Intestinal restitution: progression of actin cytoskeleton rearrangements and integrin function in a model of epithelial wound healing
UMass Chan AffiliationsDepartment of Cancer Biology
Document TypeJournal Article
Tumor Cells, Cultured
MetadataShow full item record
AbstractSuperficial injury involving the mucosa of the gastrointestinal tract heals by a process termed restitution that involves epithelial sheet movement into the damaged area. The forces that drive epithelial sheet movement are only partially understood, although it is known to involve changes in the morphology of cells bordering the damage, such as the formation of large, flat, cytoplasmic extensions termed lamellae. We investigated the mechanism of epithelial sheet movement by following the response of the actin cytoskeleton and specific integrins (alpha6beta4, alpha6beta1, and alpha3beta1) to wounding. To model this event in vitro, monolayers of T84 cells, well-differentiated colon carcinoma cells, were damaged by aspiration and the ensuing response was analyzed by a combination of time-lapse video microscopy, fluorescence confocal microscopy and antibody inhibition assays. We show that wound healing begins with retraction of the monolayer. alpha6beta4 integrin is localized on the basal surface in structures referred to as type II hemidesmosomes that persist throughout this early stage. We hypothesize that these structures adhere to the substrate and function to retard retraction. Once retraction ceases, the wound is contracted initially by actin purse strings and then lamellae. Purse strings and lamellae produce a pulling force on surrounding cells, inducing them to flatten into the wound. In the case of lamellae, we detected actin suspension cables that appear to transduce this pulling force. As marginal cells produce lamellae, their basal type II hemidesmosomes disappear and the alpha6 integrins appear evenly distributed over lamellae surfaces. Antibodies directed against the alpha6 subunit inhibit lamellae formation, indicating that redistribution of the alpha6 integrins may contribute to the protrusion of these structures. Antibodies directed against the alpha3beta1 integrin also reduce the size and number of lamellae. This integrin's contribution to lamellae extension is most likely related to its localization at the leading edge of emerging protrusions. In summary, wounds in epithelial sheets initially retract, and then are contracted by first an actin purse string and then lamellae, both of which serve to pull the surrounding cells into the denuded area. The alpha6 integrins, particularly alpha6beta4, help contain retraction and both the alpha6 integrins and alpha3beta1 integrin contribute to lamellae formation.
Am J Pathol. 2000 Mar;156(3):985-96.
Permanent Link to this Itemhttp://hdl.handle.net/20.500.14038/26241
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Knockout of alpha6 beta1-integrin expression reverses the transformed phenotype of hepatocarcinoma cellsCarloni, Vinicio; Romanelli, Roberto G.; Mercurio, Arthur M.; Pinzani, Massimo; Laffi, Giacomo; Cotrozzi, Giorgio; Gentilini, Paolo (1998-07-25)BACKGROUND and AIMS: Hepatocellular carcinoma is a common complication in liver cirrhosis. The integrin alpha6 beta1, a receptor for the laminin family of extracellular matrix proteins, has been found to be overexpressed in hepatocarcinoma. In an effort to further characterize the involvement of alpha6 beta1-integrin in hepatocarcinoma progression and to study alpha6 beta1-mediated functions, a human hepatocarcinoma cell line, HepG2, that express high surface levels of alpha6 beta1 and uses only this integrin to mediate adhesion on laminin was identified. METHODS: To assess the role of alpha6 beta1 in these cells, a cytoplasmic domain deletion mutant of the beta4-integrin subunit by complementary DNA transfection was expressed. The expression of the mutant beta4 subunit in association with endogenous alpha6 showed a dominant-negative effect on alpha6 beta1 expression. RESULTS: Stable transfectants of HepG2 that expressed the mutant beta4 subunit showed a reduced ability to adhere and migrate on laminin matrices and to invade Matrigel. Furthermore, transfected cells showed significantly lower growth rates and reduced anchorage-independent growth compared with mock-transfected cells. CONCLUSIONS: These findings on the expression and function of alpha6 beta1 in hepatocarcinoma cells emphasize the potential contribution of this laminin receptor in the neoplastic transformation of hepatocytes.
Intestinal epithelial restitution. Involvement of specific laminin isoforms and integrin laminin receptors in wound closure of a transformed model epitheliumLotz, Margaret M.; Nusrat, A.; Madara, J. L.; Ezzell, R.; Wewer, Ulla M.; Mercurio, Arthur M. (1997-02-01)Disruptions in the mucosal lining of the gastrointestinal tract reseal by epithelial cell migration, a process termed restitution. We examined the involvement of laminin isoforms and their integrin receptors in restitution using the intestinal epithelial cell line T84. T84 cells express primarily laminins 5, 6, and 7 as indicated by immunostaining using laminin subunit-specific monoclonal antibodies (MAbs). A MAb (BM2) specific for the laminin alpha 3 subunit, a component of laminins 5, 6, and 7, completely inhibited the closure of mechanical wounds in T84 monolayers. Confocal microscopy using MAbs BM2 (laminin alpha 3 subunit) and 6F12 (laminin beta 3 subunit) revealed that laminin-5 is deposited in a basal matrix that extends into the wound. The MAbs 4E10 (laminin beta 1 subunit) and C4 (laminin beta 2 subunit) stained the lateral membranes between T84 cells. This staining was enhanced in cells adjoining wounds. Because T84 cells stained faintly with MAbs 4C7 (laminin alpha 1 subunit) and with MAbs 4F11 and 1B4 (laminin alpha 2 subunit), we suggest that expression of laminins 6 and 7 is enhanced in response to wounding. The alpha 3 beta 1 integrin and the alpha 6-containing integrins function in wound closure because MAbs specific for the beta 1 integrin subunit (MAb13), the alpha 3 subunit (IVA5), and the alpha 6 subunit (2B7) potently inhibited T84 migration into wounds. Immunofluorescence using UMA9, a beta 4-integrin-specific MAb, revealed that alpha 6 beta 4 integrin exists in a Triton-X-100-insoluble structure at the basal surface and that the staining of this structure is enhanced in cells adjoining wounds. In addition, a Triton-X-100-soluble pool of alpha 6 beta 4, as well as alpha 3 beta 1 and presumably alpha 6 beta 1, was found along lateral surfaces of T84 cells. On flattened cells adjoining wounds, staining for these integrins was distributed diffusely, suggesting a redistribution that accompanies cell migration. Taken together, these data suggest that wound-induced epithelial cell migration is a finely tuned process that is dependent upon the regulated function and localization of specific laminins and their integrin receptors.
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