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dc.contributor.authorGandra, Sumanth
dc.contributor.authorRam, Sanjay
dc.contributor.authorLevitz, Stuart M.
dc.date2022-08-11T08:08:10.000
dc.date.accessioned2022-08-23T15:45:01Z
dc.date.available2022-08-23T15:45:01Z
dc.date.issued2021-06-08
dc.date.submitted2021-06-14
dc.identifier.citation<p>Gandra S, Ram S, Levitz SM. The "Black Fungus" in India: The Emerging Syndemic of COVID-19-Associated Mucormycosis. Ann Intern Med. 2021 Jun 8. doi: 10.7326/M21-2354. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 34097436. <a href="https://doi.org/10.7326/M21-2354">Link to article on publisher's site</a></p>
dc.identifier.issn0003-4819 (Linking)
dc.identifier.doi10.7326/M21-2354
dc.identifier.pmid34097436
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/20.500.14038/27445
dc.description.abstractIndia is experiencing a second wave of COVID-19, with 28.2 million cases reported as of this writing, although this is likely an underestimate; the true toll is estimated at more than 500 million cases. The unprecedented increase in COVID-19 cases during this second wave exposed the crippled health care system. Oxygen supplies have dwindled, hospitals have turned away patients because of a lack of beds, and shortages of critical medicines have occurred. In the midst of this crisis, a “syndemic” of rhino-orbito-cerebral mucormycosis infections has arisen, with nearly 9000 cases reported so far from several states in India. A syndemic recognizes the interactions between social and biological factors that result in more adverse disease outcomes. Compounding the crises are reported shortages of amphotericin B, the main drug used to treat mucormycosis. Although COVID-19–associated mucormycosis is not unique to India, emerging data indicate that the extraordinarily high prevalence is multifactorial, with contributions from poorly controlled diabetes, excessive use of corticosteroids and possibly antibiotics, and environmental exposure.
dc.language.isoen_US
dc.relation<p><a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?db=pubmed&cmd=Retrieve&list_uids=34097436&dopt=Abstract">Link to Article in PubMed</a></p>
dc.relation.urlhttps://doi.org/10.7326/m21-2354
dc.subjectCOVID-19
dc.subjectMucormycosis
dc.subjectBacterial Infections and Mycoses
dc.subjectInfectious Disease
dc.subjectNutritional and Metabolic Diseases
dc.subjectVirus Diseases
dc.titleThe "Black Fungus" in India: The Emerging Syndemic of COVID-19-Associated Mucormycosis
dc.typeJournal Article
dc.source.journaltitleAnnals of internal medicine
dc.identifier.legacycoverpagehttps://escholarship.umassmed.edu/covid19/246
dc.identifier.contextkey23348821
html.description.abstract<p>India is experiencing a second wave of COVID-19, with 28.2 million cases reported as of this writing, although this is likely an underestimate; the true toll is estimated at more than 500 million cases. The unprecedented increase in COVID-19 cases during this second wave exposed the crippled health care system. Oxygen supplies have dwindled, hospitals have turned away patients because of a lack of beds, and shortages of critical medicines have occurred. In the midst of this crisis, a “syndemic” of rhino-orbito-cerebral mucormycosis infections has arisen, with nearly 9000 cases reported so far from several states in India. A syndemic recognizes the interactions between social and biological factors that result in more adverse disease outcomes. Compounding the crises are reported shortages of amphotericin B, the main drug used to treat mucormycosis. Although COVID-19–associated mucormycosis is not unique to India, emerging data indicate that the extraordinarily high prevalence is multifactorial, with contributions from poorly controlled diabetes, excessive use of corticosteroids and possibly antibiotics, and environmental exposure.</p>
dc.identifier.submissionpathcovid19/246
dc.contributor.departmentDepartment of Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases and Immunology


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