DNA Immunization: Role of Target Site, Bone Marrow-Derived Cells and Secretion of Antigen in the Initiation of Immune Responses: A Dissertation
AuthorsTorres, Celia Aurora Tiglao
Faculty AdvisorHarriet L Robinson, Ph.D.
Academic ProgramMolecular Genetics and Microbiology
UMass Chan AffiliationsPathology
Document TypeDoctoral Dissertation
MetadataShow full item record
AbstractDNA immunization, or the use of antigen-expressing DNAs to raise immune responses, represents a novel approach to the study and manipulation of immune responses. In this dissertation, we examine the role of antigen expression at the target site, the role of antigen presentation by bone marrow-derived cells, and the effect of secretion of antigen on DNA-raised responses in mice. Immunizations were conducted using either gene gun delivery of DNA to the epidermis or intramuscular (i.m.) saline injections. To examine the role of antigen expression at the target site, we excised target sites at different time points following immunization. We immunized with plasmid DNA expressing three different forms of antigens: influenza hemagglutinin H1, human growth hormone and influenza nucleoprotein NP (membrane-bound, secreted and intracellular, respectively). We hypothesized that antigen expression at the target site would be essential in initiating immune responses. We demonstrate here that the target site plays different roles in gene gun and i.m. immunizations. We found that the skin target site played an essential role in eliciting maximal antibody and cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) responses by gene gun immunization, although low-level responses can be raised independent of the target site. In contrast, the muscle target site was not essential for eliciting maximal immune responses following i.m. immunization. We suggest that gene gun immunization results in transfection of keratinocytes and bone marrow-derived Langerhans cells at the target site, and these cells together initiate maximal responses. In i.m. immunizations, on the other hand, nonmuscle cells at distal sites, perhaps bone marrow-derived cells in lymphoid tissues, become transfected and are sufficient for initiation of maximal responses. We also examined the role of antigen presentation by bone marrow-derived cells in initiation of CTL responses to influenza NP following gene gun and i.m. immunization. We hypothesized that antigen presentation by bone marrow-derived cells would be involved in initiation of CTL responses. To test this hypothesis, irradiated F1 mice of MHC class I H-2bxd haplotype were reconstituted with bone marrow from either H-2b or H-2d donors, creating two sets of bone marrow chimeric mice (H-2b → H-2bxd and H-2d → H-2bxd, respectively). We immunized the two sets of bone marrow chimeric mice and determined the MHC haplotype restriction of the induced CTL responses using H-2b- or H-2d-restricted peptides of NP. We found that the CTL responses initiated following gene gun and i.m. immunization were restricted to the haplotype of the bone marrow donor. In H-2b→ H-2bxd chimeric mice, CTL responses were restricted to H-2b, while in H-2d→ H-2bxd chimeric mice, CTL responses were restricted to H-2d. Thus, antigen presentation by bone marrow-derived cells, and not by skin or muscle cells, initiates CTL responses following both gene gun and i.m. immunization. Finally, we examined the effect of secretion of a DNA-expressed antigen on antibody responses. We hypothesized that a secreted antigen would raise greater antibody responses than a membrane-bound antigen, due to easier access of a soluble antigen to lymphoid tissues and to uptake by professional antigen-presenting cells and by antigen-specific B cells. We immunized mice with plasmid DNA expressing either a secreted or the normal membrane-bound form of influenza hemagglutinin H1. We found that secretion of H1 (sH1) did not result in enhanced antibody responses, with sH1 appearing to be less effective than H1. We suggest that the effectiveness of DNA immunization with membrane-bound H1 in raising maximal antibody responses may be due to MHC class II presentation of H1 via an endogenous pathway, resulting from direct transfection of bone marrow-derived APCs. We also found that secretion of H1 influenced the predominant IgG subclass of antibody responses raised by i.m. immunization. Secreted H1 raised predominantly IgG1 responses and H1 raised predominantly IgG2a responses. The IgG1 response to sH1 following i.m. immunization was IL-4 dependent, suggesting that the response to sH1 had a T-helper type 2 phenotype. We propose a model for the mechanism of initiation of immune responses by DNA immunization based on our results and taking them within the context of results from other investigators in the field. We propose that DNA immunization may initiate immune responses primarily by the direct transfection of bone marrow-derived cells that then express and present the DNA vaccine-encoded antigen. However, antigen expression by nonhemopoietic cells, particularly in skin, may play a role in raising maximal responses.
Permanent Link to this Itemhttp://hdl.handle.net/20.500.14038/31606
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Dissecting the Role of Cytosolic Nucleic Acid Sensors in the Type I Interferon Response to Herpes Simplex Virus-1 and other Ligands: A DissertationThompson, Mikayla R. (2014-04-15)The innate immune system provides the first line of defense against infection. Pathogens are detected though a variety of Pattern Recognition Receptors (PRRs), which activate downstream signaling cascades. Effector molecules such as cytokines and chemokines are released upon activation and aid in cell recruitment, control of pathogen replication, and coordination of the adaptive immune response. Nucleic acids that are released into the cytosol during viral and bacterial infection are recognized through a special class of PRRs, coined cytosolic nucleic acid sensors. Upon recognition, these receptors induce the production of type I interferons and other cytokines to aid in pathogen clearance. Although many cytosolic nucleic acid sensors have been discovered, it is unclear how they work in concert to mediate these responses. The Interferon Gamma Inducible protein (IFI)16 and its proposed mouse orthologue IFI204 are cytosolic DNA sensors that have been linked to the detection of cytosolic DNA during infection with Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV-1). IFI16 binds dsDNA that has been released into the cytosol during viral infection and engages the adaptor molecule Stimulator of Interferon Genes (STING) leading to TANK binding kinase-1 (TBK1) dependent phosphorylation of interferon regulatory factor 3 (IRF3) and transcription of type I interferons and interferon stimulated genes. In addition to its role as a sensor, in chapter two of this thesis we describe a broader role for IFI16 in the regulation of the type I IFN response to RNA and DNA viruses in anti-viral immunity. In an effort to better understand the role of IFI16 in coordinating type I IFN gene regulation, we generated cell lines with stable knockdown of IFI16 and examined responses to DNA and RNA viruses as well as other inducers of IFN such as cyclic-dinucleotides. As expected, stable knockdown of IFI16 led to a severely attenuated type I IFN response to cytosolic DNA ligands and DNA viruses. In contrast, expression of the NF-κB regulated cytokines such as IL-6 and IL-1β were unaffected in IFI16 knockdown cells, suggesting that the role of IFI16 in sensing these triggers was unique to the type I IFN pathway. Surprisingly, we also found that knockdown of IFI16 led to a severe attenuation of expression of IFN-α and IFN stimulated genes such as RIG-I in response to cyclic GMP-AMP (cGAMP), a second messenger produced in response to cGAS, as well as RNA ligands and viruses. Analysis of IFI16 knockdown cells revealed compromised occupancy of RNA polymerase II on the IFN-α promoter in IFI16 knockdown cells suggesting that transcription of ISGs is dependent on IFI16. Since IFI16 knockdown compromised not only DNA virus driven pathways, we propose additional regulatory roles outside of DNA sensing. Collectively, these results indicate that IFI16 plays a role in the regulation of type I IFN gene transcription and production in response to both RNA and DNA viruses. The role of IFI16/IFI204 has been studied extensively in vitro, however the role of the receptors in vivo has yet to be determined. In chapter three of this thesis, we developed a mouse deficient in IFI204 to explore the role of IFI204 in in vivo immune responses to viruses. We investigated the ability of IFI204 deficient cells to induce type I interferons and other cytokines in response to a panel of DNA and RNA ligands in vitro. IFI204 deficient BMDMs displayed a partial defect in type I interferon induction in response to both DNA and RNA ligands and viruses as compared to WT mice. We also observed that this phenotype is time dependent, since there was no change in type I interferon induction after 12 hours post infection as compared to earlier time points. In contrast to these results, expression of the NF-κB regulated cytokines IL-6 and IL-1β were unaffected in IFI16 knockdown cells. These results suggest that IFI204 plays a partial role in the induction of type I interferons in response to both DNA and RNA ligands. Additionally, IFI204 may work in tandem with other receptors in a sequential manner to amplify the type I interferon response. We also studied the involvement of IFI204 in an in vivo model of HSV-1 infection. IFI204 knockout mice produce less brain and serum IFN-β, IL-6, and IL-1β 72 hours post intraperitoneal infection with HSV-1. Furthermore, IFI204 -/- mice are more susceptible to HSV-1 infection as compared to WT mice. These data indicate that IFI204 mediates the response to HSV-1 in vivo by inducing the production of cytokines that are necessary for the control of viral infection.
Characterization of Anti-Fungal Inflammasome Responses and the Role of Caspase-8 in Innate Immune Signaling: A DissertationGanesan, Sandhya (2014-04-16)The innate immune system is an evolutionarily conserved primary defense system against microbial infections. One of the central components of innate immunity are the pattern recognition receptors which sense infection by detecting various conserved molecular patterns of pathogens and trigger a variety of signaling pathways. In this dissertation, the signaling pathways of several classes of these receptors were dissected. In chapters II and III, the role of two NOD-like receptors, NLRP3 and NLRC4 were investigated in the context of infection with the fungal pathogen, C. albicans. C. albicans is an opportunistic pathogen that causes diseases mainly in immunocompromised humans and innate immunity is critical to control the infection. In chapters II and III, we demonstrate that a multiprotein-inflammasome complex formed by the NLR protein, NLRP3 and its associated partners, ASC and caspase-1 are critical for triggering the production of mature cytokine IL-1β in response to C. albicans. NLRC4, another inflammasome forming NLR that is activated by intracellular bacterial pathogens, was not required for this process in macrophages. Thus, our data indicates that NLRP3 inflammasome responds to fungal infections in addition to its known stimuli such as bacterial and viral infections, toxic, crystalline and metabolic signals. Interestingly, this NLRP3 dependent inflammasome response was maintained even when the pathogen is not viable, and is either formalin fixed or heat-killed (HK). Hence, in chapter III, we examined β-glucans, a structural cell wall component, as the potential immunostimulatory component of C. albicans and dissected the inflammasome responses to β -glucans. We observed that NLRP3-ASC-caspase-1 inflammasome was critical for commercially obtained particulate β-glucans similar to the case of C. albicans. β-glucan sensing C-lectin receptor dectin-1 and the complement receptor CR3 mediated inflammasome activation, IL-1β production in response to the glucan particles. Interestingly, CR3 which recognizes glucans as well as complement opsonized pathogens was strongly required for HK C. albicans induced IL-1β, and partially required for that of live C. albicans, while dectin-1 was not required. Consistent with the receptor studies, blocking of β -glucan receptors by pre-incubating cells with nonstimulatory, soluble glucans led to decreased IL-1β production in response to HK C. albicanswith no effect on IL-1β in response to the live fungus. Dectin-1, CR3 and β-glucan sensing also triggered a moderate dendritic cell death response to β-glucans and HK C. albicans. Live C. albicans induced cell death requires phagocytosis but not the inflammasome, β-glucan sensing, dectin-1 or CR3. The Drosophila caspase-8 like molecule DREDD plays an essential, nonapoptotic role in the Drosophila NF-κB pathway called the ‘IMD’ pathway. Owing to the remarkable evolutionary conservation between Drosophila and mammalian innate immune NF-κB pathways, we explored the potential role of caspase-8 in inflammasomes and in TLR signaling. Using casp8-/- Rip3-/- macrophages and dendritic cells, we observed that caspase-8, specifically augments β-glucan and HK C. albicans induced IL-1β as well as cell death in a caspase-1 independent manner, but not that of live C. albicans, in chapter III. We also found that caspase-8 differentially regulates TLR4 and TLR3 induced cytokine production (chapter IV). Caspase-8 specifically promotes TLR4 induced production of cytokines such as TNF, IL-1β in response to LPS and E. coli. On the other hand, caspase-8 negatively regulates TRIF induced IFNβ production in TLR4 and TLR3 signaling in response to LPS and dsRNA. Caspase-8 executed a similar mode of regulation of the cytokine RANTES in MEFs, in part, by collaborating with RIP3. Strikingly, caspase-8 deficiency alone triggers higher macrophage death and IL-1β production in response to TLR ligands, due to the presence of RIP3. Thus, in addition to its conventional roles in apoptosis, caspase-8 modulates TLR4 and TLR3 induced cytokine production and prevents RIP3 mediated hyper inflammation in response to TLR signals. Together, our findings provide valuable information on fungal pattern recognition and inflammasome pathways and define the contribution of β-glucan sensing to C. albicans induced inflammasome responses. In addition, we demonstrate how caspase-8 adds a layer of specificity to inflammasome as well as TLR signaling. Overall, these results also shed light on the cross talk between death signaling components and innate immune pathways to mount a specific and potentially effective innate immune response against microbial pathogens.
The Role of Heterologous Immunity in Viral Co-Infections and Neonatal Immunity: A DissertationKenney, Laurie L. (2013-08-01)The dynamics of T cell responses have been extensively studied during single virus infection of naïve mice. During a viral infection, viral antigen is presented in the context of MHC class I molecules on the surface of infected cells. Activated CD8 T cells that recognized viral antigens mediate clearance of virus through lysis of these infected cells. We hypothesize that the balance between the replicating speed of the virus and the efficiency at which the T cell response clears the virus is key in determining the disease outcome of the host. Lower T cell efficiency and delayed viral clearance can lead to extensive T cellmediated immunopathology and death in some circumstances. 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Using two distantly related arenaviruses, lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) and Pichinde virus (PICV), we questioned if immunological T cell memory and subsequent protection would be altered following a simultaneous co-infection, where two immune responses are generated within the same host at the same time. Coinfection with these two viruses, which require CD8 T cell responses to clear, resulted in decreased immune protection and enhanced immunopathology after challenge with either virus. After primary co-infection, each virus-specific immune response impacted the other as they competed within the same host and resulted in several significant differences in the CD8 T cell responses compared to mice infected with a single virus. Co-infected mice had a dramatic decrease in the overall size of the LCMV-specific CD8 T cell response and variability in which virus-specific response dominated, along with skewing in the immunodominance hierarchies from the normal responses found in single virus infected mice. The reduction in the number of LCMV-specific CD8 memory T cells, specifically cells with an effector memory-like phenotype, was associated with higher viral loads and increased liver pathology in co-infected mice upon LCMV challenge. The variability in the immunodominance hierarchies of co-infected mice resulted in an enhanced cross-reactive response in some mice that mediated enhanced immune-mediated fat pad pathology during PICV challenge. In both viral challenge models, an ineffective memory T cell response in co-infected mice facilitated increased viral replication, possibly leading to enhanced and prolonged accumulation of secondary effector T cells in the tissues, thereby leading to increased immune pathology. Thus, the magnitude and character of memory CD8 T cell responses in simultaneous co-infections differed substantially from those induced by single immunization. This has implications for the design of combination vaccines and scheduling of simultaneous immunizations. Model 2. The balance between protective immunity and immunopathology often determines the fate of the virus-infected host. Several human viruses have been shown to induce a wide range of severity of disease. Patients with hepatitis B virus (HBV), for example, show disease progression ranging from acute resolving infection to a persistent infection and fulminant hepatitis. Certain rapidly replicating viruses have the ability to clonally exhaust the T cell response, such as HBV and hepatitis C virus (HCV) in humans and the clone 13 strain of LCMV in mice. How rapidly virus is cleared is a function of initial viral load, viral replication rate, and efficiency of antigen-specific T cells. By infecting mice with three different inocula of LCMV clone 13, we questioned how the race between virus replication and T cell responses could result in different disease outcomes. A low dose of LCMV generated efficient CD8 T effector cells, which cleared the virus with minimal lung and liver pathology. A high dose of LCMV resulted in clonal exhaustion of T cell responses, viral persistence and little immunopathology. An intermediate dose only partially exhausted the CD8 T cell responses and was associated with significant mortality, and the surviving mice developed viral persistence and massive immunopathology, including necrosis of the lungs and liver. This was a T cell-mediated disease as T cell-deficient mice had no pathology and became persistently infected like mice infected with a high dose of LCMV clone 13. This suggests that for non-cytopathic viruses like LCMV, HCV and HBV, clonal exhaustion may be a protective mechanism preventing severe immunopathology and death. Model 3. Newborns are more susceptible to infections due to their lack of immunological memory and under-developed immune systems. Passive maternal immunity helps protect neonates until their immune systems have matured. We questioned if a noncytolytic virus that produces strong T cell responses in adult mice would also induce an equally effective response in neonatal mice. Neonates were infected with very low doses of LCMV Armstrong and surprisingly the majority succumbed to infection between days 7-11, which is the peak of the T cell response in adult mice infected with LCMV. Death was caused by T cell-dependent pathology and not viral load as 100% of T cell deficient neonates survived with minimal lung and liver pathology. This is similar to the adult model of medium dose LCMV clone 13, but T cell responses in neonates were not partially clonal exhausted. Furthermore, surviving neonates were not persistently infected, clearing virus by day 14 post infection. In adult mice direct intracranial infection leads to LCMV replication and CD8 T cell infiltration in the central nervous system (CNS), causing CD8 T cell-mediated death. However, this does not occur in adults during LCMV intraperitoneal (ip) infections. We questioned if unlike adults LCMV could be gaining access to the CNS in neonates following ip infection. Replicating LCMV was found in the brain of neonates after day 5 post infection along with virus-specific CD8 T cells producing IFNγ at day 9 post infection. Neonates lacking perforin had complete survival when followed until day 14 post infection, suggesting perforin-mediated T cell-dependent immunopathology within the CNS of neonates was causing death after LCMV infection. Passive immunity from LCMV-immune mothers also protected 100% of pups from death by helping control viral load early in infection. We believe that the maternal antibody compensates for the immature innate immune response of neonates and controls viral replication early so the neonatal T cell response induced less immunopathology. Neonates are commonly thought to have less functional immune systems, but these results show that neonates are capable of producing strong T cell responses that contribute to increased mortality. Model 4. Due to their enhanced susceptibility to infection neonatal and infant humans receive multiple vaccines. Several non-specific effects from immunizations have been observed, for example, measles or Bacillus Calmette- Guerin (BCG) vaccines have been linked to decreased death of children from infections other than measles virus or tuberculosis. These studies mirror the concepts of beneficial heterologous immunity, where previous immunization with an unrelated pathogen can result in faster viral clearance. LCMV-immune mice challenged with vaccinia virus (VV) have lower viral loads then naïve mice and survive lethal infections, but some mice do develop fat pad immunopathology in the form of panniculitis or acute fatty necrosis (AFN). We questioned how immunological T cell memory formed during the immature neonatal period would compare to memory generated in fully mature adults during a heterologous viral challenge. Mice immunized as neonates had comparable reduction in VV load and induction of AFN, indicating that heterologous immunity is established during viral infections early in life. Interestingly, the LCMV-specific memory populations that expanded in mice immunized as neonates differed from that of mice immunized as adults. In adult mice 50% of the mice have an expansion of LCMVNP205- specific CD8 T cells while the majority of neonates expanded the LCMVGP34- specific CD8 T cell pool. This alteration in dominant crossreactivities may be due to the limited T cell receptor repertoire of neonatal mice. In naïve neonatal mice we found altered Vβ repertoires within the whole CD8 T cell pool. Furthermore, there was altered Vβ usage within virus-specific responses compared to adult mice and a wide degree of variability between individual neonates, suggesting enhanced private specificity of the TCR repertoire. Beneficial heterologous immunity is maintained in neonates, but there was altered usage of crossreactive responses. As neonatal mice were found to be so sensitive to LCMV infection we questioned if neonates could control another arena virus that did not replicate as efficiently in mice, PICV. Unlike LCMV infection, neonatal mice survived infection with PICV even with adult-like doses. However, viral clearance was protracted in neonates compared to adults, but was cleared from fat pad and kidney by day 11 post infection. The peak of the CD8 T cell response was similarly delayed. PICV infected neonates showed dose-dependent PICV-specific CD8 T cell responses, which were similar to adult responses by frequency, but not total number. As with LCMV infection there were changes in immunodominance hierarchies in neonates. Examination of the immunodominance hierarchies of PICV-infected neonates showed that there were adult-like responses to the dominant NP38- specific response, but a loss of the NP122-specific response. Six weeks post neonatal infection mice were challenged with LCMV Armstrong and there was a strong skewing of the PICV immunodominance hierarchy to the crossreactive NP205-specific response. These data further support the hypothesis that heterologous immunity and crossreactivity develop following neonatal immunization, much as occurs in adults, although TCR repertoire and crossreactive patterns may differ. Changing the balance between T cell efficiency and viral load was found to altered the severity of the developing immunopathology after viral infection.