Interspecies conservation of outer arm dynein intermediate chain sequences defines two intermediate chain subclasses
UMass Chan AffiliationsDepartment of Cell Biology
KeywordsAmino Acid Sequence
Molecular Sequence Data
Sequence Homology, Amino Acid
Amino Acids, Peptides, and Proteins
Enzymes and Coenzymes
MetadataShow full item record
AbstractImmunological analysis showed that antibodies against the intermediate chains (ICs) IC2 and IC3 of sea urchin outer arm dynein specifically cross-reacted with intermediate chains IC78 and IC69, respectively, of Chlamydomonas outer arm dynein. In contrast, no specific cross-reactivity with any Chlamydomonas outer arm polypeptide was observed using antibody against IC1 of sea urchin outer arm dynein. To learn more about the relationships between the different ICs, overlapping cDNAs encoding all of IC2 and IC3 of sea urchin were isolated and sequenced. Comparison of these sequences with those previously obtained for the Chlamydomonas ICs revealed that, although all four chains are homologous, sea urchin IC2 is much more closely related to Chlamydomonas IC78 (45.8% identity), and sea urchin IC3 is much more closely related to Chlamydomonas IC69 (48.5% identity), than either sea urchin chain is related to the other (23.5% identity). For homologous pairs, the similarities extend throughout the full lengths of the chains. Regions of similarity between all four ICs and the IC (IC74) of cytoplasmic dynein, located in the C-terminal halves of the chains, are due primarily to conservation of the WD repeats present in all of these ICs. This is the first demonstration that structural differences between individual ICs within an outer arm dynein have been highly conserved in the dyneins of distantly related species. The results provide a basis for the subclassification of these chains.
Mol Biol Cell. 1995 Jun;6(6):685-96.
Permanent Link to this Itemhttp://hdl.handle.net/20.500.14038/26429
Showing items related by title, author, creator and subject.
The unique catalytic subunit of sperm cAMP-dependent protein kinase is the product of an alternative Calpha mRNA expressed specifically in spermatogenic cellsSan Agustin, Jovenal T.; Wilkerson, Curtis G.; Witman, George B. (2000-09-12)cAMP-dependent protein kinase has a central role in the control of mammalian sperm capacitation and motility. Previous protein biochemical studies indicated that the only cAMP-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit (C) in ovine sperm is an unusual isoform, termed C(s), whose amino terminus differs from those of published C isoforms of other species. Isolation and sequencing of cDNA clones encoding ovine C(s) and Calpha1 (the predominant somatic isoform) now reveal that C(s) is the product of an alternative transcript of the Calpha gene. C(s) cDNA clones from murine and human testes also were isolated and sequenced, indicating that C(s) is of ancient origin and widespread in mammals. In the mouse, C(s) transcripts were detected only in testis and not in any other tissue examined, including ciliated tissues and ovaries. Finally, immunohistochemistry of the testis shows that C(s) first appears in pachytene spermatocytes. This is the first demonstration of a cell type-specific expression for any C isoform. The conservation of C(s) throughout mammalian evolution suggests that the unique structure of C(s) is important in the subunit's localization or function within the sperm.
ATF1 and CREB trans-activate a cell cycle regulated histone H4 gene at a distal nuclear matrix associated promoter elementGuo, Bo; Stein, Janet L.; Van Wijnen, Andre J.; Stein, Gary S. (1997-12-16)Proteins of the ATF/CREB class of transcription factors stimulate gene expression of several cell growth-related genes through protein kinase A-related cAMP response elements. The promoter activity of cell cycle regulated histone H4 genes is regulated by at least four principal cis-acting elements which mediate G1/S phase control and/or enhancement of transcription during the cell cycle. Using protein-DNA interaction assays we show that the H4 promoter contains two ATF/CREB recognition motifs which interact with CREB, ATF1, and ATF2 but not with ATF4/CREB2. One ATF/CRE motif is located in the distal promoter at the nuclear matrix-associated Site IV, and the second motif is present in the proximal promoter at Site I. Both ATF/CRE motifs overlap binding sequences for the multifunctional YY1 transcription factor, which has previously been shown to be nuclear matrix associated. Subnuclear fractionation reveals that there are two ATF1 isoforms which appear to differ with respect to DNA binding activity and partition selectively between nuclear matrix and nonmatrix compartments, consistent with the role of the nuclear matrix in regulating gene expression. Site-directed mutational studies demonstrate that Site I and Site IV together support ATF1- and CREB-induced trans-activation of the H4 promoter. Thus, our data establish that ATF/CREB factors functionally modulate histone H4 gene transcription at distal and proximal promoter elements.
Flagellin gene transcription in Bordetella bronchiseptica is regulated by the BvgAS virulence control systemAkerley, Brian J.; Miller, Jeff F. (1993-06-01)The products of the bvgAS locus activate expression of a majority of the known Bordetella virulence factors but also exert negative control over a class of genes called vrg genes (bvg-repressed genes). BvgAS negatively controls the production of flagella and the phenotype of motility in Bordetella bronchiseptica. In this study flaA, the flagellin gene, was cloned and characterized to facilitate studies of this negative control pathway. An internal flaA probe detected hybridizing sequences on genomic Southern blots of Bordetella pertussis, Bordetella parapertussis, and Bordetella avium, although B. pertussis and B. parapertussis are nonmotile. FlaA is similar to the FliC flagellins of Salmonella typhimurium and Escherichia coli, and flaA complemented an E. coli flagellin mutant. Insertional inactivation of the chromosomal flaA locus eliminated motility, which was restored by complementation with the wild-type locus. Analysis of flaA mRNA production by Northern (RNA) blotting and primer extension indicated that negative regulation by BvgAS occurs at the level of transcription. The transcriptional start site of flaA mapped near a consensus site for the alternative sigma factor, sigma F, encoded by fliA in E. coli and S. typhimurium. Consistent with a role for a fliA analog in B. bronchiseptica, transcriptional activation of a flaA-lacZ fusion in E. coli required fliA and a flaA-linked locus designated frl.frl also efficiently complemented mutations in the flagellar master regulatory locus, flhDC, of E. coli. Our analysis of the motility phenotype of B. bronchiseptica suggests that the Bordetella virulence control system mediates transcriptional control of flaA through a regulatory hierarchy that includes the frl locus and an alternative sigma factor.