Clinical and Financial Impact of Hospital Readmissions Following Colorectal Resection: Predictors, Outcomes, and Costs: A Thesis
AuthorsDamle, Rachelle N.
Faculty AdvisorFred Anderson, PhD
Academic ProgramMaster of Science in Clinical Investigation
UMass Chan AffiliationsSurgery
Document TypeMaster's Thesis
Cost of Illness
Health Care Costs
Outcome Assessment (Health Care)
Cost of Illness
Health Care Costs
Outcome Assessment (Health Care)
Health Services Research
Surgical Procedures, Operative
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AbstractBackground: Following passage of the Affordable Care Act in 2010, 30-day hospital readmissions have come under greater scrutiny. Excess readmissions for certain medical conditions and procedures now result in penalizations on all Medicare reimbursements. We examined the risk factors, outcomes, and costs of 30-day readmissions after colorectal surgery (CRS). Methods: The University HealthSystem Consortium database was queried for adults (≥ 18 years) who underwent colorectal resection for cancer, diverticular disease, inflammatory bowel disease, or benign tumors between January 2008 and December 2011. Our outcomes of interest were readmission within 30-days of the patient’s index discharge, hospital readmission outcomes, and total direct hospital costs. Results: A total of 70,484 patients survived the index hospitalization after CRS during the years under study, 13.7% (9,632) of which were readmitted within 30 days of discharge. The strongest independent predictors of readmission were: LOS ≥4 days (OR 1.44; 95% CI 1.32-1.57), stoma (OR 1.53; 95% CI 1.45-1.61), and discharge to skilled nursing (OR 1.63; 95% CI 1.49-1.76) or rehabilitation facility (OR 2.93; 95% CI 2.54-3.40). Of those readmitted, half occurred within 7 days of the index admission, 13% required ICU care, 6% had a reoperation, and 2% died during the readmission stay. The median combined total direct hospital cost was over twice as high ($26,917 v. $13,817) for readmitted than for nonreadmitted patients. Conclusions: Readmissions following colorectal resection occur frequently and incur a significant financial burden on the healthcare system. Future studies aimed at targeted interventions for high-risk patients may reduce readmissions and curb escalating healthcare costs. Categorization: Outcomes research; Cost analysis; Colon and Rectal Surgery
Permanent Link to this Itemhttp://hdl.handle.net/20.500.14038/32100
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Age and Sex Differences in Duration of Pre-Hospital Delay, Hospital Treatment Practices, and Short-Term Outcomes in Patients Hospitalized with an Acute Coronary Syndrome/Acute Myocardial Infarction: A DissertationNguyen, Hoa L. (2010-05-07)Background The prompt seeking of medical care after the onset of symptoms suggestive of acute coronary syndromes (ACS)/acute myocardial infarction (AMI) is associated with the receipt of coronary reperfusion therapy, and effective cardiac medications in patients with an ACS/AMI and is crucial to reducing mortality and the risk of serious clinical complications in these patients. Despite declines in important hospital complications and short-term death rates in patients hospitalized with an ACS/AMI, several patient groups remain at increased risk for these adverse outcomes, including women and the elderly. However, recent trends in age and sex differences in extent of pre-hospital delay, hospital management practices, and short-term outcomes associated with ACS/AMI remain unexplored. The objectives of this study were to examine the overall magnitude, and changing trends therein, of age and sex differences in duration of pre-hospital delay (1986-2005), hospital management practices (1999-2007), and short-terms outcomes (1975-2005) in patients hospitalized with ACS/AMI. Methods Data from 13,663 residents of the Worcester, MA, metropolitan area hospitalized at all greater Worcester medical centers for AMI 15 biennial periods between 1975 and 2005 (Worcester Heart Attack Study), and from 50,096 patients hospitalized with an ACS in 106 medical centers in 14 countries participating in the Global Registry of Acute Coronary Events (GRACE) between 2000 and 2007 were used for this investigation. Results In comparison with men years, patients in other age-sex strata exhibited significantly longer pre-hospital delay, with the exception of women < 65 years; had a significantly lower odds of receiving aspirin, angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors or angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs), beta blockers, statins, and undergoing coronary artery bypass graft surgery (CABG) surgery or percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), and were significantly more likely to develop atrial fibrillation, cardiogenic shock, heart failure, and to die during hospitalization and in the first 30 days after admission. There was a significant interaction between age and sex in relation to the use of several medications and the development of several of these outcomes; in patients Conclusions Our results suggest that the elderly were more likely to experience longer prehospital delay, were less likely to be treated with evidence-based treatments during hospitalization for acute coronary syndrome, and were more likely to develop adverse outcomes compared to younger persons. Younger women were less likely to be treated with effective treatments and were more likely to develop adverse outcomes compared with younger men while there was no sex difference in these outcomes. Interventions targeted at older patients, in particular, are needed to encourage these high-risk patients to seek medical care promptly to maximize the benefits of currently available treatment modalities. More targeted treatment approaches during hospitalization for ACS/AMI for younger women and older patients are needed to improve their hospital prognosis.
Fire-setting behavior in the histories of a state hospital populationGeller, Jeffrey L.; Bertsch, Gregory (1985-04-01)Review of the records of 191 nongeriatric state hospital inpatients showed that 50 (26%) of the patients had engaged in some form of fire-setting behavior; half of this group had engaged in a single episode. As a group, persons who had engaged in fire-setting behavior were significantly more likely to have a history of nonlethal self-injurious behavior and had a significantly greater number of admissions to the state hospital. The data suggest that fire setting by any patient cannot be accurately predicted and that fire-setting behavior may be an example of destructive operant behavior.
Nurse staffing and mortality for Medicare patients with acute myocardial infarctionPerson, Sharina D.; Allison, Jeroan J.; Kiefe, Catarina I.; Weaver, Michael T.; Williams, O. Dale; Centor, Robert M.; Weissman, Norman W. (2004-01-10)CONTEXT: Recent hospital reductions in registered nurses (RNs) for hospital care raise concerns about patient outcomes. OBJECTIVE: Assess the association of nurse staffing with in-hospital mortality for patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI). DESIGN, SETTING, AND PATIENTS: Medical record review data from the 1994-1995 Cooperative Cardiovascular Project were linked with American Hospital Association data for 118,940 fee-for-service Medicare patients hospitalized with AMI. Staffing levels were represented as nurse to patient ratios categorized into quartiles for RNs and for licensed practical nurses (LPNs). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: In-hospital mortality. RESULTS: From highest to lowest quartile of RN staffing, in-hospital mortality was 17.8%, 17.4%, 18.5%, and 20.1%, respectively (P < 0.001 for trend). However, from highest to lowest quartile of LPN staffing, mortality was 20.1%, 18.7%, 17.9%, and 17.2%, respectively P < 0.001). After adjustment for patient demographic and clinical characteristics, treatment, and for hospital volume, technology index, and teaching and urban status, patients treated in environments with higher RN staffing were less likely to die in-hospital; odds ratios (95% confidence intervals) of quartiles 4, 3, and 2 versus quartile 1 were 0.91 (0.86-0.97), 0.94 (0.88-1.00), and 0.96 (0.90-1.02), respectively. Conversely, after adjustment, patients treated in environments with higher LPN staffing were more likely to die in-hospital; odds ratios (95% confidence intervals) of quartiles 4, 3, and 2 versus quartile 1 were 1.07 (1.00-1.15), 1.02 (0.96-1.09), and 1.00 (0.94-1.07), respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Even after extensive adjustment, higher RN staffing levels were associated with lower mortality. Our findings suggest an important effect of nurse staffing on in-hospital mortality.