This collection showcases journal articles and other publications authored by faculty and researchers of the Department of Orthopedics and Physical Rehabilitation.


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Recently Published

  • Strengthening Quality Measurement to Predict Success for Total Knee Arthroplasty: Results from a Nationally Representative Total Knee Arthroplasty Cohort

    Zheng, Hua; Ash, Arlene S.; Yang, Wenyun; Liu, Shao-Hsien; Allison, Jeroan J.; Ayers, David C (2024-01-25)
    Background: When performed well on appropriate patients, total knee arthroplasty (TKA) can dramatically improve quality of life. Patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs) are increasingly used to measure outcome following TKA. Accurate prediction of improvement in PROMs after TKA potentially plays an important role in judging the surgical quality of the health-care institutions as well as informing preoperative shared decision-making. Starting in 2027, the U.S. Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS) will begin mandating PROM reporting to assess the quality of TKAs. Methods: Using data from a national cohort of patients undergoing primary unilateral TKA, we developed an original model that closely followed a CMS-proposed measure to predict success, defined as achieving substantial clinical benefit, specifically at least a 20-point improvement on the Knee injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score, Joint Arthroplasty (KOOS, JR) at 1 year, and an enhanced model with just 1 additional predictor: the baseline KOOS, JR. We evaluated each model's performance using the area under the receiver operator characteristic curve (AUC) and the ratio of observed to expected (model-predicted) outcomes (O:E ratio). Results: We studied 5,958 patients with a mean age of 67 years; 63% were women, 93% were White, and 87% were overweight or obese. Adding the baseline KOOS, JR improved the AUC from 0.58 to 0.73. Ninety-four percent of those in the top decile of predicted probability of success under the enhanced model achieved success, compared with 34% in its bottom decile. Analogous numbers for the original model were less discriminating: 77% compared with 57%. Only the enhanced model predicted success accurately across the spectrum of baseline scores. The findings were virtually identical when we replicated these analyses on only patients ≥65 years of age. Conclusions: Adding a baseline knee-specific PROM score to a quality measurement model in a nationally representative cohort dramatically improved its predictive power, eliminating ceiling and floor effects and mispredictions for readily identifiable patient subgroups. The enhanced model neither favors nor discourages care for those with greater knee dysfunction and requires no new data collection. Level of evidence: Prognostic Level II. See Instructions for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.
  • Innominate artery pseudoaneurysm from a Salter-Harris fracture of the sternoclavicular joint

    Fan, Emily Y; Abrill Zegarra, Santiago; Walker, Jennifer; Mortimer, Errol; Simons, Jessica P (2024-01-17)
    Fractures and dislocations of the sternoclavicular joint (SCJ) are uncommon, accounting for <5% of all shoulder girdle injuries. They are relatively more common in the pediatric population than in the adult population and can often present concurrently as a posteriorly displaced medial clavicular dislocation with a fracture through the unfused physis. It is especially important to recognize this injury, because its management and potential sequelae are very different from those for fractures of the clavicle shaft. This type of injury frequently requires closed or open operative management because fracture-dislocation of the SCJ can be associated with potentially serious complications such as pneumothorax, brachial plexus injury, vagus nerve injury, tracheal injury, and vascular compromise. Few case reports describe fracture-dislocation of the SCJ resulting in vascular injuries. We describe the case of a 17-year-old boy who sustained a blunt hockey injury resulting in a right physeal fracture-dislocation of the SCJ causing an innominate artery pseudoaneurysm. This was treated with excision of the pseudoaneurysm, bovine pericardial patch angioplasty repair of the innominate artery, and open reduction and internal fixation of the medial clavicular physeal fracture.
  • Phosphaturic mesenchymal tumor: two cases highlighting differences in clinical and radiologic presentation

    Gu, Joey; Ge, Connie; Joshi, Ganesh; Most, Mathew; Tai, Ryan (2023-10-04)
    Phosphaturic mesenchymal tumors are rare, usually benign neoplasms that occur in the soft tissue or bone and are the cause of nearly all cases of tumor-induced osteomalacia. Tumor-induced osteomalacia due to phosphaturic mesenchymal tumor is a challenging diagnosis to make-patients present with variable clinical and radiologic findings and the culprit neoplasm is often small and can occur anywhere head to toe. We present two cases of phosphaturic mesenchymal tumor in the scapular body and plantar foot. In both cases, the patient endured years of debilitating symptoms before a tissue diagnosis was eventually reached. Descriptions of clinical presentation, laboratory workup, surgical resection, and imaging characteristics, with a focus on CT, MRI, and functional imaging, are provided to assist with the diagnosis and management of this rare entity. A brief review of current literature and discussion of the differential diagnoses of phosphaturic mesenchymal tumor is also provided.
  • Ambulatory knee biomechanics and muscle activity 2 years after ACL surgery: InternalBrace-augmented ACL repair versus ACL reconstruction versus healthy controls

    Bühl, Linda; Müller, Sebastian; Nüesch, Corina; Boyer, Katherine A; Casto, Erica; Mündermann, Annegret; Egloff, Christian (2023-10-04)
    Background: Little is known about knee mechanics and muscle control after augmented ACL repair. Our aim was to compare knee biomechanics and leg muscle activity during walking between the legs of patients 2 years after InternalBraceTM-augmented anterior cruciate ligament repair (ACL-IB) and between patients after ACL-IB and ACL reconstruction (ACL-R), and controls. Methods: Twenty-nine ACL-IB, 27 sex- and age-matched ACL-R (hamstring tendon autograft) and 29 matched controls completed an instrumented gait analysis. Knee joint angles, moments, power, and leg muscle activity were compared between the involved and uninvolved leg in ACL-IB (paired t-tests), and between the involved legs in ACL patients and the non-dominant leg in controls (analysis of variance and posthoc Bonferroni tests) using statistical parametric mapping (SPM, P < 0.05). Means and 95% confidence intervals (CI) of differences in discrete parameters (DP; i.e., maximum/minimum) were calculated. Results: Significant differences were observed in ACL-IB only in minimum knee flexion angle (DP: 2.4°, CI [-4.4;-0.5]; involved > uninvolved) and maximum knee flexion moment during stance (-0.07Nm/kg, CI [-0.13;-0.00]; involved < uninvolved), and differences between ACL-IB and ACL-R only in maximum knee flexion during swing (DP: 3.6°, CI [0.5;7.0]; ACL-IB > ACL-R). Compared to controls, ACL-IB (SPM: 0-3%GC, P = 0.015; 98-100%, P = 0.016; DP: -6.3 mm, CI [-11.7;-0.8]) and ACL-R (DP: -6.0 mm, CI [-11.4;-0.2]) had lower (maximum) anterior tibia position around heel strike. ACL-R also had lower maximum knee extension moment (DP: -0.13Nm/kg, CI [-0.23;-0.02]) and internal knee rotation moment (SPM: 34-41%GC, P < 0.001; DP: -0.03Nm/kg, CI [-0.06;-0.00]) during stance, and greater maximum semitendinosus activity before heel strike (DP: 11.2%maximum voluntary contraction, CI [0.1;21.3]) than controls. Conclusion: Our results suggest comparable ambulatory knee function 2 years after ACL-IB and ACL-R, with ACL-IB showing only small differences between legs. However, the differences between both ACL groups and controls suggest that function in the involved leg is not fully recovered and that ACL tear is not only a mechanical disruption but also affects the sensorimotor integrity, which may not be restored after surgery. The trend toward fewer abnormalities in knee moments and semitendinosus muscle function during walking after ACL-IB warrants further investigation and may underscore the importance of preserving the hamstring muscles as ACL agonists. Level of evidence: Level III, case-control study. Trial registration: clinicaltrials.gov, NCT04429165 (12/06/2020).
  • Perceptions of social media utilization among orthopaedic foot and ankle surgeons

    Salimy, Mehdi S; Narain, Ankur S; Curtin, Patrick B; Bellinger, Eric C; Patel, Abhay R (2023-09-08)
    Background: The growing social media presence in healthcare has provided physicians with new ways to engage with patients. However, foot and ankle orthopaedic surgeons have been found to underuse social media platforms despite their known benefits for patients and surgeons. Thus, this study sought to investigate the reasons for this phenomenon and to identify potential barriers to social media utilization in clinical practice. Methods: A 19-question survey was distributed to active attending physicians identified through the American Orthopaedic Foot & Ankle Society membership database. The survey included demographic, practice characteristics, and social media use questions assessed by a 5-point Likert scale. Logistic regression was used to identify predictors of positive attitudes toward social media. Results: Fifty-eight surgeons were included. Most respondents were male (n = 43, 74.1%), in private practice (n = 31, 53.5%), and described their practice to be greater than 51% elective procedures (n = 46, 79.4%). The average years in practice was 14.8 years (standard deviation, SD: 10.0 years). A total of 32.8% (n = 19) of surgeons reported using social media as part of their clinical practice. Facebook (n = 19, 32.8%), a professional website or blog (n = 18, 31.0%), and LinkedIn (n = 15, 25.9%) were the most used platforms-primarily for practice marketing or brand development (n = 19, 32.8%). A total of 58.6% (n = 34) of surgeons reported they did not use social media. The primary reasons were the time commitment (n = 31, 53.5%), concerns about obscuring professional boundaries (n = 22, 37.9%), and concerns regarding confidentiality (n = 11, 19.0%). Many surgeons reported that social media positively influences foot and ankle surgery (n = 23, 39.7%), although no individual predictors for these views could be identified. Conclusions: Foot and ankle orthopaedic surgeons tended to view social media use positively, but the time investment and concerns over professionalism and confidentiality pose challenges to its use. Given the influence of a surgeon's social media identity on patient satisfaction and practice building, efforts should be made to streamline social media use for foot and ankle surgeons to establish their online presence. Level of evidence: Level IV, cross-sectional study.
  • Recurrent Giant Cell Tumor of Bone with New Pulmonary Metastases 9 Years After En Bloc Distal Radius Resection: A Case Report

    DeFazio, Matthew W; Selove, William; Watts, George; Harchandani, Sonali; Sood, Rahul N; Lou, Feiran; Most, Mathew J (2023-08-17)
    Case: A 31-year-old man with a history of giant cell tumor of bone (GCTB) in the distal radius presents to clinic 9 years after en bloc distal radius resection. He was found to have a new soft tissue mass consistent with GCTB and new pulmonary metastases. Ultimately, he underwent excision of his soft tissue recurrence and partial lobectomy for his lung metastases. Conclusion: This case highlights the importance of having a high level of suspicion for local recurrence or metastasis, even years after wide resection and negative margins.
  • The effect of Mozart music on patient satisfaction during caesarean delivery: a randomised controlled trial

    Drzymalski, Dan M; Dahlawi, Mohammad; Hall, Robert R; Ranjan, Shreya; Best, Craig L (2023-07-30)
    Background: Music is a low-cost intervention that can improve patient satisfaction. Methods: This was a prospective, randomised, controlled trial conducted at an urban tertiary care academic medical centre in the United States. Nulliparous women 18-50 years old with a healthy singleton pregnancy at ≥ 37 weeks gestational age undergoing elective caesarean delivery under neuraxial anaesthesia were randomised to the music group (Mozart sonatas) or control group (no music). Mozart sonatas were broadcast to the music group immediately prior to patient entry and maintained throughout the procedure. The primary outcome was patient satisfaction using the Maternal Satisfaction Scale for Caesarean Section (MSSCS). Secondary outcomes were changes in anxiety pre- and post-operatively and post-operative mean arterial pressure (MAP). Student's t-test, the Wilcoxon rank sum test, and the c2 test were used where appropriate for statistical analyses. Results: 27 parturients were evaluated for participation between 2018 and 2019, and 22 enrolled. The final study subject number was 20 due to two withdrawals. There were no clinically meaningful differences in baseline demographics, vital signs, and anxiety. The mean (SD) total patient satisfaction for music vs. control was 116 (16) vs. 120 (22), mean difference 4 (95% CI: -14.0 to 22.0), P = 0.645. The mean (SD) change in anxiety with music vs. control was 2.7 (2.7) vs. 2.5 (2.6), mean difference -0.4 (95% CI: -4.0 to 3.2), P = 0.827. The median (IQR) post-operative MAP with music vs. control was 77.7 (73.7-85.3) vs. 77.3 (72.0-87.3), P = 0.678. Conclusions: The use of Mozart sonatas did not result in improvements in patient satis-faction, anxiety or MAP in parturients undergoing elective caesarean delivery. Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT03412019.
  • Atypical Chondroid Syringoma of the Toe

    Ge, Connie; Gu, Joey; Deng, April; Joshi, Ganesh; Most, Mathew; Tai, Ryan (2023-05-01)
    Although chondroid syringoma rarely occurs outside the head and neck, the majority of malignant chondroid syringomas are identified in the extremities. Here, we present a case of atypical chondroid syringoma in the fifth toe. Diagnosis of chondroid syringoma with atypical cells was made following initial excisional biopsy and histology, necessitating repeated surgery for positive margins. In this case report, we examine the radiopathologic correlation of this diagnosis, detail the imaging findings of benign and malignant chondroid syringomas, and highlight how magnetic resonance imaging can be used to guide surgical planning and treatment course of this potentially malignant tumor.
  • Atypical Fragility Fractures due to Bony or Soft Tissue Phosphaturic Mesenchymal Tumors: A Report of Two Cases

    Clegg, Stephanie M; Eiel, Emily S; Fine, Sara; Gafni, Rachel I; Most, Mathew J (2023-04-12)
    Introduction: Tumor-induced osteomalacia (TIO) is a rare paraneoplastic disorder where patients present with hypophosphatemia, chronic diffuse bone pain, and occasionally fractures. Benign phosphaturic mesenchymal tumors (PMT) are responsible for the TIO and are largely soft tissue tumors. Cases: Two male patients with TIO secondary to PMT were reported-one in the bony scapula and the other in the plantar foot soft tissue. The first case describes a 63-year-old Caucasian male, who sustained an intertrochanteric proximal femur stress fracture and approximately two years of diffuse bone pain and hypophosphatemia. Wide excision of a left scapula boney lesion resulted in immediate resolution of his electrolyte abnormalities and bone pain. Case 2 describes a 58-year-old male with four years of multifocal bone pain and atraumatic fractures. A 68Ga-DOTATATE-positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) scan identified a soft tissue tumor in his plantar foot, which was ultimately excised. He also experienced near immediate resolution of his pain and no additional fractures. Conclusion: TIO is a rare condition presenting with chronic multifocal bone pain, stress fractures, and hypophosphatemia. These two cases highlight that the causative tumor may originate in soft tissue or bone. Furthermore, a high index of suspicion, along with fibroblast growth factor-23 testing and DOTATATE-PET/CT localization, can help with diagnosis and minimize treatment delays.
  • How Back Pain Affects Patient Satisfaction After Primary Total Knee Arthroplasty

    Ayers, David C; Zheng, Hua; Yang, Wenyun; Yousef, Mohamed (2023-03-30)
    Background: Although back pain (BP) has been shown to be a predictor of dissatisfaction after total knee arthroplasty (TKA) in some reports, these studies did not use a scale to quantify the degree of pain. The purpose of this study was to quantify the effect of BP intensity on patient satisfaction reported at 1 year after TKA. Methods: A multicenter prospective cohort was taken in which 9,057 patients undergoing primary unilateral TKA were enrolled in FORCE-TJR and demographic and clinical data were collected. Back pain (BP) intensity was assessed using the Oswestry back disability index (ODI) pain intensity questionnaire. Patients were classified into 4 categories based on the severity of BP. Patient-reported outcomes (PROs) were collected preoperatively and postoperatively after 1 year including the Knee injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS) (total score, pain, Activities of Daily Living (ADL), and Quality of Life (QOL), Short-Form health survey 36-item (SF-36) Physical Component Score (PCS), and Mental Component Score (MCS)). We used a validated 5-point Likert satisfaction scale. Univariate analyses of the difference between the satisfied and dissatisfied patients' groups was performed. Multivariate logistic regression models with 95% confidence interval (CI) were used to quantify the effect of BP intensity on patient dissatisfaction at 1 year. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analyses were performed with measurement of area under curve (AUC). Results: At 1 year, a total of 1,657 TKA patients (18.3%) were dissatisfied. A total of 4,765 patients (52.6%) reported back pain at the time of surgery, including mild BP in 2,264 patients (24.9%), moderate BP in 1,844 patients (20.3%), and severe BP in 657 patients (7.2%). Severe back pain was significantly associated with patient dissatisfaction at 1 year after TKA (P = .0006). The multivariate regressions showed that patients who had severe BP were 1.6 times more likely to be dissatisfied when compared to patients who had no BP [odds ratio (OR) 1.63; 95% confidence interval (CI) (1.23-2.16), P = .0006]. While patients who had mild BP [OR 0.98; 95% CI (0.82-1.17), P = .87] or moderate BP [OR 0.97; 95% CI (0.80-1.18), P = .78] were not associated with an increased likelihood of dissatisfaction. Other predictive variables for dissatisfaction, include age [OR for younger patients <65 years versus older patients ≥65 years, 0.74; 95% CI (0.59-0.92)], educational level [OR for post high school versus less, 0.83; 95% CI (0.71, 0.97)], smoking [OR for nonsmoker versus current smoker, 0.63; 95% CI (0.45, 0.87)], and Charlson comorbidity index [OR for CCI ≥2 versus 0, 1.25; 95% CI (1.05, 1.49)]. Conclusion: Increased BP intensity was associated with increased risk of dissatisfaction 1 year after TKA. Only patients who had severe BP were 1.6 times more likely to be dissatisfied. The data presented here can help to improve shared decision-making and patient counseling before surgery. Surgeons should consider a spine evaluation in patients who have severe BP prior to TKA.
  • Age-related changes in gait biomechanics and their impact on the metabolic cost of walking: Report from a National Institute on Aging workshop

    Boyer, Katherine A; Hayes, Kate L; Umberger, Brian R; Adamczyk, Peter Gabriel; Bean, Jonathan F; Brach, Jennifer S; Clark, Brian C; Clark, David J; Ferrucci, Luigi; Finley, James; et al. (2023-01-21)
    Changes in old age that contribute to the complex issue of an increased metabolic cost of walking (mass-specific energy cost per unit distance traveled) in older adults appear to center at least in part on changes in gait biomechanics. However, age-related changes in energy metabolism, neuromuscular function and connective tissue properties also likely contribute to this problem, of which the consequences are poor mobility and increased risk of inactivity-related disease and disability. The U.S. National Institute on Aging convened a workshop in September 2021 with an interdisciplinary group of scientists to address the gaps in research related to the mechanisms and consequences of changes in mobility in old age. The goal of the workshop was to identify promising ways to move the field forward toward improving gait performance, decreasing energy cost, and enhancing mobility for older adults. This report summarizes the workshop and brings multidisciplinary insight into the known and potential causes and consequences of age-related changes in gait biomechanics. We highlight how gait mechanics and energy cost change with aging, the potential neuromuscular mechanisms and role of connective tissue in these changes, and cutting-edge interventions and technologies that may be used to measure and improve gait and mobility in older adults. Key gaps in the literature that warrant targeted research in the future are identified and discussed.
  • The Role of Wearable Technology in Measuring and Supporting Patient Outcomes Following Total Joint Replacement: Review of the Literature

    Iovanel, Gregory; Ayers, David; Zheng, Hua (2023-01-12)
    Background: The incidence rate of total joint replacement (TJR) continues to increase due to the aging population and the surgery that is very successful in providing pain relief to and improving function among patients with advanced knee or hip arthritis. Improving patient outcomes and patient satisfaction after TJR remain important goals. Wearable technologies provide a novel way to capture patient function and activity data and supplement clinical measures and patient-reported outcome measures in order to better understand patient outcomes after TJR. Objective: We examined the current literature to evaluate the potential role of wearable devices and compare them with existing methods for monitoring and improving patient rehabilitation and outcomes following TJR. Methods: We performed a literature search by using the research databases supported by the University of Massachusetts Chan Medical School's Lamar Soutter Library, including PubMed and Scopus, supplemented with the Google Scholar search engine. A specific search strategy was used to identify articles discussing the use of wearable devices in measuring and affecting postoperative outcomes of patients who have undergone TJR. Selected papers were organized into a spreadsheet and categorized for our qualitative literature review to assess how wearable data correlated with clinical measures and patient-reported outcome measures. Results: A total of 9 papers were selected. The literature showed the impact of wearable devices on evaluating and improving postoperative functional outcomes. Wearable-collected data could be used to predict postoperative clinical measures, such as range of motion and Timed Up and Go times. When predicting patient-reported outcomes, specifically Hip Disability and Osteoarthritis Outcome Scores/Knee Injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Scores and Veterans RAND 12-Item Health Survey scores, strong associations were found between changes in sensor-collected data and changes in patient-reported outcomes over time. Further, the step counts of patients who received feedback from a wearable improved over time when compared to those of patients who did not receive feedback. Conclusions: These findings suggest that wearable technology has the potential to remotely measure and improve postoperative orthopedic patient outcomes. We anticipate that this review will facilitate further investigation into whether wearable devices are viable tools for guiding the clinical management of TJR rehabilitation.
  • Chemically Crosslinked Amphiphilic Degradable Shape Memory Polymer Nanocomposites with Readily Tuned Physical, Mechanical, and Biological Properties

    Xu, Xiaowen; Skelly, Jordan D; Song, Jie (2023-01-06)
    Facile surgical delivery and stable fixation of synthetic scaffolds play roles just as critically as degradability and bioactivity in ensuring successful scaffold-guided tissue regeneration. Properly engineered shape memory polymers (SMPs) may meet these challenges. Polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxanes (POSSs) can be covalently integrated with urethane-crosslinked polylactide (PLA) to give high-strength, degradable SMPs around physiological temperatures. To explore their potential for guided bone regeneration, here we tune their hydrophilicity, degradability, cytocompatibility, and osteoconductivity/osteoinductivity by crosslinking star-branched POSS-PLA with hydrophilic polyethylene glycol diisocyanates of different lengths and up to 60 wt % hydroxyapatite (HA). The composites exhibit high compliance, toughness, up to gigapascal storage moduli, and excellent shape recovery (>95%) at safe triggering temperatures. Water swelling ratios and hydrolytic degradation rates positively correlated with the hydrophilic crosslinker lengths, while the negative impact of degradation on the proliferation and osteogenesis of bone marrow stromal cells was mitigated with HA incorporation. Macroporous composites tailored for a rat femoral segmental defect were fabricated, and their ability to stably retain and sustainedly release recombinant osteogenic bone morphogenetic protein-2 and support cell attachment and osteogenesis was demonstrated. These properties combined make these amphiphilic osteoconductive degradable SMPs promising candidates as next-generation synthetic bone grafts.
  • Association Between the Modified Frailty Index and Outcomes Following Lobectomy

    Bludevich, Bryce M; Emmerick, Isabel; Uy, Karl; Maxfield, Mark; Ash, Arlene S.; Baima, Jennifer; Lou, Feiran (2022-11-25)
    Introduction: Elective thoracic surgery is safe in well-selected elderly patients. The association of frailty with postoperative morbidity in elective-lobectomy patients is understudied. We examined frailty as defined by abbreviated modified frailty index (mFI-5), mFI-11 in the thoracic surgery population, and the correlation between frailty and postoperative complications. Methods: We studied outcomes of patients in two cohorts, 2010-2012 and 2013-2019, from the National Surgical Quality Improvement Program (NSQIP) database and used multivariable logistic regression models to predict all postoperative morbidity, mortality, and major morbidity. The mFI-5 could be calculated for all subjects (both 2010-2012, and 2013-2019); the mFI-11 could only be calculated for the 2010-2012 cohort. Patient frailty was defined as mFI≥3 (with either index). We used odds ratios (ORs) to examine associations of preoperative characteristics with postoperative complications and C-statistics to assess overall predictive power. Results: Complications were less prevalent in the 2013-2019 cohort (17.9% versus 19.5%, P = 0.008). Open lobectomies were more common in the 2010-2012 cohort (53.9% versus 34.6%) and were strongly associated with postoperative morbidity and mortality (ORs >1.5) in both cohorts. Each frailty measure was associated with morbidity and mortality (ORs >1.4) after adjusting for other significant preoperative factors. Models on the 2010-2012 cohort had nearly identical C-statistics using the mFI-11 versus mFI-5 frailty indices (0.6142 versus 0.6139; P > 0.8). Conclusions: Frailty, as captured in the mFI-5, is a significant associated factor of postoperative morbidity and mortality following elective lobectomies. As a modifiable risk factor, frailty should be considered in surgical decision-making and when counseling patients regarding perioperative risks.
  • Sterilization of Polymeric Implants: Challenges and Opportunities

    Herczeg, Chloe K; Song, Jie (2022-11-01)
    Degradable and environmentally responsive polymers have been actively developed for drug delivery and regenerative medicine applications, yet inadequate consideration of their compatibility with terminal sterilization presents notable barriers to clinical translation. This Review discusses industry-established terminal sterilization methods and aseptic processing and contrasts them with innovative approaches aimed at preserving the integrity of polymeric implants. Regulatory guidelines, fiscal considerations, and potential pitfalls are discussed to encourage early integration of sterility regulatory considerations in material designs.
  • Web-Based System to Capture Consistent and Complete Real-world Data of Physical Therapy Interventions Following Total Knee Replacement: Design and Evaluation Study

    Franklin, Patricia D; Oatis, Carol A; Zheng, Hua; Westby, Marie D; Peter, Wilfred; Laraque-Two Elk, Jeremie; Rizk, Joseph; Benbow, Ellen; Li, Wenjun (2022-10-27)
    Background: Electronic health records (EHRs) have the potential to facilitate consistent clinical data capture to support excellence in patient care, quality improvement, and knowledge generation. Despite widespread EHR use, the vision to transform health care system and its data to a "learning health care system" generating knowledge from real-world data is limited by the lack of consistent, structured clinical data. Objective: The purpose of this paper was to demonstrate the design of a web-based structured clinical intervention data capture system and its evaluation in practice. The use case was ambulatory physical therapy (PT) treatment after total knee replacement (TKR), one of the most common and costly procedures today. Methods: To identify the PT intervention type and intensity (or dose) used to treat patients with knee arthritis following TKR, an iterative user-centered design process refined an initial list of PT interventions generated during preliminary chart reviews. Input from practicing physical therapists and national and international experts refined and categorized the interventions. Next, a web-based, hierarchical structured system for intervention and intensity documentation was designed and deployed. Results: The PT documentation system was implemented by 114 physical therapists agreeing to record all interventions at patient visits. Data for 161 patients with 2615 PT visits were entered by 83 physical therapists. No technical problems with data entry were reported, and data entry required less than 2 minutes per visit. A total of 42 (2%) interventions could not be categorized and were recorded using free text. Conclusions: The use of user-centered design principles provides a road map for developing clinically feasible data capture systems that employ structured collection of uniform data for use by multiple practitioners across institutions to complement and augment existing EHRs. Secondarily, these data can be analyzed to define best practices and disseminate knowledge to practice.
  • Arthroscopic Suprapectoral Biceps Tenodesis: The Best of Both Worlds

    Pratte, Tyler; Smith, Tyler; Arevalo, Alfonso; Wazen, Joseph; Rubenstein, David (2022-09-21)
    Biceps tendinopathy and superior labrum anterior posterior lesions are a common source of shoulder pain and disability and can be effectively treated with biceps tenodesis. There are a variety of open and arthroscopic tenodesis techniques, but no one technique has demonstrated superiority. Arthroscopic techniques often disregard the extra-articular portions of the biceps tendon as a potential source of pain. Open techniques address this concern; however, they can be associated with wound complications, increased blood loss, nerve injury, and disruptions to surgical workflow. Here, we describe an all arthroscopic tenodesis technique at the suprapectoral zone of the tendon. This method addresses extra-articular sources of pain, while limiting the potential pitfalls of open surgery.
  • Prostate Cancer History and Total Hip Arthroplasty: A Matched Cohort Analysis Investigating Venous Thromboembolism and Anticoagulation

    Johnson, Keir; Clegg, Stephanie; Alsoof, Daniel; Daniels, Alan H; Deren, Matthew E.; Cohen, Eric M (2022-09-20)
    Background: Prostate cancer (PCa) is a common cancer among men in the United States. While malignancy is a known cause of venous thromboembolism (VTE), little is known about the effect of PCa history on postoperative complications after elective total hip arthroplasty (THA). This study aimed to evaluate the risk of hematologic complications in patients with a history of PCa taking common postoperative anticoagulants. Methods: THA patients were identified through the PearlDiver Mariner database. Patients with a history of PCa were placed in one of the following cohorts based on postoperative anticoagulant prescription: aspirin, warfarin, low-molecular-weight heparin, direct Xa inhibitor, or any anticoagulant. PCa cohorts were matched 1:3 to patients without a history of PCa with the same anticoagulant prescription based on age, gender, and Charlson Comorbidity Index. Postoperative complications were evaluated using multivariable logistic regression. Results: A total of 74,744 patients that underwent THA were included. PCa patients taking any anticoagulant were found to have increased risk of postoperative deep vein thrombosis (DVT) (odds ratio: 1.25, lower 99% confidence interval: 1.09, upper 99% confidence interval: 1.43, P value <.001). PCa patients taking warfarin, low-molecular-weight heparin, and direct Xa inhibitors additionally showed increased risk of postoperative DVT. Patients taking aspirin did not have an increased risk of postoperative DVT. Conclusions: Our results suggest postoperative aspirin prophylaxis may not increase VTE complication risk when compared to other anticoagulants. Surgeons should be aware that PCa history may be an independent risk factor for VTE, and these patients may benefit from medical optimization.
  • Cancer; Pathophysiology and Stress Modulation (Cancer, Therapeutic Interventions)

    Scarpetti, Lauren; Guarino, Matthew; Baima, Jennifer (2022-08-19)
    Objective: The purpose of this review is to describe the myriad complications of cancer and its therapies to emphasize the pathophysiological need for prehabilitation. Data sources: The information presented in this review is from applicable, peer-reviewed scientific articles. Conclusion: Cancer itself renders negative effects on the body, most notably unintentional weight loss and fatigue. Cancer treatments, especially surgical interventions, can cause detrimental short- and long-term impacts on patients, which translate to suboptimal treatment outcomes. Prehabilitation can be used to improve patient health prior to anticancer therapies to improve treatment tolerance and efficacy. Implications for nursing practice: Nurses play an important role in the treatment of patients with cancer throughout the cancer care continuum. Many nurses are already aiding their patients in cancer prehabilitation through education. By describing common impairments amenable to multimodal prehabilitation, nurses may better advocate for their patients and can become even more involved in this aspect of care.
  • Cancer Prehabilitation in Practice: the Current Evidence

    Coderre, Danielle; Brahmbhatt, Priya; Hunter, Tracey Louise; Baima, Jennifer (2022-07-05)
    Purpose of Review This article serves to describe recent controversies in cancer prehabilitation including efficacy, dose, cost effectiveness, stakeholder input, and international implementation. Recent Findings Appropriate frequency, type, and timing have yet to be determined, but high intensity exercise is recommended. Costs are favorable when modeled and information on costs of real-world application are forthcoming. Patients are interested in and willing to attend cancer prehabilitation. Cancer prehabilitation research is spreading throughout the world. Summary Cancer prehabilitation includes assessment of a newly diagnosed cancer patient’s baseline fitness and targeted interventions to improve their health before surgery, chemotherapy, or radiation. Cancer prehabilitation improves fitness as measured preoperatively and improves outcomes postoperatively.

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