The mission of the Department of Emergency Medicine is to be the preeminent Department of Emergency Medicine in the country by delivering excellent healthcare, with respect and dignity to all patients needing emergent or urgent care services; conducting ground-breaking research that enhances public health; and developing innovative educational programs for all levels of health care providers. This collection showcases journal articles and other publications written by faculty and researchers of the Department of Emergency Medicine.


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Recently Published

  • Racial Disparities and Trends in Anticoagulant Use among Ambulatory Care Patients with Atrial Fibrillation and Atrial Flutter in the United States from 2007-2019 [preprint]

    Kan, Vincent; Lapane, Kate L; McManus, David D; Baek, Jonggyu; Darling, Chad E; Alcusky, Matthew J (2024-06-15)
    Introduction Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common sustained cardiac arrhythmia, significantly increasing the risk of stroke. The introduction of direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs) since 2010 has transformed anticoagulation therapy, offering an alternative to warfarin with improved safety profiles. Despite the increased adoption of DOACs, disparities in their use among different racial and ethnic groups in the United States remain understudied. Methods This study utilized a repeated cross-sectional design, analyzing data from the National Ambulatory Medical Care Survey (NAMCS) from 2007 to 2019. The study population included adults diagnosed with AF or atrial flutter (AFL). We analyzed the temporal trends of DOAC and warfarin use from 2007 to 2019. We examined the prevalence of DOAC versus warfarin use and assessed associations between race/ethnicity, patient characteristics, and DOAC utilization from 2011 to 2019. Multivariable modified Poisson regression models were used to calculate adjusted prevalence ratios (aPR) for the associations. Results From 2011 to 2019, NAMCS recorded 3,224 visits involving AF or AFL, representing a weighted estimate of 103.6 million visits. DOAC use increased significantly, with apixaban becoming the predominant anticoagulant by 2016. Non-Hispanic Black patients were less likely to use DOACs compared to non-Hispanic White patients over time (aPR 0.75; 95% CI, 0.63-0.90). Patients with Medicaid insurance were also less likely to use DOACs (aPR 0.14; 95% CI: 0.04-0.46). Conclusion Despite the shift from warfarin to DOACs for AF and AFL treatment, significant racial and socioeconomic disparities persist. Non-Hispanic Black patients and those with Medicaid insurance are less likely to use DOACs. These findings highlight the need for targeted strategies to ensure equitable access to advanced anticoagulant therapies.
  • Factors Impacting the Implementation of Mobile Integrated Health Programs for the Acute Care of Older Adults

    O'Connor, Laurel; Behar, Stephanie; Refuerzo, Jade; Mele, Xhenifer; Sundling, Elsa; Johnson, Sharon A; Faro, Jamie M; Lindenauer, Peter K; Mattocks, Kristin M (2024-03-28)
    Objective: Emergency services utilization is increasing in older adult populations. Many such encounters may be preventable with better access to acute care in the community. Mobile integrated health (MIH) programs leverage mobile resources to deliver care and services to patients in the out-of-hospital environment and have the potential to improve clinical outcomes and decrease health care costs; however, they have not been widely implemented. We assessed barriers, potential facilitators, and other factors critical to the implementation of MIH programs with key vested partners. Methods: Professional and community-member partners were purposefully recruited to participate in recorded structured interviews. The study team used the Practical Robust Implementation and Sustainability Model (PRISM) framework to develop an interview guide and codebook. Coders employed a combination of deductive and inductive coding strategies to identify common themes across partner groups. Results: The study team interviewed 22 participants (mean age 56, 68% female). A cohort of professional subject matter experts included physicians, paramedics, public health personnel, and hospital administrators. A cohort of lay community partners included patients and caregivers. Coders identified three prominent themes that impact MIH implementation. First, MIH is disruptive to existing clinical workflows. Second, using MIH to improve patients' experience during acute care encounters is key to intervention adoption. Finally, legislative action is needed to augment central financial and regulatory policies to ensure the adoption of MIH programs. Conclusions: Common themes impacting the implementation of MIH programs were identified across vested partner groups. Multilevel strategies are needed to address patient adoption, clinical partners' workflow, and legislative policies to ensure the success of MIH programs.
  • A machine learning approach for diagnostic and prognostic predictions, key risk factors and interactions

    Nasir, Murtaza; Summerfield, Nichalin S.; Carreiro, Stephanie; Berlowitz, Dan; Oztekin, Asil (2024-03-18)
    Machine learning (ML) has the potential to revolutionize healthcare, allowing healthcare providers to improve patient-care planning, resource planning and utilization. Furthermore, identifying key-risk-factors and interaction-effects can help service-providers and decision-makers to institute better policies and procedures. This study used COVID-19 electronic health record (EHR) data to predict five crucial outcomes: positive-test, ventilation, death, hospitalization days, and ICU days. Our models achieved high accuracy and precision, with AUC values of 91.6%, 99.1%, and 97.5% for the first three outcomes, and MAE of 0.752 and 0.257 days for the last two outcomes. We also identified interaction effects, such as high bicarbonate in arterial blood being associated with longer hospitalization in middle-aged patients. Our models are embedded in a prototype of an online decision support tool that can be used by healthcare providers to make more informed decisions.
  • Post-traumatic stress and future substance use outcomes: leveraging antecedent factors to stratify risk

    Garrison-Desany, Henri M; Meyers, Jacquelyn L; Linnstaedt, Sarah D; House, Stacey L; Beaudoin, Francesca L; An, Xinming; Zeng, Donglin; Neylan, Thomas C; Clifford, Gari D; Jovanovic, Tanja; et al. (2024-03-08)
    Background: Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and substance use (tobacco, alcohol, and cannabis) are highly comorbid. Many factors affect this relationship, including sociodemographic and psychosocial characteristics, other prior traumas, and physical health. However, few prior studies have investigated this prospectively, examining new substance use and the extent to which a wide range of factors may modify the relationship to PTSD. Methods: The Advancing Understanding of RecOvery afteR traumA (AURORA) study is a prospective cohort of adults presenting at emergency departments (N = 2,943). Participants self-reported PTSD symptoms and the frequency and quantity of tobacco, alcohol, and cannabis use at six total timepoints. We assessed the associations of PTSD and future substance use, lagged by one timepoint, using the Poisson generalized estimating equations. We also stratified by incident and prevalent substance use and generated causal forests to identify the most important effect modifiers of this relationship out of 128 potential variables. Results: At baseline, 37.3% (N = 1,099) of participants reported likely PTSD. PTSD was associated with tobacco frequency (incidence rate ratio (IRR): 1.003, 95% CI: 1.00, 1.01, p = 0.02) and quantity (IRR: 1.01, 95% CI: 1.001, 1.01, p = 0.01), and alcohol frequency (IRR: 1.002, 95% CI: 1.00, 1.004, p = 0.03) and quantity (IRR: 1.003, 95% CI: 1.001, 1.01, p = 0.001), but not with cannabis use. There were slight differences in incident compared to prevalent tobacco frequency and quantity of use; prevalent tobacco frequency and quantity were associated with PTSD symptoms, while incident tobacco frequency and quantity were not. Using causal forests, lifetime worst use of cigarettes, overall self-rated physical health, and prior childhood trauma were major moderators of the relationship between PTSD symptoms and the three substances investigated. Conclusion: PTSD symptoms were highly associated with tobacco and alcohol use, while the association with prospective cannabis use is not clear. Findings suggest that understanding the different risk stratification that occurs can aid in tailoring interventions to populations at greatest risk to best mitigate the comorbidity between PTSD symptoms and future substance use outcomes. We demonstrate that this is particularly salient for tobacco use and, to some extent, alcohol use, while cannabis is less likely to be impacted by PTSD symptoms across the strata.
  • Brain dynamics reflecting an intra-network brain state is associated with increased posttraumatic stress symptoms in the early aftermath of trauma [preprint]

    Sendi, Mohammad; Fu, Zening; Harnett, Nathaniel; van Rooij, Sanne; Vergara, Victor; Pizzagalli, Diego; Daskalakis, Nikolaos; House, Stacey; Beaudoin, Francesca; An, Xinming; et al. (2024-03-08)
    This study examines the association between brain dynamic functional network connectivity (dFNC) and current/future posttraumatic stress (PTS) symptom severity, and the impact of sex on this relationship. By analyzing 275 participants' dFNC data obtained ~2 weeks after trauma exposure, we noted that brain dynamics of an inter-network brain state link negatively with current (r=-0.179, pcorrected= 0.021) and future (r=-0.166, pcorrected= 0.029) PTS symptom severity. Also, dynamics of an intra-network brain state correlated with future symptom intensity (r = 0.192, pcorrected = 0.021). We additionally observed that the association between the network dynamics of the inter-network brain state with symptom severity is more pronounced in females (r=-0.244, pcorrected = 0.014). Our findings highlight a potential link between brain network dynamics in the aftermath of trauma with current and future PTSD outcomes, with a stronger protective effect of inter-network brain states against symptom severity in females, underscoring the importance of sex differences.
  • Smartphone and Wearable Device-Based Digital Phenotyping to Understand Substance use and its Syndemics

    Lee, Jasper S; Browning, Emma; Hokayem, Joanne; Albrechta, Hannah; Goodman, Georgia R; Venkatasubramanian, Krishna; Dumas, Arlen; Carreiro, Stephanie; O'Cleirigh, Conall; Chai, Peter R (2024-03-04)
    Digital phenotyping is a process that allows researchers to leverage smartphone and wearable data to explore how technology use relates to behavioral health outcomes. In this Research Concepts article, we provide background on prior research that has employed digital phenotyping; the fundamentals of how digital phenotyping works, using examples from participant data; the application of digital phenotyping in the context of substance use and its syndemics; and the ethical, legal and social implications of digital phenotyping. We discuss applications for digital phenotyping in medical toxicology, as well as potential uses for digital phenotyping in future research. We also highlight the importance of obtaining ground truth annotation in order to identify and establish digital phenotypes of key behaviors of interest. Finally, there are many potential roles for medical toxicologists to leverage digital phenotyping both in research and in the future as a clinical tool to better understand the contextual features associated with drug poisoning and overdose. This article demonstrates how medical toxicologists and researchers can progress through phases of a research trajectory using digital phenotyping to better understand behavior and its association with smartphone usage.
  • Evaluating the Prevalence of Four Recommended Practices for Suicide Prevention Following Hospital Discharge

    Chitavi, Salome O; Patrianakos, Jamie; Williams, Scott C; Schmaltz, Stephen P; Ahmedani, Brian K; Roaten, Kimberly; Boudreaux, Edwin D; Brown, Gregory K (2024-02-23)
    Background: The Joint Commission's National Patient Safety Goal (NPSG) for suicide prevention (NPSG.15.01.01) requires that accredited hospitals maintain policies/procedures for follow-up care at discharge for patients identified as at risk for suicide. The proportion of hospitals meeting these requirements through use of recommended discharge practices is unknown. Methods: This cross-sectional observational study explored the prevalence of suicide prevention activities among Joint Commission-accredited hospitals. A questionnaire was sent to 1,148 accredited hospitals. The authors calculated the percentage of hospitals reporting implementation of four recommended discharge practices for suicide prevention. Results: Of 1,148 hospitals, 346 (30.1%) responded. The majority (n = 212 [61.3%]) of hospitals had implemented formal safety planning, but few of those (n = 41 [19.3%]) included all key components of safety planning. Approximately a third of hospitals provided a warm handoff to outpatient care (n = 128 [37.0%)] or made follow-up contact with patients (n = 105 [30.3%]), and approximately a quarter (n = 97 [28.0%]) developed a plan for lethal means safety. Very few (n = 14 [4.0%]) hospitals met full criteria for implementing recommended suicide prevention activities at time of discharge. Conclusion: The study revealed a significant gap in implementation of recommended practices related to prevention of suicide postdischarge. Additional research is needed to identify factors contributing to this implementation gap.
  • Acceptance of digital phenotyping linked to a digital pill system to measure PrEP adherence among men who have sex with men with substance use

    Albrechta, Hannah; Goodman, Georgia R; Oginni, Elizabeth; Mohamed, Yassir; Venkatasubramanian, Krishna; Dumas, Arlen; Carreiro, Stephanie; Lee, Jasper S; Glynn, Tiffany R; O'Cleirigh, Conall; et al. (2024-02-22)
    Once-daily oral HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) is an effective strategy to prevent HIV, but is highly dependent on adherence. Men who have sex with men (MSM) who use substances face unique challenges maintaining PrEP adherence. Digital pill systems (DPS) allow for real-time adherence measurement through ingestible sensors. Integration of DPS technology with other digital health tools, such as digital phenotyping, may improve understanding of nonadherence triggers and development of personalized adherence interventions based on ingestion behavior. This study explored the willingness of MSM with substance use to share digital phenotypic data and interact with ancillary systems in the context of DPS-measured PrEP adherence. Adult MSM on PrEP with substance use were recruited through a social networking app. Participants were introduced to DPS technology and completed an assessment to measure willingness to participate in DPS-based PrEP adherence research, contribute digital phenotyping data, and interact with ancillary systems in the context of DPS-based research. Medical mistrust, daily worry about PrEP adherence, and substance use were also assessed. Participants who identified as cisgender male and were willing to participate in DPS-based research (N = 131) were included in this subsample analysis. Most were White (76.3%) and non-Hispanic (77.9%). Participants who reported daily PrEP adherence worry had 3.7 times greater odds (95% CI: 1.03, 13.4) of willingness to share biometric data via a wearable device paired to the DPS. Participants with daily PrEP adherence worry were more likely to be willing to share smartphone data (p = 0.006) and receive text messages surrounding their daily activities (p = 0.003), compared to those with less worry. MSM with substance use disorder, who worried about PrEP adherence, were willing to use DPS technology and share data required for digital phenotyping in the context of PrEP adherence measurement. Efforts to address medical mistrust can increase advantages of this technology for HIV prevention.
  • Contactless Monitoring System Versus Gold Standard for Respiratory Rate Monitoring in Emergency Department Patients: Pilot Comparison Study

    Goldfine, Charlotte E; Oshim, Md Farhan Tasnim; Chapman, Brittany P; Ganesan, Deepak; Rahman, Tauhidur; Carreiro, Stephanie (2024-02-16)
    Background: Respiratory rate is a crucial indicator of disease severity yet is the most neglected vital sign. Subtle changes in respiratory rate may be the first sign of clinical deterioration in a variety of disease states. Current methods of respiratory rate monitoring are labor-intensive and sensitive to motion artifacts, which often leads to inaccurate readings or underreporting; therefore, new methods of respiratory monitoring are needed. The PulsON 440 (P440; TSDR Ultra Wideband Radios and Radars) radar module is a contactless sensor that uses an ultrawideband impulse radar to detect respiratory rate. It has previously demonstrated accuracy in a laboratory setting and may be a useful alternative for contactless respiratory monitoring in clinical settings; however, it has not yet been validated in a clinical setting. Objective: The goal of this study was to (1) compare the P440 radar module to gold standard manual respiratory rate monitoring and standard of care telemetry respiratory monitoring through transthoracic impedance plethysmography and (2) compare the P440 radar to gold standard measurements of respiratory rate in subgroups based on sex and disease state. Methods: This was a pilot study of adults aged 18 years or older being monitored in the emergency department. Participants were monitored with the P440 radar module for 2 hours and had gold standard (manual respiratory counting) and standard of care (telemetry) respiratory rates recorded at 15-minute intervals during that time. Respiratory rates between the P440, gold standard, and standard telemetry were compared using Bland-Altman plots and intraclass correlation coefficients. Results: A total of 14 participants were enrolled in the study. The P440 and gold standard Bland-Altman analysis showed a bias of -0.76 (-11.16 to 9.65) and an intraclass correlation coefficient of 0.38 (95% CI 0.06-0.60). The P440 and gold standard had the best agreement at normal physiologic respiratory rates. There was no change in agreement between the P440 and the gold standard when grouped by admitting diagnosis or sex. Conclusions: Although the P440 did not have statistically significant agreement with gold standard respiratory rate monitoring, it did show a trend of increased agreement in the normal physiologic range, overestimating at low respiratory rates, and underestimating at high respiratory rates. This trend is important for adjusting future models to be able to accurately detect respiratory rates. Once validated, the contactless respiratory monitor provides a unique solution for monitoring patients in a variety of settings.
  • Opioid Overdose Recognition: A Survey of Perceived Preparedness and Desire for Curricular Integration Among Current US Medical Students

    Walsh, Lindsay; Chapman, Brittany P; Carey, Jennifer; Loycano, Kayla; Carreiro, Stephanie (2024-01-10)
    Objectives: Opioid overdose deaths remain a major health issue in the United States (US). As future physicians, medical students must receive comprehensive training to recognize and manage opioid overdoses. This study aimed to highlight training gaps at the medical student level and understand students' attitudes toward patients with opioid use disorder (OUD). Methods: We assessed baseline knowledge of and attitudes toward the management of opioid overdoses and naloxone administration among medical students in the US. Two validated survey tools (Opioid Overdose Knowledge Scale and Opioid Overdose Attitude Scale) were administered to medical students training at accredited institutions along with supplemental questions measuring knowledge and attitudes towards opioid overdose management, naloxone administration, and prior training. Results: The final sample had N = 73 participants from US medical schools with a mean age of 25.3 (range of 22-37): 72.6% of respondents were female. Although most respondents reported personal/professional experience with OUD before medical school, they expressed interest in additional training. Knowledge surrounding opioid overdoses increased insignificantly over the 4 years of medical school. However, there was a significant increase in both perceived competence in overdose recognition/management and in concerns about intervening from the first to fourth year of medical school. Female respondents had significantly lower perceived competence and readiness to intervene sub-scores than male counterparts; however, there was no significant difference in overall attitude and knowledge scores when stratified by sex. Incorporating opioid overdose prevention training (OOPT) into early medical education was favorable among respondents, who expressed an overwhelming interest in learning and supporting patients with OUD. Conclusions: Given the ongoing opioid crisis, medical students are ideally placed to identify and manage opioid overdoses. Medical students are ready to receive this training, thus strengthening the argument for OOPT integration into early medical student curricula.
  • Unintentional Ketamine Overdose Via Telehealth

    Johnson, Brett E; Borges, Eric S; Gaspari, Romolo J; Galletta, Gayle M; Lai, Jeffrey T (2024-01-01)
    The use of ketamine in psychiatry has expanded to at-home ketamine-assisted therapy (KAT) via telemedicine. We report a case of massive unintentional ketamine overdose during at-home KAT resulting in hypoxemic respiratory failure, successfully treated with atropine.
  • Clinician Attitudes Toward Suicide Prevention Practices and Their Implementation: Findings From the System of Safety Study

    Larkin, Celine; Kiefe, Catarina I; Morena, Alexandra L; Rahmoun, Mhd B; Lazar, Peter; Sefair, Ana Vallejo; Boudreaux, Edwin D (2023-12-21)
    Objective: The authors aimed to assess clinicians' attitudes toward suicide-related practices and their implementation, across roles and settings, before implementation of the Zero Suicide model in a health care system. Methods: Clinicians (N=5,559) were invited to complete a survey assessing demographic characteristics; confidence and self-reported suicide-related practice; leadership buy-in; and attitudes toward suicide prevention, safety planning, and continuous quality improvement (CQI). Results: Of 1,224 respondents, most felt confident conducting suicide screening but less confident performing other suicide-related care. Provider role and care setting were significantly associated with confidence (p<0.001, Kruskal-Wallis H test) and practice (p<0.001, Kruskal-Wallis H test) of providing suicide prevention care, with behavioral health providers and providers in the emergency department (ED) reporting the highest confidence. Attitudes toward safety planning were more positive among women (p<0.001, t test) and behavioral health providers (p<0.001, F test) than among their counterparts or peers. Positive attitudes toward CQI were significantly associated with male sex (p=0.01), non-White race (p=0.03), younger age (p=0.02), fewer years working in health care (p<0.001), administrative role (p<0.001), working in the ED (p<0.001), outpatient settings (p<0.02), and medical provider role (p<0.001). Conclusions: Behavioral health providers and those in the ED reported feeling prepared to deliver suicide-related care, with nurses feeling less confident and less supported. Initiatives to improve suicide-related care should account for clinical role and care setting during planning. CQI could help engage a broader range of clinicians in suicide-related care improvements.
  • Longitudinal risk of suicide outcomes in people with severe mental illness following an emergency department visit and the effects of suicide prevention treatment

    Rabasco, Ana; Arias, Sarah; Benz, Madeline B; Weinstock, Lauren M; Miller, Ivan; Boudreaux, Edwin D; Camargo, Carlos A; Kunicki, Zachary J; Gaudiano, Brandon A (2023-12-06)
    Background: Individuals with severe mental illness (SMI), including bipolar disorder (BD) and schizophrenia-spectrum disorders (SSD), are at high risk for suicide. However, suicide research often excludes individuals with SMI. The current research examined differences in suicide outcomes (i.e., suicide attempt or death) for adults with and without BD and SSD diagnoses following an emergency department (ED) visit and investigated the efficacy of the Coping Long Term with Active Suicide Program (CLASP) intervention in reducing suicide outcomes among people with SMI. Methods: 1235 adults presenting with recent suicidality were recruited from 8 different EDs across the United States. Using a quasi-experimental, stepped wedge series design, participants were followed for 52-weeks with or without subsequent provision of CLASP. Results: Participants in the SSD group and the BD group had significantly shorter time to and higher rate of suicide outcomes than participants with other psychiatric diagnoses in all study phases and in non-CLASP phases, respectively. Participants with BD receiving the CLASP intervention had significantly longer time to suicide outcomes than those not receiving CLASP; these differences were not observed among those with SSD. Limitations: Study limitations include self-reported psychiatric diagnosis, exclusion of homeless participants, and small sample size of participants with SSD. Conclusions: Participants with SMI were at higher risk for suicide outcomes than participants with other psychiatric diagnoses. CLASP was efficacious among those participants with BD. Psychiatric diagnosis may be a key indicator of prospective suicide risk. More intensive and specialized follow-up mental health treatment may be necessary for those with SSD.
  • Well-Being Parameters and Intention to Leave Current Institution Among Academic Physicians

    Ligibel, Jennifer A; Goularte, Nicolette; Berliner, Jennifer I; Bird, Steven B; Brazeau, Chantal M L R; Rowe, Susannah G; Stewart, Miriam T; Trockel, Mickey T (2023-12-01)
    Importance: Physician turnover interrupts care delivery and creates health care system financial burden. Objective: To describe the prevalence of burnout, professional fulfillment, and intention to leave (ITL) among physicians at academic-affiliated health care systems and identify institutional and individual factors associated with ITL. Design, setting, and participants: This cross-sectional study administered a survey to 37 511 attending-level medical specialists at 15 academic medical institutions participating in the Healthcare Professional Well-Being Academic Consortium. Data were collected from October 2019 to July 2021. Statistical analysis was performed from May 2022 to March 2023. Exposures: Hypothesized institutional and individual determinants of occupational well-being. Main outcomes and measures: The main outcome was ITL, defined as having at least a moderate intention (a score of 2 on a 0-4 scale) to leave one's institution within the next 2 years. Additional outcomes included burnout and professional fulfillment, defined using published Professional Fulfillment Index cut points. Results: Of 18 719 academic physician survey respondents (8381 [44.8%] male; 2388 [12.8%] Asian, 10 599 [56.6%] White, 1039 [5.6%] other race, 4693 [25.1%] unknown race; 294 [1.6%] Hispanic or Latina/Latino/Latinx), 6903 of 18 217 (37.9%) met criteria for burnout and 7301 of 18 571 (39.3%) for professional fulfillment; 5177 of 15 890 (32.6%) reported moderate or greater ITL. Burnout, professional fulfillment, and ITL varied across specialties. After adjusting for demographics, each 1-point increase (range 0-10) in burnout was directly associated with ITL (odds ratio [OR], 1.52 [95% CI, 1.49-1.55])c, and each 1-point increase in professional fulfillment was inversely associated with ITL (OR, 0.64 [95% CI, 0.63-0.65]). After adjusting for demographics, burnout, and professional fulfillment, each 1-point increase (range 0-10) in supportive leadership behaviors (OR, 0.83 [95% CI, 0.82-0.84]), peer support (OR, 0.93 [95% CI, 0.91-0.95]), personal-organizational values alignment (OR, 0.81 [95% CI, 0.80-0.82]), perceived gratitude (OR, 0.95 [95% CI, 0.92-0.97]), COVID-19 organizational support (OR, 0.88 [95% CI, 0.85-0.91]), and electronic health record helpfulness (OR, 0.95 [95% CI, 0.93-0.97]) were inversely associated with ITL, whereas each 1-point increase (range 0-10) in depression (OR, 1.08 [95% CI, 1.05-1.10]) and negative impact of work on personal relationships (OR, 1.09 [1.07-1.11]) were directly associated with ITL. Conclusions and relevance: In this cross-sectional study of academic physicians, 32.6% indicated moderate or higher ITL within 2 years. Burnout, lack of professional fulfillment, and other well-being factors were associated with ITL, suggesting the need for a comprehensive approach to reduce physician turnover.
  • Association between microbiome and the development of adverse posttraumatic neuropsychiatric sequelae after traumatic stress exposure

    Zeamer, Abigail L; Salive, Marie-Claire; An, Xinming; Beaudoin, Francesca L; House, Stacey L; Stevens, Jennifer S; Zeng, Donglin; Neylan, Thomas C; Clifford, Gari D; Linnstaedt, Sarah D; et al. (2023-11-18)
    Patients exposed to trauma often experience high rates of adverse post-traumatic neuropsychiatric sequelae (APNS). The biological mechanisms promoting APNS are currently unknown, but the microbiota-gut-brain axis offers an avenue to understanding mechanisms as well as possibilities for intervention. Microbiome composition after trauma exposure has been poorly examined regarding neuropsychiatric outcomes. We aimed to determine whether the gut microbiomes of trauma-exposed emergency department patients who develop APNS have dysfunctional gut microbiome profiles and discover potential associated mechanisms. We performed metagenomic analysis on stool samples (n = 51) from a subset of adults enrolled in the Advancing Understanding of RecOvery afteR traumA (AURORA) study. Two-, eight- and twelve-week post-trauma outcomes for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) (PTSD checklist for DSM-5), normalized depression scores (PROMIS Depression Short Form 8b) and somatic symptom counts were collected. Generalized linear models were created for each outcome using microbial abundances and relevant demographics. Mixed-effect random forest machine learning models were used to identify associations between APNS outcomes and microbial features and encoded metabolic pathways from stool metagenomics. Microbial species, including Flavonifractor plautii, Ruminococcus gnavus and, Bifidobacterium species, which are prevalent commensal gut microbes, were found to be important in predicting worse APNS outcomes from microbial abundance data. Notably, through APNS outcome modeling using microbial metabolic pathways, worse APNS outcomes were highly predicted by decreased L-arginine related pathway genes and increased citrulline and ornithine pathways. Common commensal microbial species are enriched in individuals who develop APNS. More notably, we identified a biological mechanism through which the gut microbiome reduces global arginine bioavailability, a metabolic change that has also been demonstrated in the plasma of patients with PTSD.
  • Differential Viral Dynamics by Sex and Body Mass Index During Acute SARS-CoV-2 Infection: Results from a Longitudinal Cohort Study

    Herbert, Carly; Manabe, Yukari C; Filippaios, Andreas; Lin, Honghuang; Wang, Biqi; Achenbach, Chad; Kheterpal, Vik; Hartin, Paul; Suvarna, Thejas; Harman, Emma; et al. (2023-11-16)
    Background: There is evidence of an association of severe COVID-19 outcomes with increased body mass index (BMI) and male sex. However, few studies have examined the interaction between sex and BMI on SARS-CoV-2 viral dynamics. Methods: Participants conducted RT-PCR testing every 24-48 hours over a 15-day period. Sex and BMI were self-reported, and Ct values from E-gene were used to quantify viral load. Three distinct outcomes were examined using mixed effects generalized linear models, linear models, and logistic models, respectively: all Ct values (Model 1); nadir Ct value (model 2); and strongly detectable infection (at least one Ct value ≤28 during their infection) (Model 3). An interaction term between BMI and sex was included, and inverse logit transformations were applied to quantify the differences by BMI and sex using marginal predictions. Results: In total, 7,988 participants enrolled in this study, and 439 participants (Model 1) and 309 (Model 2 and 3) were eligible for these analyses. Among males, increasing BMI was associated with lower Ct values in a dose-response fashion. For participants with BMIs greater than 29, males had significantly lower Ct values and nadir Ct values than females. In total, 67.8% of males and 55.3% of females recorded a strongly detectable infection; increasing proportions of men had Ct values <28 with BMIs of 35 and 40. Conclusions: We observed sex-based dimorphism in relation to BMI and COVID-19 viral load. Further investigation is needed to determine the cause, clinical impact, and transmission implications of this sex-differential effect of BMI on viral load.
  • Effectiveness of a bivalent mRNA vaccine dose against symptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infection among U.S. Healthcare personnel, September 2022-May 2023

    Plumb, Ian D; Briggs Hagen, Melissa; Wiegand, Ryan; Dumyati, Ghinwa; Myers, Christopher; Harland, Karisa K; Krishnadasan, Anusha; James Gist, Jade; Abedi, Glen; Fleming-Dutra, Katherine E; et al. (2023-11-14)
    Background: Bivalent mRNA vaccines were recommended since September 2022. However, coverage with a recent vaccine dose has been limited, and there are few robust estimates of bivalent VE against symptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infection (COVID-19). We estimated VE of a bivalent mRNA vaccine dose against COVID-19 among eligible U.S. healthcare personnel who had previously received monovalent mRNA vaccine doses. Methods: We conducted a case-control study in 22 U.S. states, and enrolled healthcare personnel with COVID-19 (case-participants) or without COVID-19 (control-participants) during September 2022-May 2023. Participants were considered eligible for a bivalent mRNA dose if they had received 2-4 monovalent (ancestral-strain) mRNA vaccine doses, and were ≥67 days after the most recent vaccine dose. We estimated VE of a bivalent mRNA dose using conditional logistic regression, accounting for matching by region and four-week calendar period. We adjusted estimates for age group, sex, race and ethnicity, educational level, underlying health conditions, community COVID-19 exposure, prior SARS-CoV-2 infection, and days since the last monovalent mRNA dose. Results: Among 3,647 healthcare personnel, 1,528 were included as case-participants and 2,119 as control-participants. Participants received their last monovalent mRNA dose a median of 404 days previously; 1,234 (33.8%) also received a bivalent mRNA dose a median of 93 days previously. Overall, VE of a bivalent dose was 34.1% (95% CI, 22.6%-43.9%) against COVID-19 and was similar by product, days since last monovalent dose, number of prior doses, age group, and presence of underlying health conditions. However, VE declined from 54.8% (95% CI, 40.7%-65.6%) after 7-59 days to 21.6% (95% CI 5.6%-34.9%) after ≥60 days. Conclusions: Bivalent mRNA COVID-19 vaccines initially conferred approximately 55% protection against COVID-19 among U.S. healthcare personnel. However, protection waned after two months. These findings indicate moderate initial protection against symptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infection by remaining up-to-date with COVID-19 vaccines.
  • Comparing the Acceptability and Quality of Intervention Modalities for Suicidality in the Emergency Department: Randomized Feasibility Trial

    Larkin, Celine; Tulu, Bengisu; Djamasbi, Soussan; Garner, Roscoe; Varzgani, Fatima; Siddique, Mariam; Pietro, John; Boudreaux, Edwin D (2023-10-24)
    Background: Emergency departments (EDs) manage many patients with suicide risk, but effective interventions for suicidality are challenging to implement in this setting. ReachCare is a technology-facilitated version of an evidence-based intervention for suicidal ED patients. Here, we present findings on the acceptability and quality of ReachCare in the ED, as well as a comparison of these measures across 3 potential delivery modalities. Objective: Our aim was to test the feasibility of the ReachCare intervention in its entirety through conducting a pilot study with patients presenting with suicidality to the ED. We tested three different ways of receiving the ED-based components of ReachCare: (1) self-administered on the tablet app using a chatbot interface, (2) administered by an in-person clinician, or (3) administered by a telehealth clinician. Methods: In total, 47 ED patients who screened positive for suicide risk were randomly allocated to receive one of three delivery modalities of ReachCare in the ED: (1) self-administered on the patient-facing tablet app with a chatbot interface, (2) delivered by an in-person clinician, or (3) delivered by a telehealth clinician, with the latter two using a clinician-facing web app. We measured demographic and clinical characteristics, acceptability and appropriateness of the intervention, and quality and completeness of the resulting safety plans. Results: Patients assigned high ratings for the acceptability (median 4.00/5, IQR 4.00-4.50) and appropriateness (median 4.00/5, IQR 4.00-4.25) of ReachCare's ED components, and there were no substantial differences across the 3 delivery modalities [H(acceptability)=3.90, P=.14; H(appropriateness)=1.05, P=.59]. The self-administered modality took significantly less time than the 2 clinician modalities (H=27.91, P<.001), and the usability of the self-administered version was in the "very high" range (median 93.75/100, IQR 80.00-97.50). The safety plans created across all 3 modalities were high-quality (H=0.60, P=.74). Conclusions: Patients rated ReachCare in the ED as highly acceptable and appropriate regardless of modality. Self-administration may be a feasible way to ensure patients with suicide risk receive an intervention in resource constrained EDs. Limitations include small sample size and demographic differences between those enrolled versus not enrolled. Further research will examine the clinical outcomes of patients receiving both the in-ED and post-ED components of ReachCare. Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT04720911; https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT04720911.
  • The mobile vaccine equity enhancement program–a model program for enhancing equity in vaccine availability based at a large health care system

    Broach, John; Brown, Olga; McEachern, Caitlin; Forget, Janell; Lancette, Peter; Soucie, Norman; Inzerillo, Julie; Klugman, Robert; Tosi, Stephen; Haddad, Abraham; et al. (2023-10-17)
    The SARS CoV-2 (COVID-19) pandemic presented unprecedented challenges as communities attempted to respond to the administration of a novel vaccine that faced cold chain logistical requirements and vaccine hesitancy among many, as well as complicated phased rollout plans that changed frequently as availability of the vaccine waxed and waned. The COVID-19 pandemic also disproportionately affected communities of color and communities with barriers to accessing healthcare. In the setting of these difficulties, a program was created specifically to address inequity in vaccine administration with a focus on communities of color and linguistic diversity as well as those who had technological barriers to online sign-up processes common at mass vaccination sites. This effort, the Mobile Vaccine Equity Enhancement Program (MVeeP), delivered over 12,000 vaccines in 24 months through a reproducible set of practices that can inform equity-driven vaccine efforts in future pandemics.
  • Multicomponent Pharmacist Intervention Did Not Reduce Clinically Important Medication Errors for Ambulatory Patients Initiating Direct Oral Anticoagulants

    Kapoor, Alok; Patel, Parth; Mbusa, Daniel; Pham, Thu; Cicirale, Carrie; Tran, Wenisa; Beavers, Craig; Javed, Saud; Wagner, Joann; Swain, Dawn; et al. (2023-09-27)
    Background: Anticoagulants including direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs) are among the highest-risk medications in the United States. We postulated that routine consultation and follow-up from a clinical pharmacist would reduce clinically important medication errors (CIMEs) among patients beginning or resuming a DOAC in the ambulatory care setting. Objective: To evaluate the effectiveness of a multicomponent intervention for reducing CIMEs. Design: Randomized controlled trial. Participants: Ambulatory patients initiating a DOAC or resuming one after a complication. Intervention: Pharmacist evaluation and monitoring based on the implementation of a recently published checklist. Key elements included evaluation of the appropriateness of DOAC, need for DOAC affordability assistance, three pharmacist-initiated telephone consultations, access to a DOAC hotline, documented hand-off to the patient's continuity provider, and monitoring of follow-up laboratory tests. Control: Coupons and assistance to increase the affordability of DOACs. Main measure: Anticoagulant-related CIMEs (Anticoagulant-CIMEs) and non-anticoagulant-related CIMEs over 90 days from DOAC initiation; CIMEs identified through masked assessment process including two physician adjudication of events presented by a pharmacist distinct from intervention pharmacist who reviewed participant electronic medical records and interview data. Analysis: Incidence and incidence rate ratio (IRR) of CIMEs (intervention vs. control) using multivariable Poisson regression modeling. Key results: A total of 561 patients (281 intervention and 280 control patients) contributed 479 anticoagulant-CIMEs including 31 preventable and ameliorable ADEs and 448 significant anticoagulant medication errors without subsequent documented ADEs (0.95 per 100 person-days). Failure to perform required blood tests and concurrent, inappropriate usage of a DOAC with aspirin or NSAIDs were the most common anticoagulant-related CIMEs despite pharmacist documentation systematically identifying these issues when present. There was no reduction in anticoagulant-related CIMEs among intervention patients (IRR 1.17; 95% CI 0.98-1.42) or non-anticoagulant-related CIMEs (IRR 1.05; 95% CI 0.80-1.37). Conclusion: A multi-component intervention in which clinical pharmacists implemented an evidence-based DOAC Checklist did not reduce CIMEs. Nih trial number: NCT04068727.

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