The stress-activated protein kinases p38alpha/beta and JNK1/2 cooperate with Chk1 to inhibit mitotic entry upon DNA replication arrest
Barrantes, Ivan del Barco
Davis, Roger J.
Nebreda, Angel R.
UMass Chan AffiliationsProgram in Molecular Medicine
Document TypeJournal Article
Ataxia Telangiectasia Mutated Proteins
Cell Cycle Proteins
JNK Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases
MAP Kinase Kinase 3
MAP Kinase Kinase 6
Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase 11
Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase 14
NIH 3T3 Cells
Tumor Suppressor Proteins
Cellular and Molecular Physiology
MetadataShow full item record
AbstractAccurate DNA replication is crucial for the maintenance of genome integrity. To this aim, cells have evolved complex surveillance mechanisms to prevent mitotic entry in the presence of partially replicated DNA. ATR and Chk1 are key elements in the signal transduction pathways of DNA replication checkpoint; however, other kinases also make significant contributions. We show here that the stress kinases p38 and JNK are activated when DNA replication is blocked, and that their activity allows S/M, but not G 2/M, checkpoint maintenance when Chk1 is inhibited. Activation of both kinases by DNA replication inhibition is not mediated by the caffeine-sensitive kinases ATR or ATM. Phosphorylation of MKK3/6 and MKK4, p38 and JNK upstream kinases was also observed upon DNA replication inhibition. Using a genetic approach, we dissected the p38 pathway and showed that both p38alpha and p38beta isoforms collaborate to inhibit mitotic entry. We further defined MKK3/6 and MK2/3 as the key upstream and downstream elements in the p38 signaling cascade after replication arrest. Accordingly, we found that the stress signaling pathways collaborate with Chk1 to keep cyclin B1/Cdk1 complexes inactive when DNA replication is inhibited, thereby preventing cell cycle progression when DNA replication is stalled. Our results show a complex response to replication stress, where multiple pathways are activated and fulfill overlapping roles to prevent mitotic entry with unreplicated DNA.
SourceCell Cycle. 2012 Oct 1;11(19):3627-37. doi: 10.4161/cc.21917. Epub 2012 Aug 30. Link to article on publisher's site
Permanent Link to this Itemhttp://hdl.handle.net/20.500.14038/28289
Related ResourcesLink to Article in PubMed
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A mammalian scaffold complex that selectively mediates MAP kinase activationWhitmarsh, Alan J.; Cavanagh, Julie; Tournier, Cathy; Yasuda, Jun; Davis, Roger J. (1998-09-11)The c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK) group of mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinases is activated by the exposure of cells to multiple forms of stress. A putative scaffold protein was identified that interacts with multiple components of the JNK signaling pathway, including the mixed-lineage group of MAP kinase kinase kinases (MLK), the MAP kinase kinase MKK7, and the MAP kinase JNK. This scaffold protein selectively enhanced JNK activation by the MLK signaling pathway. These data establish that a mammalian scaffold protein can mediate activation of a MAP kinase signaling pathway.
Molecular determinants that mediate selective activation of p38 MAP kinase isoformsEnslen, Herve; Brancho, Deborah Marie; Davis, Roger J. (2000-03-16)The p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) group is represented by four isoforms in mammals (p38alpha, p38beta2, p38gamma and p38delta). These p38 MAPK isoforms appear to mediate distinct functions in vivo due, in part, to differences in substrate phosphorylation by individual p38 MAPKs and also to selective activation by MAPK kinases (MAPKKs). Here we report the identification of two factors that contribute to the specificity of p38 MAPK activation. One mechanism of specificity is the selective formation of functional complexes between MAPKK and different p38 MAPKs. The formation of these complexes requires the presence of a MAPK docking site in the N-terminus of the MAPKK. The second mechanism that confers signaling specificity is the selective recognition of the activation loop (T-loop) of p38 MAPK isoforms. Together, these processes provide a mechanism that enables the selective activation of p38 MAPK in response to activated MAPKK.
Selective activation of p38 mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase isoforms by the MAP kinase kinases MKK3 and MKK6Enslen, Herve; Raingeaud, Joel; Davis, Roger J. (1998-01-27)The cellular response to treatment with proinflammatory cytokines or exposure to environmental stress is mediated, in part, by the p38 group of mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinases. We report the molecular cloning of a novel isoform of p38 MAP kinase, p38 beta 2. This p38 MAP kinase, like p38 alpha, is inhibited by the pyridinyl imidazole drug SB203580. The p38 MAP kinase kinase MKK6 is identified as a common activator of p38 alpha, p38 beta 2, and p38 gamma MAP kinase isoforms, while MKK3 activates only p38 alpha and p38 gamma MAP kinase isoforms. The MKK3 and MKK6 signal transduction pathways are therefore coupled to distinct, but overlapping, groups of p38 MAP kinases.