Now showing items 1-20 of 199

    • Sterilization of Polymeric Implants: Challenges and Opportunities

      Herczeg, Chloe K; Song, Jie (2022-11-01)
      Degradable and environmentally responsive polymers have been actively developed for drug delivery and regenerative medicine applications, yet inadequate consideration of their compatibility with terminal sterilization presents notable barriers to clinical translation. This Review discusses industry-established terminal sterilization methods and aseptic processing and contrasts them with innovative approaches aimed at preserving the integrity of polymeric implants. Regulatory guidelines, fiscal considerations, and potential pitfalls are discussed to encourage early integration of sterility regulatory considerations in material designs.
    • Web-Based System to Capture Consistent and Complete Real-world Data of Physical Therapy Interventions Following Total Knee Replacement: Design and Evaluation Study

      Franklin, Patricia D; Oatis, Carol A; Zheng, Hua; Westby, Marie D; Peter, Wilfred; Laraque-Two Elk, Jeremie; Rizk, Joseph; Benbow, Ellen; Li, Wenjun (2022-10-27)
      Background: Electronic health records (EHRs) have the potential to facilitate consistent clinical data capture to support excellence in patient care, quality improvement, and knowledge generation. Despite widespread EHR use, the vision to transform health care system and its data to a "learning health care system" generating knowledge from real-world data is limited by the lack of consistent, structured clinical data. Objective: The purpose of this paper was to demonstrate the design of a web-based structured clinical intervention data capture system and its evaluation in practice. The use case was ambulatory physical therapy (PT) treatment after total knee replacement (TKR), one of the most common and costly procedures today. Methods: To identify the PT intervention type and intensity (or dose) used to treat patients with knee arthritis following TKR, an iterative user-centered design process refined an initial list of PT interventions generated during preliminary chart reviews. Input from practicing physical therapists and national and international experts refined and categorized the interventions. Next, a web-based, hierarchical structured system for intervention and intensity documentation was designed and deployed. Results: The PT documentation system was implemented by 114 physical therapists agreeing to record all interventions at patient visits. Data for 161 patients with 2615 PT visits were entered by 83 physical therapists. No technical problems with data entry were reported, and data entry required less than 2 minutes per visit. A total of 42 (2%) interventions could not be categorized and were recorded using free text. Conclusions: The use of user-centered design principles provides a road map for developing clinically feasible data capture systems that employ structured collection of uniform data for use by multiple practitioners across institutions to complement and augment existing EHRs. Secondarily, these data can be analyzed to define best practices and disseminate knowledge to practice.
    • Prostate Cancer History and Total Hip Arthroplasty: A Matched Cohort Analysis Investigating Venous Thromboembolism and Anticoagulation

      Johnson, Keir; Clegg, Stephanie; Alsoof, Daniel; Daniels, Alan H; Deren, Matthew E; Cohen, Eric M (2022-09-20)
      Background: Prostate cancer (PCa) is a common cancer among men in the United States. While malignancy is a known cause of venous thromboembolism (VTE), little is known about the effect of PCa history on postoperative complications after elective total hip arthroplasty (THA). This study aimed to evaluate the risk of hematologic complications in patients with a history of PCa taking common postoperative anticoagulants. Methods: THA patients were identified through the PearlDiver Mariner database. Patients with a history of PCa were placed in one of the following cohorts based on postoperative anticoagulant prescription: aspirin, warfarin, low-molecular-weight heparin, direct Xa inhibitor, or any anticoagulant. PCa cohorts were matched 1:3 to patients without a history of PCa with the same anticoagulant prescription based on age, gender, and Charlson Comorbidity Index. Postoperative complications were evaluated using multivariable logistic regression. Results: A total of 74,744 patients that underwent THA were included. PCa patients taking any anticoagulant were found to have increased risk of postoperative deep vein thrombosis (DVT) (odds ratio: 1.25, lower 99% confidence interval: 1.09, upper 99% confidence interval: 1.43, P value <.001). PCa patients taking warfarin, low-molecular-weight heparin, and direct Xa inhibitors additionally showed increased risk of postoperative DVT. Patients taking aspirin did not have an increased risk of postoperative DVT. Conclusions: Our results suggest postoperative aspirin prophylaxis may not increase VTE complication risk when compared to other anticoagulants. Surgeons should be aware that PCa history may be an independent risk factor for VTE, and these patients may benefit from medical optimization.
    • Cancer; Pathophysiology and Stress Modulation (Cancer, Therapeutic Interventions)

      Scarpetti, Lauren; Guarino, Matthew; Baima, Jennifer (2022-08-19)
      Objective: The purpose of this review is to describe the myriad complications of cancer and its therapies to emphasize the pathophysiological need for prehabilitation. Data sources: The information presented in this review is from applicable, peer-reviewed scientific articles. Conclusion: Cancer itself renders negative effects on the body, most notably unintentional weight loss and fatigue. Cancer treatments, especially surgical interventions, can cause detrimental short- and long-term impacts on patients, which translate to suboptimal treatment outcomes. Prehabilitation can be used to improve patient health prior to anticancer therapies to improve treatment tolerance and efficacy. Implications for nursing practice: Nurses play an important role in the treatment of patients with cancer throughout the cancer care continuum. Many nurses are already aiding their patients in cancer prehabilitation through education. By describing common impairments amenable to multimodal prehabilitation, nurses may better advocate for their patients and can become even more involved in this aspect of care.
    • Cancer Prehabilitation in Practice: the Current Evidence

      Coderre, Danielle; Brahmbhatt, Priya; Hunter, Tracey Louise; Baima, Jennifer (2022-07-05)
      Purpose of Review This article serves to describe recent controversies in cancer prehabilitation including efficacy, dose, cost effectiveness, stakeholder input, and international implementation. Recent Findings Appropriate frequency, type, and timing have yet to be determined, but high intensity exercise is recommended. Costs are favorable when modeled and information on costs of real-world application are forthcoming. Patients are interested in and willing to attend cancer prehabilitation. Cancer prehabilitation research is spreading throughout the world. Summary Cancer prehabilitation includes assessment of a newly diagnosed cancer patient’s baseline fitness and targeted interventions to improve their health before surgery, chemotherapy, or radiation. Cancer prehabilitation improves fitness as measured preoperatively and improves outcomes postoperatively.
    • Patient-Specific E-mailed Discharge Instructions Improve Patient Satisfaction and Patient Understanding After Surgical Arthroscopy

      Santoro, Adam J; Ford, Elizabeth A; Pontes, Manuel; Busconi, Brian D; McMillan, Sean (2022-06-11)
      Purpose: The purpose of this study is to determine whether patient-specific e-mails after surgical arthroscopy improve patient satisfaction and patient understanding of their procedure compared to traditional, preprinted discharge instructions. Methods: Sixty patients who underwent surgical arthroscopy were prospectively, randomized into two separate groups. One cohort received a detailed e-mail of their procedure, discharge instructions, and labeled intraoperative arthroscopic images, while the second cohort received the standard preprinted instructions, while their arthroscopic images were discussed at the time of follow-up. The procedures were performed by a single surgeon. All patients were seen at 1-week follow-up and given a 14-question survey specific to their postoperative course, discharge instructions, and overall satisfaction using a 5-point Likert Scale. Demographic information was collected and data points comparing overall patient satisfaction, ease of understanding instructions, quality of information, and the number of times referenced were analyzed using nonparametric tests between the two cohorts. Results: Patients in the e-mail cohort were significantly more satisfied with their surgery than patients in the printed cohort (medians: 5 versus 4, Wilcoxon chi-square = 9.98; P =.002). Patients in the e-mail cohort indicated that their instructions more greatly enhanced their overall understanding of their surgery (medians: 5 vs 3, Wilcoxon chi-square = 10.84; P = .001) and were more helpful to their recovery (medians: 5 vs 3, Wilcoxon chi-square = 7.37; P = .007). E-mail patients were significantly more likely to recommend similar instructions be sent to a friend undergoing surgery (medians: 5 versus 3, Wilcoxon chi-square = 11.10; P < .001) and share their instructions with others 72% (18/25) versus 34.5% (10/29). There was no significant difference between the e-mail cohort and the print cohort for the number of times patients referred to their instructions (medians: 3 versus 3, Wilcoxon chi-square = 2.41; P =.121). Conclusions: Patient-specific e-mailed discharge instructions improve patient satisfaction and overall understanding of the procedure compared with traditional printed discharge instructions after surgical arthroscopy. Level of evidence: Level II, prospective randomized trial.
    • Do Patient Outcomes Vary by Patient Age Following Primary Total Hip Arthroplasty?

      Ayers, David C; Yousef, Mohamed; Zheng, Hua; Yang, Wenyun; Franklin, Patricia D (2022-05-31)
      Background: Multiple authors have sought to determine what patient characteristics influence outcome after total hip arthroplasty (THA). Age has shown no effect on outcome in some evaluations, while others have reported higher functional improvement in younger patients. The aim of this study was to determine if outcome after THA varies based on patient age. Methods: A prospective, multicenter cohort of 7,934 unilateral primary THA patients from the FORCE-TJR comparative effectiveness consortium was evaluated. Demographic data, comorbid conditions, and Patient-Reported Outcome Measures, including (HOOS), HOOS-12, HOOS JR, and SF-36 (PCS) and (MCS), were collected preop and at 1-year postop. Descriptive statistics were generated, stratified by age (<55 years [younger adult], 55-64 years [older adult], 65-74 years [early elder], and ≥75 years [late elder]), and differences in pain, function, and quality of life among the 4 age groups were evaluated. A multivariate regression model with 95% confidence interval (CI) was used to assess the role of patient age as a predictive factor for HOOS pain and function scores reported 1 year after primary THA. Results: Prior to surgery, younger patients (<55 years) reported worse pain, function, and quality of life than the other 3 patient groups. At 1 year after THA, younger patients (<55 years) reported slightly worse pain and quality of life but better function scores than the 3 older patients' groups. Younger patients (<55 years) achieved higher baseline to 1-year pain, and function score changes when compared to the older patients' groups. The quality of life score changes was not different among the 4 age groups. The differences in 1-year postop scores (ranging from 2.74 to 8.46) and the magnitude of score changes from baseline to 1 year (ranging from 1.9 to 5.85), although statistically significant (P < .001), did not reach the minimal clinically important difference (MCID). The multivariate regression analysis shows that age is a significant predictor for pain at 1 year but not for function. Although HOOS pain score is predicted to be higher by 4.38 points (less pain) 1 year after THA in older patients (≥75), when compared to younger patients (<55 years), again the difference is well below the MCID and is clinically insignificant. Conclusion: Although there are statistically significant differences in pain relief, functional improvement, and quality of life between younger and older patients among different patients' age groups, there is no clinically significant difference. THA provides an improvement in quality of life by decreasing pain and increasing function in all 4 age groups, with large improvements in Patient-Reported Outcome Measures scores (>2 standard deviations) without clinically significant age-related differences in THA outcome at 1 year.
    • The direct posterior gluteal muscle splitting approach for posterior access to acetabular fractures: Surgical technique and case series

      Huebner, Kyla; McTague, Michael F; Allen, Elizabeth; Diwan, Amna; Smith, Raymond Malcolm (2022-05-20)
      We present a minimally invasive direct posterior, gluteal muscle splitting approach (PMS) as an alternative to the traditional Kocher-Langenbeck (KL) approach for posterior access to acetabular fractures. We believe it offers significant advantages and provides improved access while maximizing the range of fracture patterns that can be addressed through a posterior approach. One hundred and eighty-four consecutive patients treated with this approach by the senior author (RMS) between 2001 and 2018 were reviewed. The most common individual fracture pattern addressed was a posterior wall (66/36%) but more complex combination fracture types were the dominant group (106/58%), and included transverse with posterior wall, posterior wall / posterior column, and T types. A radiographically congruent reduction was consistently obtained at surgery, without any operative sciatic nerve palsies and a comparable heterotopic bone formation rate to previous reports. We have reviewed all 120 patients who were followed beyond 6 months and noted the hip replacement conversion rates to be different with each fracture type. The rate was highest with Transverse/ posterior wall injuries (36%), 16% of the posterior wall injuries were converted, a history of dislocation was not specifically associated with conversion. We believe this approach improves the posterior access to the acetabulum, but this study also confirms the poor prognosis of specific groups of higher energy multi-fragmentary, posterior acetabular injuries and suggests the need for a classification system that better predicts the prognosis for the hip joint. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: 4.
    • Morbidity and mortality of fragility proximal humerus fractures: a retrospective cohort study of patients presenting to a level one trauma center

      Curtin, Patrick B; Hall, Robert R; Molla, Vadim G; Lansbury, Jenna N; O'Connor, Edward P; Aaron, Daniel L (2022-04-21)
      Purpose: Fragility fractures are a significant source of morbidity and have high associated mortality. Identifying risk factors for poor outcomes is essential for guiding treatment and for setting expectations for patients and their families. Although fragility hip fractures have been abundantly explored, there is a paucity of information regarding proximal humerus fractures (PHFs). Methods: We retrospectively review the electronic medical records of 379 patients who presented to a level 1 trauma center with a PHF secondary to a fall. Patient demographics, handedness, comorbidities, treatment, imaging data, follow-up data, and death date (if applicable) were recorded. Results: Our cohort consisted of 279 females and 100 males with an average age of 71.4 years. Distribution of injuries was 178 left, 141 right, and 7 bilateral. Compared with handedness, 179 were ipsilateral, 141 were contralateral, and 59 were unknown. A total of 81.3% of injuries were treated nonoperatively, whereas 18.7% were managed surgically. One-year mortality was 17.4%, and 2-year mortality was 24.0%.Males demonstrated a 2.28 increased risk of 1-year mortality (P = .004). Patients who died within 1 year of fracture had significantly higher Charlson comorbidity index scores (P < .0001) and age (P = .0003). Risk of death was significantly lower in patients who underwent surgery compared with those who were treated nonoperatively (P = .01). Patients who used an assist device before fracture had 4.2 increased risk of 1-year mortality (P < .0001). Patients who presented from nursing homes or assisted living had a 2.1 increased risk of 1-year mortality (P = .02). Patients with severe liver disease had a 5.5 increased risk of 1-year mortality (P < .0001), and those with metastatic cancer had a 13.7 increased risk of 1-year mortality (P < .0001). Bilateral fractures, side of injury in relation to handedness, rehospitalization, Neer classification, and PCP follow-up within 30 days were not associated with increased mortality. Conclusions: Increased understanding risk factors for mortality after PHF will allow for more informed patient discussions regarding treatment outcomes and risk of death. Our data suggest that mortality at 1 year for fragility PHF is universally high regardless of risk factors. This risk is increased in patients who are older, functionally limited, or who have medical comorbidities. Our data demonstrate the importance of medical optimization of patients with a fragility PHF and underscore the importance of fall prevention in high-risk patients.
    • The Prevalence and Predictors of Patient Dissatisfaction 5-years Following Primary Total Knee Arthroplasty

      Ayers, David C; Yousef, Mohamed; Zheng, Hua; Yang, Wenyun; Franklin, Patricia D (2022-02-26)
      Background: Previous studies have evaluated patient dissatisfaction after total knee arthroplasty (TKA) at 1 year, but there is no data about the prevalence of dissatisfaction among TKA patients after prolonged follow-up. The purpose of this study is to determine patient dissatisfaction 5-years after TKA and to identify patient factors predictive of dissatisfaction. Methods: Demographic and clinical data on 4402 patients undergoing primary unilateral TKA between 2012 and 2015 were collected prospectively through the Function and Outcomes Research for Comparative Effectiveness in Total Joint Replacement (FORCE-TJR) comparative effectiveness consortium including diverse community and academic practices distributed across 23 states in the United States. Data collected at 1 year preoperatively and 5 years postoperatively included patient satisfaction (using a 5-point Likert satisfaction scale) and patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs) including the Knee injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS) and Short-Form health survey (36-item). A univariate analysis of the difference between the satisfied and dissatisfied patients' groups was performed. A multivariate logistic regression model with 95% confidence interval (CI) was used to identify independent predictors of dissatisfaction at 5 years. The regression model was performed after adjusting the following variables: age, gender, body mass index (BMI), Charlson Comorbidity Index (CCI), marital status, smoking, education, and insurance type. The Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) analysis was performed with the measurement of area under curve (AUC). Hosmer-Lemeshow goodness of fit test was performed to evaluate the validity of the model. Results: A total of 12.7% patients (559/4402) reported dissatisfaction 5-years after TKA. Increased BMI, higher CCI, higher Oswestry disability index, and increased number of other painful lower extremities (LE) joints were significantly associated with dissatisfaction. Higher rates of dissatisfaction were present in young patients, patients with less education, and non-White patients. Patient dissatisfaction was significantly associated with poor preoperative and 5-year postoperative PROMs scores and less score improvement from baseline to 5 years (P < .001). The multivariate regression analysis showed that an increased number of other painful LE joints (OR = 1.81; 95% CI (1.14-2.88) (P = .01), increased Oswestry back disability index (OR = 1.40; 95% CI (1.07-1.82) (P = .01), non-White patients (OR = 1.74; 95% CI (1.26-2.40) (P = .001), and minimal preoperative functional disability with KOOS function in daily living (ADL) score ≥70 (OR = 0.64; 95% CI (0.43-0.95) (P = .02) were independent predictive factors for dissatisfaction at 5 years. Conclusion: A total of 12.7% patients reported dissatisfaction 5-years after TKA. Clinical profiles of the satisfied and dissatisfied patients were captured 5-years after TKA with differences in the preoperative demographic and clinical characteristic variables identified. Risk factors for long-term patient dissatisfaction after TKA have been identified and should be considered during shared decision making while planning for TKA. Surgeons should use these identified risk factors to set realistic expectations for patients at an increased risk for dissatisfaction aiming to optimize their outcomes and increase their long-term satisfaction after TKA.
    • S184: preoperative sarcopenia is associated with worse short-term outcomes following transanal total mesorectal excision (TaTME) for rectal cancer

      Springer, Jeremy E.; Beauharnais, Catherine; Chicarilli, Derek; Coderre, Danielle; Crawford, Allison; Baima, Jennifer A.; McIntosh, Lacey J.; Davids, Jennifer S.; Sturrock, Paul R.; Maykel, Justin A.; et al. (2022-01-06)
      INTRODUCTION: Malnutrition and deconditioning impact postoperative morbidity and mortality. Computed tomography (CT) body composition variables are used as markers of nutritional status and sarcopenia. The objective of this study is to evaluate the impact of sarcopenia, using CT variables, on postoperative outcomes following transanal total mesorectal excision (TaTME) for rectal cancer. METHODS: This was an institutional retrospective cohort analysis of consecutive rectal cancer patients who underwent TaTME between April 2014 and May 2020. Psoas muscle index (PMI) was calculated from diagnostic CT scans. Based on previous studies, patients in the lowest PMI tertile by gender were considered sarcopenic. Fisher's exact and Mann-Whitney U test were used to compare categorical and continuous variables, respectively. Readmission rates and postoperative complications were compared between groups. Backward stepwise logistic regression was used to determine the association between sarcopenia and 30-day postoperative complications. RESULTS: 85 patients were analyzed, of which 63% were male, with a median age of 59 (IQR: 51-65), and median BMI of 28 (IQR: 24-32). Of the entire cohort, 34% (n = 29) were sarcopenic (median PMI 5.39 IQR: 4.49-6.71). No significant difference in baseline characteristics between sarcopenic and nonsarcopenic patients were observed. 55% of sarcopenic patients experienced a complication within 30 days compared to 24% of nonsarcopenic patients (p = 0.01). 41% of sarcopenic patients required hospital readmission within 30 days compared to 17% of their nonsarcopenic counterparts (p = 0.014). Sarcopenic patients also experienced significantly higher rates of post-operative small bowel obstruction (10% vs. 0%, p = 0.04). Multivariable analyses identified that sarcopenic patients have a fourfold increase in odds of experiencing a 30-day postoperative complication (OR: 4.44, 95%CI: 1.6-12.4, p < 0.05) after adjusting for gender. CONCLUSION: Preoperative sarcopenia is associated with increased 30-day postoperative complications following TaTME for rectal cancer. Postoperative complications can have serious oncologic implications by delaying adjuvant chemotherapy. Therefore, preoperative recognition of sarcopenia prior to undergoing TaTME for rectal cancer may provide an opportunity for early intervention with prehabilitation programs.
    • High variability in patient reported outcome utilization following hip fracture: a potential barrier to value-based care

      Schraut, Nicholas; Bango, Jugert; Flaherty, Alexandra; Rossetti, Victoria; Swart, Eric (2021-12-22)
      For patients with hip fractures, outcomes can be measured by giving surveys measuring "patient rated outcome measures" (PROMs), performance based measures (PBMS), and objective medical outcomes (e.g., mortality, living situation, resource utilization). This study reviewed articles on hip fracture published in top academic journals, and found that most studies are not reliably using a single set of outcome measures including PROMs, and no single PROM or outcome battery is being used commonly. PURPOSE/INTRODUCTION: Osteoporotic hip fractures are associated with high levels of morbidity, mortality, and cost, while gains in mortality over the past 30 years have been modest. To improve care beyond simple mortality metrics requires identifying and then consistently measuring outcomes that are meaningful to patients and families. The purpose of this study was to review the top-tier hip fracture literature published in the past 30 years to determine if there are consensus outcome measures being routinely used and if the rate of reporting clinically meaningful patient-rated outcome measures is improving over time. METHODS: This was a systematic review and meta-analysis on outcome measures reported in osteoporotic hip fractures. Articles were included if they had been published over the last 30 years and were from high impact factor journals. Inclusion criteria were elderly hip fractures, therapeutic or prognostic study, unique and identifiable patients, and included follow-up beyond initial hospitalization. We analyzed study type, inclusion criteria, outcomes reported, and journal specialty orientation. RESULTS: Three hundred eighty-four articles were included in the final analysis. Sixty-seven percent of the articles were therapeutic studies; 33% were prognostic studies. The average number of patients in each study was 435; the average age was 78 years. The most commonly reported outcome was mortality, and was present in 79% of studies. There was a high degree of heterogeneity in patient-reported outcome measures, with the most popular score (Harris Hip Score) reported only 14% of the time. Only 6% of articles had all components of essential core outcome sets previously defined in the literature. CONCLUSIONS: Despite the apparent advances that have been made in our ability to care for hip fractures, the overall rate of reporting outcomes beyond mortality rate remains low. This lack of consensus represents a major barrier to implementation of value-based care in this patient population.
    • Functional Rehabilitation and Return to Play After Arthroscopic Surgical Stabilization for Anterior Shoulder Instability

      Kelley, Timothy D; Clegg, Stephanie; Rodenhouse, Paul; Hinz, Jon; Busconi, Brian D (2021-12-17)
      Background: There exists limited objective functional return-to-play criteria after surgical stabilization for anterior shoulder instability in the competitive athlete. Hypothesis: The proposed functional rehabilitation program and psychological evaluation after arthroscopic Bankart repair will help athletes return to sport with a decreased redislocation rate on return. Study design: Case series. Level of evidence: Level 4. Methods: Participants were contact or overhead athletes at the high school or collegiate level. Each underwent arthroscopic Bankart repair after a single dislocation event, with less than 10% glenoid bone loss. Western Ontario Shoulder Instability Index (WOSI) scores, Single Assessment Numeric Evaluation (SANE) scores, and American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons (ASES) scores were evaluated pre- and postoperatively. Athletes were only allowed to return to competition after completing the proposed functional and psychological rehabilitation protocol. Results: A total of 62 participants were enrolled (52 male, 10 female; average age, 18.7 years (range 16-24 years); mean Instability Severity Index Score, 5.63 ± 0.55). All returned to sport for 1 full season and completed a minimum of 2 years of follow-up. The average time to pass functional testing was 6.2 ± 0.7 months, psychological testing was 5.2 ± 0.5 months, and return to sport was 6.5 ± 0.7 months. SANE scores improved from 44.3 to 90.0, ASES from 45.5 to 89.3, and WOSI from 1578.0 to 178.9 (all P < 0.001). Redislocation rate was 6.5% (4 of 62). Conclusion: The proposed functional rehabilitation and psychological assessment protocol is safe and effective in returning athletes to sport after arthroscopic surgical intervention for anterior shoulder instability. This demonstrated a low redislocation rate after 2-year follow-up. Clinical relevance: Most return-to-play protocols after arthroscopic Bankart repair are centered on recovery time alone, with limited focus on functional rehabilitation, psychological assessment, and return-to-play testing parameters. To our knowledge, this is the first study to propose a dedicated rehabilitation program incorporating functional testing, psychological readiness, and return-to-play criteria for competitive athletes recovering from arthroscopic shoulder stabilization.
    • Proximal humeral fracture-dislocations: which patterns can be reduced in the emergency department

      Green, Adam; Choi, Peter; Lubitz, Marc G.; Aaron, Daniel L.; Swart, Eric (2021-10-11)
      BACKGROUND: Shoulder fracture-dislocations can represent a challenging management scenario in the emergency department (ED) because of concern for the presence of occult fractures that may displace during a reduction attempt. The alternative, a closed reduction attempt in the operating room, has the benefit of full paralysis but requires additional resource utilization. There is limited guidance in the literature about the risks of an initial reduction attempt in the ED as a function of fracture pattern to help guide physicians with this decision. METHODS: This was a retrospective case review of adult patients with shoulder dislocations and fracture-dislocations seen in the ED at a level 1 trauma center over a 10-year period. Imaging and medical records were reviewed to evaluate whether the reduction attempt was successful, unsuccessful without worsening, or unsuccessful with worsening alignment of any fractures, as well as the ultimate clinical outcome. RESULTS: We identified 165 patients with fracture-dislocations and 484 patients with simple dislocations during the same period. Of the patients with fracture-dislocations, 103 had greater tuberosity fractures, 12 had nondisplaced surgical neck fractures, and 50 had displaced surgical neck fractures. None of the patients with simple dislocations had displacement during an ED reduction attempt, including 100 patients aged > 65 years. Of the 103 patients with greater tuberosity fracture-dislocations, only 1 had displacement of a humeral shaft fracture during ED reduction. Displacement occurred in 6 of 8 patients with nondisplaced neck fractures who underwent an initial ED reduction attempt vs. 1 of 4 patients who underwent the initial reduction attempt in the operating room. ED reduction was attempted in 25 of the 50 displaced humeral neck fracture-dislocations and was successful in 10 of these (40%). CONCLUSIONS: For patients with greater tuberosity fracture-dislocations, there is a low rate of displacement with a reduction attempt in the ED, but an ED reduction attempt in nondisplaced neck fractures is not recommended because of the high rate of displacement. For displaced neck fractures, closed reduction can be successful in select patients. Finally, these data confirm prior reports that closed reduction of simple shoulder dislocations in patients aged > 65 years is safe in the ED.
    • Challenging Diagnosis of Stickler Syndrome in a Patient with Premature Osteoarthritis: A Case Report

      Yousef, Mohamed A.; Ayers, David C. (2021-03-23)
      CASE: A 53-year-old male patient, subsequently diagnosed with type I Stickler syndrome, presented with severe premature osteoarthritis associated with bilateral hip dysplasia and knee epiphyseal dysplasia. Despite the presence of the typical manifestations of orofacial defects, hearing, ocular, and musculoskeletal abnormalities, the patient had never been diagnosed with the syndrome. CONCLUSION: Stickler syndrome can present with a wide spectrum of musculoskeletal abnormalities without previous diagnosis. It is often underrecognized if the manifestations of other systems are not appreciated. Stickler syndrome should be considered in the differential diagnosis of patients with unexplained musculoskeletal abnormality particularly in the presence of other system manifestations.
    • Accidental Prehabilitation: a case of increased exercise frequency before thoracic surgery

      Baima, Jennifer; Maxfield, Mark W.; Powers, Maggie; Varlotto, John M.; Uy, Karl (2020-03-08)
      Case Diagnosis: 67 year-old man was found down with dysarthria, dysphagia, and right lower limb weakness. He was diagnosed with left anterior cerebral artery ischemic stroke, acute renal failure, atrial fibrillation, and deep venous thrombosis. He remained hospitalized for months as he did not have insurance for inpatient rehabilitation care and could not be safely discharged home. Case Description: During that time, he got physical therapy 5 times per week and then 2 times per week. While hospitalized, he was subsequently diagnosed with left upper lobe nodule from T2aN0M0 lung adenocarcinoma. Physical therapy was increased back to 5 times per week for at least two weeks prior to left upper lobectomy and mediastinal lymphadenectomy by video-assisted thorascopic surgery 2.5 months after admission. Hospital course was complicated by anticoagulation and postoperative hemothorax, which responded to evacuation. He was discharged to subacute care after rate negotiation and then home. Discussions: We present the case of a patient who got physical therapy five times weekly in the 14 days prior to thoracic surgery. Although it is well established that exercise improves aerobic parameters and outcomes, the typical outpatient insurance benefit is under 120 minutes or only twice per week. 150 minutes a week is the current recommended amount of exercise for cancer patients. Since this patient could not be discharged due to lack of insurance for acute rehabilitation or outpatient care, he remained inpatient and received physical therapy five times weekly prior to surgery. Despite risk factors, he was safely discharged and recovered well. Conclusions: Our patient got a greater frequency and higher dose of exercise than most presurgical thoracic patients; this may be why he was able to tolerate thoracic surgery with multiple serious risk factors.
    • Don’t call me in the morning: why it might be best to see patients in-person, a case report

      Jarnagin, Johnny; Baima, Jennifer; Most, Mathew J.; Mazin, David A. (2020-03-07)
      Case Diagnosis: Post-irradiation Sarcoma Case Description: A 58-year-old woman with a history of stage IIIB squamous cell carcinoma of the cervix who was treated with chemoradiation, considered in remission 5 years prior on PET CT, and was under every 6-months surveillance for recurrence by gynecology. She presented to the Emergency Department for severe back pain, left sided sciatica, and paresthesias. In the absence of fracture or cord compression, she was discharged with recommendations for primary care follow-up. This took place over the telephone with referral to the spine center. One week later, her pain progressed to 10+/10 with dense left leg numbness, and multiple falls. Physiatry ordered a lumbar MRI for focal neurologic findings on exam, which revealed a large destructive lesion of the left ilium and left hemisacrum with soft tissue extension. This was later determined to be undifferentiated sarcoma, likely due to prior radiation. She is currently undergoing palliative chemotherapy. Discussions: Post-irradiation sarcomas (PIS) are a relatively rare event and exhibit dose dependency. Sarcomas can present with bone pain that can be worse at night and signs and symptoms of compression of surrounding structures. The pelvis is a common site for sarcoma development. Cases of PIS have presented in even just a few months post radiation therapy. The prognosis of patients with PIS is poorer than those with primary sarcomas. This patient would require hemipelvectomy to attempt curative treatment. Conclusions: PIS are typically aggressive, have poor prognosis, and can develop within months of high doses of radiation therapies; clinicians index of suspicion for sarcomas in patients with a history of radiation must be high. Evaluation for progressive pain, weakness, and numbness may not be amenable to telemedicine until technology improves. Patients that present with signs and symptoms of progressive nerve compression and bone pain should be re-examined early on.
    • The Role and Scope of Prehabilitation in Cancer Care

      Lukez, Alexander; Baima, Jennifer (2020-02-01)
      OBJECTIVES: To recognize cancer prehabilitation as a pretreatment regimen to increase functional status for patients requiring cancer treatment. This article presents current evidence addressing the efficacy and benefits of prehabilitation regimens in different cancer survivor populations. DATA SOURCES: Studies and case reports in the PubMed database. CONCLUSION: Cancer prehabilitation may improve outcomes. Prehabilitation may include targeted or whole-body exercise, nutrition, education, psychologic counseling, and smoking cessation. Opportunities exist to further improve access to and delivery of multimodal prehabilitation, and nurses play a critical role in connecting patients to these services. IMPLICATIONS FOR NURSING PRACTICE: Oncology nurses who are knowledgeable of cancer treatment-related effects are poised to assess survivors for existing impairments, advocate for prehabilitation for existing and potential morbidities, and monitor functional status over time. As patient educators, they are key to informing cancer survivors about the role of prehabilitation.
    • Micrococcal-Nuclease-Triggered On-Demand Release of Vancomycin from Intramedullary Implant Coating Eradicates Staphylococcus aureus Infection in Mouse Femoral Canals

      Ghimire, Ananta; Skelly, Jordan D.; Song, Jie (2019-12-26)
      Preventing orthopedic implant-associated bacterial infections remains a critical challenge. Current practices of physically blending high-dose antibiotics with bone cements is known for cytotoxicity while covalently tethering antibiotics to implant surfaces is ineffective in eradicating bacteria from the periprosthetic tissue environment due to the short-range bactericidal actions, which are limited to the implant surface. Here, we covalently functionalize poly(ethylene glycol) dimethacrylate hydrogel coatings with vancomycin via an oligonucleotide linker sensitive to Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) micrococcal nuclease (MN) (PEGDMA-Oligo-Vanco). This design enables the timely release of vancomycin in the presence of S. aureus to kill the bacteria both on the implant surface and within the periprosthetic tissue environment. Ti6Al4V intramedullary (IM) pins surface-tethered with dopamine methacrylamide (DopaMA) and uniformly coated with PEGDMA-Oligo-Vanco effectively prevented periprosthetic infections in mouse femoral canals inoculated with bioluminescent S. aureus. Longitudinal bioluminescence monitoring, muCT quantification of femoral bone changes, end point quantification of implant surface bacteria, and histological detection of S. aureus in the periprosthetic tissue environment confirmed rapid and sustained bacterial clearance by the PEGDMA-Oligo-Vanco coating. The observed eradication of bacteria was in stark contrast with the significant bacterial colonization on implants and osteomyelitis development found in the absence of the MN-sensitive bactericidal coating. The effective vancomycin tethering dose presented in this on-demand release strategy was > 200 times lower than the typical prophylactic antibiotic contents used in bone cements and may be applied to medical implants and bone/dental cements to prevent periprosthetic infections in high-risk clinical scenarios. This study also supports the timely bactericidal action by MN-triggered release of antibiotics as an effective prophylactic method to bypass the notoriously harder to treat periprosthetic biofilms and osteomyelitis.
    • Prehabilitation for patient positioning: pelvic exercises assist in minimizing inter-fraction sacral slope variability during radiation therapy

      O'Loughlin, Lauren; Lukez, Alexander; Ma, Yunsheng; Baima, Jennifer; Moni, Janaki (2019-11-12)
      Reproducible patient positioning is essential for precision in radiation therapy (RT) delivery. We tested the hypothesis that a structured daily pre-treatment stretching regimen is both feasible and effective for minimizing variability in positioning, as measured by sacral slope angles (SSA). Eight female subjects undergoing pelvic radiotherapy performed a structured daily hip exercise regimen (extension and external rotation) immediately prior to both simulation imaging and daily treatment, throughout their RT course. This exercising cohort was compared to a retrospective review of 20 subjects (17 women and 3 men) undergoing RT, who had usual care. SSA measurements from daily pre-treatment imaging were compared to SSA measurements from the simulation CT. The average variation in SSA among the intervention subjects was 0.91 degrees (+/- 0.58 degrees ), with a range among subjects of 0.57 degrees -1.27 degrees . The average variation for the control subjects was 2.27 degrees (+/- 1.43 degrees ), ranging 1.22 degrees -5.09 degrees . The difference between the two groups was statistically significant (p = 0.0001). There was a statistically significant SSA variation between groups at each week of treatment. There was no significant variation among the intervention subjects between week 1 and later weeks, whereas subjects in the control group demonstrated significant SSA variation between week 1 and later weeks. We demonstrated a significant decrease in the variability of SSA by implementing a simple pre-treatment exercise program, while control subjects exhibited increasing variation in SSA over the course of treatment. We conclude that there is a potential benefit of prehabilitation during pelvic RT; however, a larger randomized control trial is required to confirm the findings.Clinical Trial: This research project was approved by the University of Massachusetts Medical School IRB (IRB ID H00012353) on January 21, 2017. The study is listed on ClinicalTrials.gov, provided by the U.S. National Library of Medicine, found with identifier NCT03242538.