Contraceptive Utilization and Downstream Feto-Maternal Outcomes for Women with Substance Use Disorders: A Dissertation
AuthorsGriffith, Gillian J.
Faculty AdvisorRobin E. Clark, PhD
Academic ProgramClinical and Population Health Research
UMass Chan AffiliationsFamily Medicine and Community Health
Document TypeDoctoral Dissertation
Family Planning Services
Family Planning Services
Female Urogenital Diseases and Pregnancy Complications
Maternal and Child Health
Obstetrics and Gynecology
Substance Abuse and Addiction
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AbstractBackground: One in ten people in the U.S. are affected by a substance use disorder (SUD), roughly one third of whom are women. Rates of unintended pregnancy are higher in this population than in the general public. Little is understood about how women with SUD use prescription contraception and think about pregnancy. Methods: By analyzing Medicaid claims data and conducting qualitative interviews with women with SUD, this doctoral thesis seeks to: 1) compare any use of and consistent, continued coverage by prescription contraceptives between women with and without SUD; 2) determine the extent to which SUD is associated with pregnancy, abortion, and adverse feto-maternal outcomes in women who use prescription contraception; and 3) explore facilitators of and barriers to contraceptive utilization by women with SUD, using qualitative interviews. Results: Compared to women without SUD, women with SUD are less likely to use any prescription contraceptive, particularly long-acting reversible methods. Among women who do use long-acting methods, SUD is associated with less continued, consistent coverage by a prescription contraceptive. Among women who use contraception, SUD is also associated with increased odds of abortion. When interviewed, women with SUD report fatalistic attitudes towards pregnancy planning, and have difficulty conceptualizing how susceptibility to pregnancy may change over time. Women with SUD also report that pregnancy has substantial impact on their drug treatment prospects. Conclusions: This study is the first to examine contraceptive utilization by women with SUD who are enrolled in Medicaid or state-subsidized insurance. Our study may help to inform clinical practice and policy development to improve the reproductive health and wellbeing of women with SUD.
Permanent Link to this Itemhttp://hdl.handle.net/20.500.14038/32195
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Provision of contraceptive services to homeless women: results of a survey of health care for the homeless providersSaver, Barry G.; Weinreb, Linda F.; Gelberg, Lillian; Zerger, Suzanne (2012-03-29)Homeless women have both a higher rate of pregnancy and a higher proportion of unintended pregnancies than other American women. The authors sought to learn about contraception services offered by providers of health care to homeless women and barriers to provision of long-acting, reversible contraception in these settings. A survey of the 31 member organizations in the national Health Care for the Homeless Practice-Based Research Network was conducted, inquiring about services provided and barriers to service provision. Among the 20 responding organizations (65% response rate), 17 directly provided contraceptive services; two referred patients elsewhere, and one provided no contraceptive services. All 17 that provided such services provided condoms; 15 provided oral contraceptives; 14 provided injectable contraception; 6 provided intrauterine devices, and 2 provided contraceptive implants. Barriers to providing the last two methods included lack of provider training, lack of resources for placement, costs, and concerns about complications. The present survey results suggested very limited access for homeless women across the country to the two most effective means of long-acting, reversible contraception. Modest investments of resources could reduce a number of barriers to providing these services.
Adolescent mothers' attitudes toward contraceptive use before and after pregnancyLemay, Celeste A.; Cashman, Suzanne B; Elfenbein, Dianne S.; Felice, Marianne E. (2007-08-04)STUDY OBJECTIVE: To understand attitudes and beliefs influencing use and nonuse of contraceptive methods pre- and postpartum among a group of adolescent mothers. DESIGN AND SETTING: Qualitative descriptive study utilizing focus groups conducted between May, 2005 and January, 2006 in Central Massachusetts. PARTICIPANTS: Adolescent mothers attending a federally funded multi-professional medical program. Inclusion criteria included being at least one year postpartum. Forty-six mothers were eligible; 34 were successfully contacted via telephone. Twenty-two agreed to attend; 15 adolescent mothers attended one of four groups. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Emergent themes were identified concerning adolescent mothers' attitudes and beliefs regarding contraception pre and postpartum. RESULTS: Themes pertaining to nonuse of contraception prior to first pregnancy were: denial, not planning to have sex, not considering the consequences of unprotected sex, and wanting to become pregnant. Participants identified barriers to obtaining and utilizing contraception, including embarrassment discussing the topic, confidentiality, inability to obtain contraception without parental knowledge, and lack of knowledge regarding methods. Participants reported that convenience, perceived effectiveness, familiarity, and side effects were the primary reasons for selecting or changing a method of contraception postpartum and recommended several methods of promoting contraceptive use among adolescents. These included persuading health care providers to discuss the issue routinely with every adolescent patient, parental involvement, outreach by young mothers to at-risk teens, and media campaigns. CONCLUSIONS: Given the adverse consequences of adolescent pregnancy, understanding the attitudes and beliefs of postpartum adolescents regarding contraceptives is important for developing effective interventions. Focus groups conducted with adolescent mothers, a difficult population to engage, provide a venue for exploring this complex issue.
Long acting contraception provision by rural primary care physiciansLunde, Britt; Smith, Paul; Grewal, Manpreet; Kumaraswami, Tara; Cowett, Allison; Harwood, Bryna (2014-06-01)OBJECTIVES: Unplanned pregnancy is a public health problem in the United States, including in rural areas. Primary care physicians are the main providers of health care to women in rural areas and are uniquely positioned to help reduce unplanned pregnancy in rural women. This study documents provision of contraception by rural primary care physicians, focusing on the most effective, long acting methods, intrauterine devices (IUDs) and contraceptive implants. METHODS: We surveyed all primary care physicians practicing in rural areas of Illinois and Wisconsin. Bivariate analysis was performed using chi squared and Fisher's exact test, and multivariable analysis was performed with logistic regression to determine factors associated with provision. RESULTS: The response rate was 862 out of 2312 physicians (37%). Nine percent of respondents place implants and 35% place IUDs. Eighty-seven percent of physicians had not had training in implant placement, and 41% had not had training in IUD placement. In multivariable analysis, factors associated with placement of long acting contraception include provision of maternity care, and female gender of the physician. The most common reasons for not providing the methods were lack of training and perceived low demand from patients. CONCLUSIONS: Many rural primary care providers do not place long acting contraceptive devices due to lack of training. Female physicians and those providing maternity care are the most likely to place these devices. Increased training for primary care physicians both during and after residency would help increase access to these options for women in rural areas.