Fast skeletal muscle regulatory light chain is required for fast and slow skeletal muscle development
Craig, Roger W.
Potter, James D.
UMass Chan AffiliationsDepartment of Cell Biology
Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental
Mice, Inbred C57BL
Muscle Fibers, Fast-Twitch
Muscle Fibers, Slow-Twitch
Myosin Light Chains
Polymerase Chain Reaction
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AbstractIn skeletal muscle, the myosin molecule contains two sets of noncovalently attached low molecular weight proteins, the regulatory (RLC) and essential (ELC) light chains. To assess the functional and developmental significance of the fast skeletal isoform of the RLC (RLC-f), the murine fast skeletal RLC gene (Mylpf) was disrupted by homologous recombination. Heterozygotes containing an intronic neo cassette (RLC-/+) had approximately one-half of the amount of the RLC-f mRNA compared to wild-type (WT) mice but their muscles were histologically normal in both adults and neonates. In contrast, homozygous mice (RLC-/-) had no RLC-f mRNA or protein and completely lacked both fast and slow skeletal muscle. This was likely due to interference with mRNA processing in the presence of the neo cassette. These RLC-f null mice died immediately after birth, presumably due to respiratory failure since their diaphragms lacked skeletal muscle. The body weight of newborn RLC-f null mice was decreased 30% compared to heterozygous or WT newborn mice. The lack of skeletal muscle formation in the null mice did not affect the development of other organs including the heart. In addition, we found that WT mice did not express the ventricular/slow skeletal RLC isoform (RLC-v/s) until after birth, while it was expressed normally in the embryonic heart. The lack of skeletal muscle formation observed in RLC-f null mice indicates the total dependence of skeletal muscle development on the presence of RLC-f during embryogenesis. This observation, along with the normal function of the RLC-v/s in the heart, implicates a coupled, diverse pathway for RLC-v/s and RLC-f during embryogenesis, where RLC-v/s is responsible for heart development and RLC-f is necessary for skeletal muscle formation. In conclusion, in this study we demonstrate that the Mylpf gene is critically important for fast and slow skeletal muscle development.
SourceFASEB J. 2007 Jul;21(9):2205-14. Epub 2007 Mar 13. Link to article on publisher's site
Permanent Link to this Itemhttp://hdl.handle.net/20.500.14038/27658
Related ResourcesLink to Article in PubMed
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Role of Map4k4 in Skeletal Muscle Differentiation: A DissertationMichael Czech, PhD; Wang, Mengxi (2013-05-01)Skeletal muscle is a complicated and heterogeneous striated muscle tissue that serves critical mechanical and metabolic functions in the organism. The process of generating skeletal muscle, myogenesis, is elaborately coordinated by members of the protein kinase family, which transmit diverse signals initiated by extracellular stimuli to myogenic transcriptional hierarchy in muscle cells. Mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) including p38 MAPK, c-Jun N terminal kinase (JNK) and extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase (ERK) are components of serine/threonine protein kinase cascades that play important roles in skeletal muscle differentiation. The exploration of MAPK upstream kinases identified mitogen activated protein kinase kinase kinase kinase 4 (MAP4K4), a serine/threonine protein kinase that modulates p38 MAPK, JNK and ERK activities in multiple cell lines. Our lab further discovered that Map4k4 regulates peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) translation in cultured adipocytes through inactivating mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), which controls skeletal muscle differentiation and hypotrophy in kinase-dependent and -independent manners. These findings suggest potential involvement of Map4k4 in skeletal myogenesis. Therefore, for the first part of my thesis, I characterize the role of Map4k4 in skeletal muscle differentiation in cultured muscle cells. Here I show that Map4k4 functions as a myogenic suppressor mainly at the early stage of skeletal myogenesis with a moderate effect on myoblast fusion during late-stage muscle differentiation. In agreement, Map4k4 expression and protein kinase activity are declined with myogenic differentiation. The inhibitory effect of Map4k4 on skeletal myogenesis requires its kinase activity. Surprisingly, none of the identified Map4k4 downstream effectors including p38 MAPK, JNK and ERK is involved in the Map4k4-mediated myogenic differentiation. Instead, expression of myogenic regulatory factor Myf5, a positive mediator of skeletal muscle differentiation is transiently regulated by Map4k4 to partially control skeletal myogenesis. Mechanisms by which Map4k4 modulates Myf5 amount have yet to be determined. In the second part of my thesis, I assess the relationship between Map4k4 and IGF-mediated signaling pathways. Although siRNA-mediated silencing of Map4k4 results in markedly enhanced myotube formation that is identical to the IGF-induced muscle hypertrophic phenotype, and Map4k4 regulates IGF/Akt signaling downstream effector mTOR in cultured adipocytes, Map4k4 appears not to be involved in the IGF-mediated ERK1/2 signaling axis and the IGF-mediated Akt signaling axis in C2C12 myoblasts. Furthermore, Map4k4 does not affect endogenous Akt signaling or mTOR activity during C2C12 myogenic differentiation. The results presented here not only identify Map4k4 as a novel suppressor of skeletal muscle differentiation, but also add to our knowledge of Map4k4 action on multiple signaling pathways in muscle cells during skeletal myogenesis. The effects that Map4k4 exerts on myoblast differentiation, fusion and Myf5 expression implicate Map4k4 as a potential drug target for muscle mass growth, skeletal muscle regeneration and muscular dystrophy.
Single particle analysis of relaxed and activated muscle thin filamentsPirani, Alnoor; Xu, Chen; Hatch, Victoria; Craig, Roger W.; Tobacman, Larry S.; Lehman, William (2005-02-17)The movement of tropomyosin from actin's outer to its inner domain plays a key role in sterically regulating muscle contraction. This movement, from a low Ca2+ to a Ca2+-induced position has been directly demonstrated by electron microscopy and helical reconstruction. Solution studies, however, suggest that tropomyosin oscillates dynamically between these positions at all Ca2+ levels, and that it is the position of this equilibrium that is controlled by Ca2+. Helical reconstruction reveals only the average position of tropomyosin on the filament, and not information on the local dynamics of tropomyosin in any one Ca2+ state. We have therefore used single particle analysis to analyze short filament segments to reveal local variations in tropomyosin behavior. Segments of Ca2+-free and Ca2+ treated thin filaments were sorted by cross-correlation to low and high Ca2+ models of the thin filament. Most segments from each data set produced reconstructions matching those previously obtained by helical reconstruction, showing low and high Ca2+ tropomyosin positions for low and high Ca2+ filaments. However, approximately 20% of segments from Ca2+-free filaments fitted best to the high Ca2+ model, yielding a corresponding high Ca2+ reconstruction. Conversely, approximately 20% of segments from Ca2+-treated filaments fitted best to the low Ca2+ model and produced a low Ca2+ reconstruction. Hence, tropomyosin position on actin is not fixed in either Ca2+ state. These findings provide direct structural evidence for the equilibration of tropomyosin position in both high and low Ca2+ states, and for the concept that Ca2+ controls the position of this equilibrium. This flexibility in the localization of tropomyosin may provide a means of sterically regulating contraction at low energy cost.
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