Location of DNA methylation genes on the Escherichia coli K-12 genetic map
AuthorsMarinus, Martin G.
UMass Chan AffiliationsDepartment of Biochemistry and Molecular Pharmacology
Document TypeJournal Article
Biochemistry, Biophysics, and Structural Biology
MetadataShow full item record
SourceMol Gen Genet. 1973 Dec 14;127(1):47-55.
Permanent Link to this Itemhttp://hdl.handle.net/20.500.14038/26142
Related ResourcesLink to Article in PubMed
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rAAV-Mediated Gene Transfer For Study of Pathological Mechanisms and Therapeutic Intervention in Canavan's Disease: A DissertationAhmed, Seemin Seher (2014-12-01)Canavan’s Disease is a fatal Central Nervous System disorder caused by genetic defects in the enzyme – aspartoacylase and currently has no effective treatment options. We report additional phenotypes in a stringent preclinical aspartoacylase knockout mouse model. Using this model, we developed a gene therapy strategy with intravenous injections of the aspartoacylase gene packaged in recombinant adeno associated viruses (rAAVs). We first investigated the CNS gene transfer abilities of rAAV vectors that can cross the blood-brain-barrier in neonatal and adult mice and subsequently used different rAAV serotypes such as rAAV9, rAAVrh.8 and rAAVrh.10 for gene replacement therapy. A single intravenous injection rescued lethality, extended survival and corrected several disease phenotypes including motor dysfunctions. For the first time we demonstrated the existence of a therapeutic time window in the mouse model. In order to limit off-target effects of viral delivery we employed a synthetic strategy using microRNA mediated posttranscriptional detargeting to restrict rAAV expression in the CNS. We followed up with another approach to limit peripheral tissue distribution. Strikingly, we demonstrate that intracerebroventricular administration of a 50-fold lower vectors dose can rescue lethality and extend survival but not motor functions. We also study the contributions of several peripheral tissues in a primarily CNS disorder and examine several molecular attributes behind pathogenesis of Canavan’s disease using primary neural cell cultures. In summary, this thesis describes the potential of novel rAAV-mediated gene replacement therapy in Canavan’s disease and the use of rAAVs as a tool to tease out its pathological mechanism.
Developing an Adeno-Associated Viral Vector (AAV) Toolbox for CNS Gene Therapy: A DissertationChoudhury, Sourav Roy (2016-01-07)Neurological disorders – disorders of the brain, spine and associated nerves – are a leading contributor to global disease burden with a sizable economic cost. Adeno-associated viral (AAV) vectors have emerged as an effective platform for CNS gene therapy and have shown early promise in clinical trials. These trials involve direct infusion into brain parenchyma, an approach that may be suboptimal for treatment of neurodegenerative disorders, which often involve more than a single structure in the CNS. However, overall neuronal transduction efficiency of vectors derived from naturally occurring AAV capsids after systemic administration is relatively low. We have developed novel capsids AAV-AS and AAV-B1 that lead to widespread gene delivery throughout the brain and spinal cord, particularly to neuronal populations. Both transduce the adult mouse brain >10-fold more efficiently than the clinical gold standard AAV9 upon intravascular infusion, with gene transfer to multiple neuronal sub-populations. These vectors are also capable of neuronal transduction in a normal cat. We have demonstrated the efficacy of AAV-AS in the context of Huntington's disease by knocking down huntingtin mRNA 33-50% after a single intravenous injection, which is better than what can be achieved by AAV9 at the particular dose. AAVB1 additionally transduces muscle, beta cells, pulmonary alveoli and retinal vasculature at high efficiency, and has reduced sensitivity to neutralizing antibodies in human sera. Generation of this vector toolbox represents a major step towards gaining genetic access to the entire CNS, and provides a platform to develop new gene therapies for neurodegenerative disorders.
Whole exome sequencing links dental tumor to an autosomal-dominant mutation in ANO5 gene associated with gnathodiaphyseal dysplasia and muscle dystrophiesAndreeva, T. V.; Tyazhelova, T. V.; Rykalina, V. N.; Gusev, F. E.; Goltsov, Andrey Y.; Zolotareva, O. I.; Aliseichik, M. P.; Borodina, T. A.; Grigorenko, Anastasia P.; Reshetov, Denis; et al. (2016-05-24)Tumors of the jaws may represent different human disorders and frequently associate with pathologic bone fractures. In this report, we analyzed two affected siblings from a family of Russian origin, with a history of dental tumors of the jaws, in correspondence to original clinical diagnosis of cementoma consistent with gigantiform cementoma (GC, OMIM: 137575). Whole exome sequencing revealed the heterozygous missense mutation c.1067G > A (p.Cys356Tyr) in ANO5 gene in these patients. To date, autosomal-dominant mutations have been described in the ANO5 gene for gnathodiaphyseal dysplasia (GDD, OMIM: 166260), and multiple recessive mutations have been described in the gene for muscle dystrophies (OMIM: 613319, 611307); the same amino acid (Cys) at the position 356 is mutated in GDD. These genetic data and similar clinical phenotypes demonstrate that the GC and GDD likely represent the same type of bone pathology. Our data illustrate the significance of mutations in single amino-acid position for particular bone tissue pathology. Modifying role of genetic variations in another gene on the severity of the monogenic trait pathology is also suggested. Finally, we propose the model explaining the tissue-specific manifestation of clinically distant bone and muscle diseases linked to mutations in one gene.