Tau exons 2 and 10, which are misregulated in neurodegenerative diseases, are partly regulated by silencers which bind a SRp30c.SRp55 complex that either recruits or antagonizes htra2beta1
Document TypeJournal Article
Gene Expression Regulation
Nerve Tissue Proteins
Recombinant Fusion Proteins
*Silencer Elements, Transcriptional
MetadataShow full item record
AbstractTau is a microtubule-associated protein whose transcript undergoes complex regulated splicing in the mammalian nervous system. Exon 2 modulates the tau N-terminal domain, which interacts with the axonal membrane. Exon 10 codes for a microtubule binding domain, increasing the affinity of tau for microtubules. Both exons are excluded from fetal brain, but their default behavior is inclusion, suggesting that silencers are involved in their regulation. Exon 2 is significantly reduced in myotonic dystrophy type 1, whose symptoms include dementia. Mutations that affect exon 10 splicing cause frontotemporal dementia (FTDP). In this study, we investigated three regulators of exon 2 and 10 splicing: serine/arginine-rich (SR) proteins SRp55, SRp30c, and htra2beta1. The first two inhibit both exons; htra2beta1 inhibits exon 2 but activates exon 10. By deletion analysis, we identified splicing silencers located at the 5' end of each exon. Furthermore, we demonstrated that SRp30c and SRp55 bind to both silencers and to each other. In exon 2, htra2beta1 binds to the inhibitory heterodimer through its RS1 domain but not to exon 2, whereas in exon 10 the heterodimer may sterically interfere with htra2beta1 binding to a purine-rich enhancer (defined by FTDP mutation E10-Delta5 = Delta280K) directly downstream of the silencer. Increased exon 10 inclusion in FTDP mutant ENH (N279K) may arise from abolishing SRp30c binding. Also, htra2beta3, a naturally occurring variant of htra2beta1, no longer inhibits exon 2 splicing but can partially rescue splicing of exon 10 in FTDP mutation E10-Delta5. This work provides interesting insights into the splicing regulation of the tau gene.
SourceJ Biol Chem. 2005 Apr 8;280(14):14230-9. Epub 2005 Feb 3. Link to article on publisher's site
Permanent Link to this Itemhttp://hdl.handle.net/20.500.14038/25678
Related ResourcesLink to Article in PubMed
Showing items related by title, author, creator and subject.
Dynamic Regulation at the Neuronal Plasma Membrane: Novel Endocytic Mechanisms Control Anesthetic-Activated Potassium Channels and Amphetamine-Sensitive Dopamine Transporters: A DissertationGabriel, Luke R. (2013-06-13)Endocytic trafficking dynamically regulates neuronal plasma membrane protein presentation and activity, and plays a central role in excitability and plasticity. Over the course of my dissertation research I investigated endocytic mechanisms regulating two neuronal membrane proteins: the anesthetic-activated potassium leak channel, KCNK3, as well as the psychostimulant-sensitive dopamine transporter (DAT). My results indicate that KCNK3 internalizes in response to Protein Kinase C (PKC) activation, using a novel pathway that requires the phosphoserine binding protein, 14-3-3β, and demonstrates for the first time regulated KCNK3 channel trafficking in neurons. Additionally, PKC-mediated KCNK3 trafficking requires a non-canonical endocytic motif, which is shared exclusively between KCNK3 and sodium-dependent neurotransmitter transporters, such as DAT. DAT trafficking studies in intact ex vivo adult striatal slices indicate that DAT endocytic trafficking has both dynamin-dependent and –independent components. Moreover, DAT segregates into two populations at the neuronal plasma membrane: trafficking-competent and -incompetent. Taken together, these results demonstrate that novel, non-classical endocytic mechanisms dynamically control the plasma membrane presentation of these two important neuronal proteins.
Selective interaction of JNK protein kinase isoforms with transcription factorsGupta, Shashi; Barrett, Tamera; Whitmarsh, Alan J.; Cavanagh, Julie; Sluss, Hayla Karen; Derijard, Benoit; Davis, Roger J. (1996-06-03)The JNK protein kinase is a member of the MAP kinase group that is activated in response to dual phosphorylation on threonine and tyrosine. Ten JNK isoforms were identified in human brain by molecular cloning. These protein kinases correspond to alternatively spliced isoforms derived from the JNK1, JNK2 and JNK3 genes. The protein kinase activity of these JNK isoforms was measured using the transcription factors ATF2, Elk-1 and members of the Jun family as substrates. Treatment of cells with interleukin-1 (IL-1) caused activation of the JNK isoforms. This activation was blocked by expression of the MAP kinase phosphatase MKP-1. Comparison of the binding activity of the JNK isoforms demonstrated that the JNK proteins differ in their interaction with ATF2, Elk-1 and Jun transcription factors. Individual members of the JNK group may therefore selectively target specific transcription factors in vivo.
Role of the Raf/mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway in p21ras desensitizationKlarlund, Jes K.; Cherniack, Andrew D.; McMahon, Martin; Czech, Michael P. (1996-07-12)Desensitization of p21(ras) after stimulation of cells by growth factors and phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) correlates with hyperphosphorylation of the guanine nucleotide exchange factor Son-of-sevenless (Sos) and its dissociation from the adaptor protein Grb2 (Cherniack, A., Klarlund, J. K., Conway, B. R., and Czech, M. P. (1995) J. Biol. Chem. 270, 1485-1488). To test the role of the Raf/mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase pathway, we utilized cells expressing a chimera composed of the catalytic domain of p74Raf-1 and the hormone binding domain of the estradiol receptor (DeltaRaf-1:ER). Estradiol markedly stimulated DeltaRaf-1:ER and the downstream MEK and MAP kinases in these cells as well as Sos phosphorylation. However, the dissociation of Grb2 from Sos observed in response to PMA was not apparent upon DeltaRaf-1:ER activation. Furthermore, stimulation of DeltaRaf-1:ER did not impair GTP loading of p21(ras) in response to platelet-derived growth factor or epidermal growth factor. We conclude that activation of the Raf/MAP kinase pathway alone in these cells is insufficient to cause disassembly of Sos from Grb2 or to interrupt the ability of Sos to catalyze activation of p21(ras).