Likelihood of missed and recurrent adenomas in the proximal versus the distal colon
AuthorsLaiyemo, Adeyinka O.
Doubeni, Chyke A.
Sanderson, Andrew K. II
Pinsky, Paul F.
Badurdeen, Dilhana S.
Doria-Rose, V. Paul
Marcus, Pamela M.
Schoen, Robert E.
Cross, Amanda J.
UMass Chan AffiliationsMeyers Primary Care Institute
Department of Family Medicine and Community Health
False Negative Reactions
Neoplasm Recurrence, Local
Community Health and Preventive Medicine
MetadataShow full item record
AbstractBACKGROUND: Colonoscopy may be less efficacious in reducing colorectal cancer mortality in the proximal compared with the distal colon. A greater likelihood for missed and recurrent adenomas in the proximal colon may contribute to this phenomenon. OBJECTIVE: To examine whether a proximal adenoma is associated with the risk and location of missed and recurrent adenomas. DESIGN: Prospective. SETTING: Polyp Prevention Trial. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 1864 patients with an adenoma at baseline underwent a follow-up colonoscopy 4 years later (adenoma recurrence). Of these, 1731 underwent a clearing colonoscopy 1 year after the baseline examination (missed adenoma). MAIN OUTCOME MEASUREMENTS: Association of baseline adenoma location with the risk and location of adenomas found at colonoscopy performed 1 year and 4 years later. RESULTS: At the year 1 colonoscopy, 598 patients (34.6%) had an adenoma (missed adenoma). Compared with those with a distal-only adenoma at baseline, patients with a proximal-only adenoma at baseline were more likely to have any missed adenomas (relative risk [RR] 1.28; 95% CI, 1.09-1.49) and a proximal-only missed adenoma (RR 2.05; 95% CI, 1.49-2.80). At the year 4 colonoscopy, 733 patients (39.3%) had adenoma recurrence. Patients with a baseline proximal-only adenoma were more likely to have any adenoma recurrence (RR 1.14; 95% CI, 1.00-1.31) and a proximal-only adenoma recurrence (RR 1.52; 95% CI, 1.15-2.02). Sensitivity analyses involving missed adenomas did not materially affect the risk or location of recurrent adenomas at year 4 colonoscopy. LIMITATION: Lesions may still be missed on repeated colonoscopies. CONCLUSIONS: Missed and recurrent adenomas are more likely to be in the proximal colon. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.
SourceGastrointest Endosc. 2011 Aug;74(2):253-61. Epub 2011 May 6. Link to article on publisher's site
Permanent Link to this Itemhttp://hdl.handle.net/20.500.14038/30842
Related ResourcesLink to Article in PubMed
Showing items related by title, author, creator and subject.
Decreased expression of Mac-2 (carbohydrate binding protein 35) and loss of its nuclear localization are associated with the neoplastic progression of colon carcinomaLotz, Margaret M.; Andrews, Charles W. Jr.; Korzelius, Cynthia A.; Lee, Edward C.; Steele, Glenn D. Jr.; Clarke, Astrid; Mercurio, Arthur M. (1993-04-15)The Mac-2 lectin (carbohydrate binding protein 35) is a soluble, 32- to 35-kDa phosphoprotein that binds galactose-containing glycoconjugates. We report here that the colonic epithelium is a major site of Mac-2 expression in vivo based on immunohistochemistry of human tissue specimens. In this epithelium, proliferating cells at the base of the crypts do not express Mac-2 but its expression increases with differentiation along the crypt-to-surface axis. Mac-2 expression is concentrated in the nuclei of these differentiated epithelial cells. The progression from normal mucosa to adenoma to carcinoma is associated with significant changes in Mac-2 nuclear localization and expression. In all adenomas (9/9) and carcinomas (13/13) examined, Mac-2 was not present in the nucleus but was localized in the cytoplasm. Sequencing of Mac-2 cDNAs from normal mucosa and carcinoma revealed no specific mutations that could account for this loss of nuclear localization. We also observed a 5- to 10-fold decrease in Mac-2 mRNA levels in cancer compared to normal mucosa as well as a significant reduction in the amount of Mac-2 protein expressed. These observations suggest that Mac-2 exclusion from the nucleus and its decreased expression may be related to the neoplastic progression of colon cancer.
Identification of a high affinity TAG-72 binding peptide by phage display selectionXiao, Nan; Cheng, Dengfeng; Wang, Yi; Chen, Ling; Liu, Xinrong; Dou, Shuping; Liu, Guozheng; Liang, Min Min; Hnatowich, Donald J.; Rusckowski, Mary (2011-01-01)PURPOSE: Phage display was used to select novel peptides that specifically bind the TAG-72 antigen and with properties suitable for imaging TAG-72 positive cancers. RESULTS: After three rounds of selection against TAG-72 and using two different elution conditions including a long elution, the consensus sequences FRERCDKHPQKCTKFL and DPRHCQKRVLPCPAWL were expressed on phages G3-15 and T3-15 respectively. ELISA, fluorescence-activated cell sorting analysis and fluorescence microscopy provided evidence that both phages specifically bound TAG-72 in vitro. Both peptides are stable in 37oC serum. By a cell binding competition assay, the IC50 for T3-15 was measured as 0.29 nM and therefore 36-fold higher affinity than G3-15 at 10.32 nM. The biodistribution in mice carrying LS-174T tumors in one thigh were similar for both 99mTc-peptides at 30 min, but at 90 min the 99mTc-T3-15 peptide accumulated almost three times higher in the tumor. The SPECT/CT images were consistent with the biodistribution results. PROCEDURES: The f88-4/Cys6 phage library and two different elution conditions were used to identify two new higher affinity binding peptides for the TAG-72 antigen. One, was a single brief elution with pH 2.2 glycine buffer, and the second began with the glycine elution but was followed with a longer elution with Tris buffered saline (TBS) at pH 7.4. The phages that bound TAG-72 were evaluated by fluorescence-activated cell sorting analysis using TAG-72 positive LS-174T cells and confirmed by immunofluorescence imaging. The consensus peptides displayed on the selected phages were synthesized and conjugated with NHS-MAG3 for radiolabeling with 99mTc. The IC50 for TAG-72 binding was evaluated by cell binding competition in vitro while binding affinity was evaluated in vivo by necropsy and SPECT/CT imaging in a tumor mouse model. CONCLUSION: We have identified a peptide with a sub nanomolar inhibition constant for the TAG-72 antigen that may have application in cancer imaging.
Clinical evaluation of M43: a novel cancer-associated mucin epitopeGoodgame, Richard; Kiefe, Catarina I.; Rose, Esme; Sutton, Fred; Brown, Joseph; Alpert, Elliot (1993-06-15)A monoclonal antibody to colon carcinoma mucin was found to react with a colon carcinoma-associated carbohydrate epitope. This antibody was used to develop a quantitative solid phase immunoassay, M43. We prospectively and retrospectively evaluated the assay in patients with and without gastrointestinal carcinoma and compared the sensitivity and specificity with that of carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) and CA 19-9. One hundred ninety-two patients (181 with no evidence of malignancy) referred for upper or lower gastrointestinal endoscopy were prospectively studied. Sera from 172 patients with histologically confirmed gastrointestinal adenocarcinoma were retrospectively studied. Optimal discrimination cutoffs for M43 (5 units/ml), CEA (5 ng/ml), and CA 19-9 (30 units/ml) were determined by receiver operating characteristic curves analysis. M43 was positive in 112 of 151 patients with colorectal carcinoma (sensitivity 74%) and was negative in 167 of 181 patients without carcinoma (specificity 92%). Sensitivity and specificity were 77% and 93% for CEA and 60% and 83% for CA 19-9. Sixty-four % of 73 patients with colorectal carcinoma limited to the bowel wall had a positive M43 with a mean value of 178 units/ml. Eighty-one % of 27 patients with nonhepatic metastasis had a positive M43 with a mean value of 223 units/ml. Eighty-four % of 51 patients with hepatic metastasis had a positive M43 assay with a mean value of 2532 units/ml. Sensitivity in these three groups was 67%, 82%, and 82%, respectively, for CEA and 43%, 68%, and 79%, respectively, for CA 19-9. Of 38 carcinoma patients with a negative CEA, 45% had a positive M43. No correlation between the levels of M43 and CEA in patients with colorectal carcinoma was found. We conclude that M43 is positive in most patients with colorectal carcinoma, even in early stages. As a diagnostic test, its sensitivity and specificity are equivalent to those of CEA. However, the M43 assay is measuring a tumor antigen which is fundamentally different from CEA and which is present in a high percentage of CEA-negative patients.