The high prevalence of Clostridioides difficile among nursing home elders associates with a dysbiotic microbiome
AuthorsHaran, John P
Ward, Doyle V.
Bhattarai, Shakti K.
McCormick, Beth A.
UMass Chan AffiliationsGraduate School of Biomedical Sciences
Program in Microbiome Dynamics
Department of Microbiology and Physiological Systems
Department of Emergency Medicine
Document TypeJournal Article
KeywordsClostridioides difficile colonization
nursing home elders
proton pump inhibitor
Bacterial Infections and Mycoses
MetadataShow full item record
AbstractClostridioides difficile disproportionally affects the elderly living in nursing homes (NHs). Our objective was to explore the prevalence of C. difficile in NH elders, over time and to determine whether the microbiome or other clinical factors are associated with C. difficile colonization. We collected serial stool samples from NH residents. C. difficile prevalence was determined by quantitative polymerase-chain reaction detection of Toxin genes tcdA and tcdB; microbiome composition was determined by shotgun metagenomic sequencing. We used mixed-effect random forest modeling machine to determine bacterial taxa whose abundance is associated with C. difficile prevalence while controlling for clinical covariates including demographics, medications, and past medical history. We enrolled 167 NH elders who contributed 506 stool samples. Of the 123 elders providing multiple samples, 30 (24.4%) elders yielded multiple samples in which C. difficile was detected and 78 (46.7%) had at least one C. difficile positive sample. Elders with C. difficile positive samples were characterized by increased abundances of pathogenic or inflammatory-associated bacterial taxa and by lower abundances of taxa with anti-inflammatory or symbiotic properties. Proton pump inhibitor (PPI) use is associated with lower prevalence of C. difficile (Odds Ratio 0.46; 95%CI, 0.22-0.99) and the abundance of bacterial species with known beneficial effects was higher in PPI users and markedly lower in elders with high C. difficile prevalence.C. difficile is prevalent among NH elders and a dysbiotic gut microbiome associates with C. difficile colonization status. Manipulating the gut microbiome may prove to be a key strategy in the reduction of C. difficile in the NH.
Haran JP, Ward DV, Bhattarai SK, Loew E, Dutta P, Higgins A, McCormick BA, Bucci V. The high prevalence of Clostridioides difficile among nursing home elders associates with a dysbiotic microbiome. Gut Microbes. 2021 Jan-Dec;13(1):1-15. doi: 10.1080/19490976.2021.1897209. PMID: 33764826; PMCID: PMC8007149. Link to article on publisher's site