Developing an Adeno-Associated Viral Vector (AAV) Toolbox for CNS Gene Therapy: A Dissertation
AuthorsChoudhury, Sourav Roy
Faculty AdvisorMiguel Sena-Esteves, Ph.D.
Academic ProgramInterdisciplinary Graduate Program
UMass Chan AffiliationsNeurology
Document TypeDoctoral Dissertation
Central Nervous System Diseases
Central Nervous System Diseases
Nervous System Diseases
MetadataShow full item record
AbstractNeurological disorders – disorders of the brain, spine and associated nerves – are a leading contributor to global disease burden with a sizable economic cost. Adeno-associated viral (AAV) vectors have emerged as an effective platform for CNS gene therapy and have shown early promise in clinical trials. These trials involve direct infusion into brain parenchyma, an approach that may be suboptimal for treatment of neurodegenerative disorders, which often involve more than a single structure in the CNS. However, overall neuronal transduction efficiency of vectors derived from naturally occurring AAV capsids after systemic administration is relatively low. We have developed novel capsids AAV-AS and AAV-B1 that lead to widespread gene delivery throughout the brain and spinal cord, particularly to neuronal populations. Both transduce the adult mouse brain >10-fold more efficiently than the clinical gold standard AAV9 upon intravascular infusion, with gene transfer to multiple neuronal sub-populations. These vectors are also capable of neuronal transduction in a normal cat. We have demonstrated the efficacy of AAV-AS in the context of Huntington's disease by knocking down huntingtin mRNA 33-50% after a single intravenous injection, which is better than what can be achieved by AAV9 at the particular dose. AAVB1 additionally transduces muscle, beta cells, pulmonary alveoli and retinal vasculature at high efficiency, and has reduced sensitivity to neutralizing antibodies in human sera. Generation of this vector toolbox represents a major step towards gaining genetic access to the entire CNS, and provides a platform to develop new gene therapies for neurodegenerative disorders.
Permanent Link to this Itemhttp://hdl.handle.net/20.500.14038/32178
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rAAV-Mediated Gene Transfer For Study of Pathological Mechanisms and Therapeutic Intervention in Canavan's Disease: A DissertationAhmed, Seemin Seher (2014-12-01)Canavan’s Disease is a fatal Central Nervous System disorder caused by genetic defects in the enzyme – aspartoacylase and currently has no effective treatment options. We report additional phenotypes in a stringent preclinical aspartoacylase knockout mouse model. Using this model, we developed a gene therapy strategy with intravenous injections of the aspartoacylase gene packaged in recombinant adeno associated viruses (rAAVs). We first investigated the CNS gene transfer abilities of rAAV vectors that can cross the blood-brain-barrier in neonatal and adult mice and subsequently used different rAAV serotypes such as rAAV9, rAAVrh.8 and rAAVrh.10 for gene replacement therapy. A single intravenous injection rescued lethality, extended survival and corrected several disease phenotypes including motor dysfunctions. For the first time we demonstrated the existence of a therapeutic time window in the mouse model. In order to limit off-target effects of viral delivery we employed a synthetic strategy using microRNA mediated posttranscriptional detargeting to restrict rAAV expression in the CNS. We followed up with another approach to limit peripheral tissue distribution. Strikingly, we demonstrate that intracerebroventricular administration of a 50-fold lower vectors dose can rescue lethality and extend survival but not motor functions. We also study the contributions of several peripheral tissues in a primarily CNS disorder and examine several molecular attributes behind pathogenesis of Canavan’s disease using primary neural cell cultures. In summary, this thesis describes the potential of novel rAAV-mediated gene replacement therapy in Canavan’s disease and the use of rAAVs as a tool to tease out its pathological mechanism.
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