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dc.contributor.authorDiFranza, Joseph R.
dc.contributor.authorWellman, Robert J.
dc.date2022-08-11T08:08:35.000
dc.date.accessioned2022-08-23T16:00:39Z
dc.date.available2022-08-23T16:00:39Z
dc.date.issued2005-02-01
dc.date.submitted2015-05-13
dc.identifier.citationNicotine Tob Res. 2005 Feb;7(1):9-26. <a href="http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/14622200412331328538">Link to article on publisher's site</a>
dc.identifier.issn1462-2203 (Linking)
dc.identifier.doi10.1080/14622200412331328538
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/20.500.14038/30930
dc.description.abstractRecent reports suggest that nicotine withdrawal symptoms are common among adolescents after a few weeks of intermittent tobacco use. No current model of nicotine dependence had predicted the rapid development of symptoms of dependence and withdrawal before the development of tolerance. We present a model that integrates neuroscience with clinical observations regarding how nicotine dependence develops, progresses, and resolves in humans. The central tenet of this sensitization-homeostasis model is that nicotine's dependence liability derives from its ability to stimulate neural pathways responsible for the suppression of craving. As a result of sensitization, the craving suppression produced by nicotine is magnified to superphysiological levels. The overinhibition of neurons responsible for craving initiates compensatory homeostatic measures that stimulate the craving pathways and result in craving when nicotine is absent. Separate homeostatic mechanisms are responsible for craving, withdrawal, and tolerance. The sensitization-homeostasis model is unique in its attribution of dependence to craving suppression, its attention to the temporal relationships among clinical features of nicotine dependence, and its extensive integration of clinical observations and basic science. It provides a framework for theory-based research.
dc.language.isoen_US
dc.relation<a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?db=pubmed&cmd=Retrieve&list_uids=15804674&dopt=Abstract">Link to Article in PubMed</a>
dc.relation.urlhttp://dx.doi.org/10.1080/14622200412331328538
dc.subjectAdolescent
dc.subjectBehavior, Addictive
dc.subjectHumans
dc.subject*Models, Neurological
dc.subjectNicotine
dc.subjectReceptors, Cholinergic
dc.subjectReceptors, Muscarinic
dc.subjectReceptors, Nicotinic
dc.subjectSmoking Cessation
dc.subjectSubstance Withdrawal Syndrome
dc.subjectTobacco Use Disorder
dc.subjectCommunity Health and Preventive Medicine
dc.subjectNeuroscience and Neurobiology
dc.subjectPreventive Medicine
dc.subjectPsychiatry and Psychology
dc.subjectPsychology
dc.subjectSubstance Abuse and Addiction
dc.titleA sensitization-homeostasis model of nicotine craving, withdrawal, and tolerance: integrating the clinical and basic science literature
dc.typeJournal Article
dc.source.journaltitleNicotine and tobacco research : official journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco
dc.source.volume7
dc.source.issue1
dc.identifier.legacycoverpagehttps://escholarship.umassmed.edu/fmch_articles/263
dc.identifier.contextkey7097119
html.description.abstract<p>Recent reports suggest that nicotine withdrawal symptoms are common among adolescents after a few weeks of intermittent tobacco use. No current model of nicotine dependence had predicted the rapid development of symptoms of dependence and withdrawal before the development of tolerance. We present a model that integrates neuroscience with clinical observations regarding how nicotine dependence develops, progresses, and resolves in humans. The central tenet of this sensitization-homeostasis model is that nicotine's dependence liability derives from its ability to stimulate neural pathways responsible for the suppression of craving. As a result of sensitization, the craving suppression produced by nicotine is magnified to superphysiological levels. The overinhibition of neurons responsible for craving initiates compensatory homeostatic measures that stimulate the craving pathways and result in craving when nicotine is absent. Separate homeostatic mechanisms are responsible for craving, withdrawal, and tolerance. The sensitization-homeostasis model is unique in its attribution of dependence to craving suppression, its attention to the temporal relationships among clinical features of nicotine dependence, and its extensive integration of clinical observations and basic science. It provides a framework for theory-based research.</p>
dc.identifier.submissionpathfmch_articles/263
dc.contributor.departmentDepartment of Family Medicine and Community Health
dc.source.pages9-26


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