomes.
  • Online training of behavioral health providers for primary care practice

    Mullin, Daniel J.; Savageau, Judith A.; Sullivan, Kate (2021-06-01)
    Introduction: Many behavioral health providers have not received training in primary care practice during their education. Since 2007, the online Certificate in Primary Care Behavioral Health course has been completed by thousands of behavioral health providers. An evaluation of the course assessed whether learner's baseline confidence in their abilities to address behavioral health concerns in primary care settings changed over time, whether learning outcomes for live offerings of the course differed from asynchronous offerings, and whether learning outcomes for psychologists and social workers differed. Method: Learners were asked to rate their confidence in their abilities using 10 retrospective pre-post questions. Responses from 14 cohorts of learners, between 2011 and 2019 were assessed. T-tests and analyses of variance were used to compare groups. Results: Learners' baseline confidence in their abilities changed in three of the areas assessed. Those completing the course asynchronously reported outcomes equal to or greater than those completing the course synchronously. In all but one domain, psychologists and social workers reported equal increases in their confidence. Discussion: Learners reported significant improvements in confidence in their ability to work as behavioral health providers in primary care. With one exception, these findings did not differ for psychologists and social workers. Over time, baseline confidence of behavioral health providers enrolling in the course increased in some areas, particularly those focused on patients with substance use disorders. Learning outcomes for the asynchronous version of the course support the continued delivery of asynchronous training of behavioral health providers working in primary care.
  • Stigma as a Barrier to Participant Recruitment of Minority Populations in Diabetes Research: Development of a Community-Centered Recruitment Approach

    Mitchell, Suzanne; Bragg, Alexa; Moldovan, Ioana; Woods, Shakiyla; Melo, Katherine; Martin-Howard, Jessica; Gardiner, Paula (2021-05-03)
    BACKGROUND: The development of evidence-based care geared towards Black and Latina women living with uncontrolled type 2 diabetes is contingent upon their active recruitment into clinical interventions. Well-documented impediments to recruitment include a historical mistrust of the research community and socioeconomic factors that limit awareness and access to research studies. Although sociocultural and socioeconomic factors deter minorities from participating in clinical research, it is equally important to consider the role of stigma in chronic disease intervention studies. OBJECTIVE: We aim to share our discovery of diabetes-related stigma as an underrecognized impediment to recruitment for the Women in Control 2.0 virtual diabetes self-management education study. METHODS: Our initial recruitment plan used traditional strategies to recruit minority women with uncontrolled type 2 diabetes, which included letters and phone calls to targeted patients, referrals from clinicians, and posted flyers. After engaging a patient advisory group and consulting with experts in community advocacy, diabetes-related stigma emerged as a prominent barrier to recruitment. The study team reviewed and revised recruitment scripts and outreach material in order to better align with the lived experience and needs of potential enrollees. RESULTS: Using a more nuanced, community-centered recruitment approach, we achieved our target recruitment goal, enrolling 309 participants into the study, exceeding our target of 212. CONCLUSIONS: There is a need for updated recruitment methods that can increase research participation of patients who experience internalized diabetes stigma. To address disparities in minority health, further research is needed to better understand diabetes-related stigma and devise strategies to avert or address it. Jessica Martin-Howard, Paula Gardiner. Originally published in JMIR Diabetes (https://diabetes.jmir.org), 03.05.2021.
  • Feasibility of Implementation Mapping for Integrative Medical Group Visits

    Roth, Isabel J.; Tiedt, Malik K.; Barnhill, Jessica L.; Karvelas, Kristopher R.; Faurot, Keturah R.; Gaylord, Susan; Gardiner, Paula; Miller, Vanessa E.; Leeman, Jennifer (2021-03-31)
    Objectives: Implementation science is key to translating complementary and integrative health intervention research into practice as it can increase accessibility and affordability while maximizing patient health outcomes. The authors describe using implementation mapping to (1) identify barriers and facilitators impacting the implementation of an Integrative Medical Group Visit (IMGV) intervention in an outpatient setting with a high burden of patients with chronic pain and (2) select and develop implementation strategies utilizing theory and stakeholder input to address those barriers and facilitators. Design: The authors selected a packaged, evidence-based, integrative pain management intervention, the IMGV, to implement in an outpatient clinic with a high burden of patients with chronic pain. The authors used implementation mapping to identify implementation strategies for IMGV, considering theory and stakeholder input. Stakeholder interviews with clinic staff, faculty, and administrators (n = 15) were guided by the Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research. Results: Based on interview data, the authors identified administrators, physicians, nursing staff, and scheduling staff as key stakeholders involved in implementation. Barriers and facilitators focused on knowledge, buy-in, and operational procedures needed to successfully implement IMGV. The implementation team identified three cognitive influences on behavior that would impact performance: knowledge, outcome expectations, and self-efficacy; and three theoretical change methods: cue to participate, communication, and mobilization. Implementation strategies identified included identifying and preparing champions, participation in ongoing training, developing and distributing educational materials, and organizing clinician implementation team meetings. Conclusions: This study provides an example of the application of implementation mapping to identify theory-driven implementation strategies for IMGV. Implementation mapping is a feasible method that may be useful in providing a guiding structure for implementation teams as they employ implementation frameworks and select implementation strategies for integrative health interventions.
  • Integrating Behavioral Health and Primary Care (IBH-PC) to improve patient-centered outcomes in adults with multiple chronic medical and behavioral health conditions: study protocol for a pragmatic cluster-randomized control trial

    Crocker, Abigail M.; Mullin, Daniel J. (2021-03-10)
    BACKGROUND: Chronic diseases that drive morbidity, mortality, and health care costs are largely influenced by human behavior. Behavioral health conditions such as anxiety, depression, and substance use disorders can often be effectively managed. The majority of patients in need of behavioral health care are seen in primary care, which often has difficulty responding. Some primary care practices are providing integrated behavioral health care (IBH), where primary care and behavioral health providers work together, in one location, using a team-based approach. Research suggests there may be an association between IBH and improved patient outcomes. However, it is often difficult for practices to achieve high levels of integration. The Integrating Behavioral Health and Primary Care study responds to this need by testing the effectiveness of a comprehensive practice-level intervention designed to improve outcomes in patients with multiple chronic medical and behavioral health conditions by increasing the practice's degree of behavioral health integration. METHODS: Forty-five primary care practices, with existing onsite behavioral health care, will be recruited for this study. Forty-three practices will be randomized to the intervention or usual care arm, while 2 practices will be considered "Vanguard" (pilot) practices for developing the intervention. The intervention is a 24-month supported practice change process including an online curriculum, a practice redesign and implementation workbook, remote quality improvement coaching services, and an online learning community. Each practice's degree of behavioral health integration will be measured using the Practice Integration Profile. Approximately 75 patients with both chronic medical and behavioral health conditions from each practice will be asked to complete a series of surveys to measure patient-centered outcomes. Change in practice degree of behavioral health integration and patient-centered outcomes will be compared between the two groups. Practice-level case studies will be conducted to better understand the contextual factors influencing integration. DISCUSSION: As primary care practices are encouraged to provide IBH services, evidence-based interventions to increase practice integration will be needed. This study will demonstrate the effectiveness of one such intervention in a pragmatic, real-world setting. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02868983 . Registered on August 16, 2016.
  • Dietary Habits and Medications to Control Hypertension among Women of Child-bearing Age in the United States from 2001-2016

    Kovell, Lara C.; Maxner, Benjamin; Ayturk, M. Didem; Moore Simas, Tiffany A.; Harrington, Colleen M.; McManus, David D.; Gardiner, Paula; Aurigemma, Gerard P.; Juraschek, Stephen P. (2021-03-08)
    BACKGROUND: Hypertension in pregnancy is a leading cause of maternal morbidity and mortality in the United States. Although the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) diet is recommended for all adults with hypertension, rates of DASH adherence and anti-hypertensive medications use in women of child-bearing age is unknown. OBJECTIVES: To determine DASH adherence and anti-hypertensive medication use in women of child-bearing age. METHODS: In the National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys from 2001-2016, we estimated DASH adherence among women of child-bearing age (20-50 years). We derived a DASH score (0-9) based on 9 nutrients, with DASH adherence defined as DASH score > /=4.5. Hypertension was defined by blood pressure (BP) > /=130/80 mm Hg or anti-hypertensive medication use. DASH scores were compared across BP categories and anti-hypertensive medication use was categorized. RESULTS: Of the 7782 women, the mean age (SE) was 32.8 (0.2) years, 21.4% were non-Hispanic Black, and 20.3% had hypertension. The mean DASH score was 2.11 (0.06) for women with self-reported hypertension and 2.40 (0.03) for women with normal BP (P < 0.001). DASH adherence was prevalent in 6.5% of women with self-reported hypertension compared to 10.1% of women with normal BP (P < 0.05). Self-reported hypertension is predominantly managed with medications (84.8%), while DASH-adherence has not improved in these women from 2001-2016. Moreover, 39.5% of US women of child-bearing age are taking medications contraindicated in pregnancy. CONCLUSIONS: Given the benefits of optimized BP during pregnancy, this study highlights the critical need to improve DASH adherence and guide prescribing among women of child-bearing age.

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