Characterization of promoter elements required for cell-specific expression of the neurotensin/neuromedin N gene in a human endocrine cell line
AuthorsEvers, B. Mark
Townsend, Courtney M.
McNeil, Gerard P.
Dobner, Paul R.
UMass Chan AffiliationsDepartment of Molecular Genetics and Microbiology
Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences
KeywordsActivating Transcription Factor 1; Activating Transcription Factor 2; Adenocarcinoma; Animals; Base Sequence; Binding, Competitive; Cyclic AMP Response Element-Binding Protein; DNA Mutational Analysis; DNA-Binding Proteins; *Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic; Humans; Molecular Sequence Data; Neurotensin; Pancreatic Neoplasms; Peptide Fragments; Promoter Regions (Genetics); Protein Binding; Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-fos; Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-jun; Rats; Sequence Deletion; Tissue Distribution; Transcription Factors; Tumor Cells, Cultured
Medicine and Health Sciences
MetadataShow full item record
AbstractExpression of the gene encoding neurotensin/neuromedin N (NT/N) is mostly limited to the brain and specialized enteroendocrine cells (N cells) of the distal small intestine. We have analyzed the NT/N DNA sequences upstream of the RNA start site that direct cell-specific expression using a novel human endocrine cell line, BON, that resembles intestinal N cells in several important aspects, including NT/N precursor protein processing, ratios of different NT/N mRNA forms, and high levels of constitutive expression of the NT/N gene. Transient transfection assays with plasmids with progressive 5' deletions of the rat NT/N promoter identified the proximal 216 bp of 5' flanking sequences as essential for high-level constitutive NT/N expression in BON cells. In addition, a detailed mutational analysis defined multiple regions within the proximal 216 bp that contribute to cell-specific NT/N expression. These elements include a proximal cyclic AMP response element (CRE)/AP-1-like motif (TGACATCA) that binds c-Jun, JunD, CRE-binding (CREB), and ATF proteins, a near-consensus glucocorticoid response element, and a distal consensus AP-1 site that binds c-Fos, Fra-1, and JunD. In addition, elements contained within two 21-bp imperfect direct repeats play an important role in NT/N expression in BON cells and may bind novel factors that act as positive regulators of NT/N expression. DNase I footprinting and gel shift analyses demonstrate that the sites identified by mutational analysis, and at least one additional site, specifically bind BON cell nuclear proteins in vitro. We speculate that a complex pattern of regulation requiring interaction between a proximal CRE/AP-1-like motif and other upstream control elements play an important role in the high-level constitutive expression of NT/N in the human endocrine cell line BON. In addition, the BON cell line provides a unique model to further characterize the factors regulating cell-specific NT/N expression and to better understand the mechanisms responsible for the terminal differentiation of the N-cell lineage in the gut.
Mol Cell Biol. 1995 Jul;15(7):3870-81.
Permanent Link to this Itemhttp://hdl.handle.net/20.500.14038/33601
Showing items related by title, author, creator and subject.
Dynamic Regulation at the Neuronal Plasma Membrane: Novel Endocytic Mechanisms Control Anesthetic-Activated Potassium Channels and Amphetamine-Sensitive Dopamine Transporters: A DissertationGabriel, Luke R. (2013-06-13)Endocytic trafficking dynamically regulates neuronal plasma membrane protein presentation and activity, and plays a central role in excitability and plasticity. Over the course of my dissertation research I investigated endocytic mechanisms regulating two neuronal membrane proteins: the anesthetic-activated potassium leak channel, KCNK3, as well as the psychostimulant-sensitive dopamine transporter (DAT). My results indicate that KCNK3 internalizes in response to Protein Kinase C (PKC) activation, using a novel pathway that requires the phosphoserine binding protein, 14-3-3β, and demonstrates for the first time regulated KCNK3 channel trafficking in neurons. Additionally, PKC-mediated KCNK3 trafficking requires a non-canonical endocytic motif, which is shared exclusively between KCNK3 and sodium-dependent neurotransmitter transporters, such as DAT. DAT trafficking studies in intact ex vivo adult striatal slices indicate that DAT endocytic trafficking has both dynamin-dependent and –independent components. Moreover, DAT segregates into two populations at the neuronal plasma membrane: trafficking-competent and -incompetent. Taken together, these results demonstrate that novel, non-classical endocytic mechanisms dynamically control the plasma membrane presentation of these two important neuronal proteins.
Role of the Raf/mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway in p21ras desensitizationKlarlund, Jes K.; Cherniack, Andrew D.; McMahon, Martin; Czech, Michael P. (1996-07-12)Desensitization of p21(ras) after stimulation of cells by growth factors and phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) correlates with hyperphosphorylation of the guanine nucleotide exchange factor Son-of-sevenless (Sos) and its dissociation from the adaptor protein Grb2 (Cherniack, A., Klarlund, J. K., Conway, B. R., and Czech, M. P. (1995) J. Biol. Chem. 270, 1485-1488). To test the role of the Raf/mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase pathway, we utilized cells expressing a chimera composed of the catalytic domain of p74Raf-1 and the hormone binding domain of the estradiol receptor (DeltaRaf-1:ER). Estradiol markedly stimulated DeltaRaf-1:ER and the downstream MEK and MAP kinases in these cells as well as Sos phosphorylation. However, the dissociation of Grb2 from Sos observed in response to PMA was not apparent upon DeltaRaf-1:ER activation. Furthermore, stimulation of DeltaRaf-1:ER did not impair GTP loading of p21(ras) in response to platelet-derived growth factor or epidermal growth factor. We conclude that activation of the Raf/MAP kinase pathway alone in these cells is insufficient to cause disassembly of Sos from Grb2 or to interrupt the ability of Sos to catalyze activation of p21(ras).
Selective interaction of JNK protein kinase isoforms with transcription factorsGupta, Shashi; Barrett, Tamera; Whitmarsh, Alan J.; Cavanagh, Julie; Sluss, Hayla Karen; Derijard, Benoit; Davis, Roger J. (1996-06-03)The JNK protein kinase is a member of the MAP kinase group that is activated in response to dual phosphorylation on threonine and tyrosine. Ten JNK isoforms were identified in human brain by molecular cloning. These protein kinases correspond to alternatively spliced isoforms derived from the JNK1, JNK2 and JNK3 genes. The protein kinase activity of these JNK isoforms was measured using the transcription factors ATF2, Elk-1 and members of the Jun family as substrates. Treatment of cells with interleukin-1 (IL-1) caused activation of the JNK isoforms. This activation was blocked by expression of the MAP kinase phosphatase MKP-1. Comparison of the binding activity of the JNK isoforms demonstrated that the JNK proteins differ in their interaction with ATF2, Elk-1 and Jun transcription factors. Individual members of the JNK group may therefore selectively target specific transcription factors in vivo.