Viral abrogation of stem cell transplantation tolerance causes graft rejection and host death by different mechanisms
Welsh, Raymond M.
Markees, Thomas G.
Woda, Bruce A.
Mordes, John P.
Rossini, Aldo A.
Greiner, Dale L.
UMass Chan AffiliationsDepartment of Medicine, Diabetes Division
Department of Molecular Genetics and Microbiology
Department of Pathology
Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences
Document TypeJournal Article
KeywordsAnimals; Antibodies, Blocking; Antibodies, Monoclonal; Antigens; Antigens, CD8; Antigens, Surface; Bone Marrow; Bone Marrow Transplantation; CD40 Ligand; Cell Lineage; Female; Graft Rejection; Graft Survival; Hematopoiesis; Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation; Injections, Intraperitoneal; Kinetics; Lectins, C-Type; Lymphocyte Depletion; Lymphocytic Choriomeningitis; Lymphoid Tissue; Mice; Mice, Inbred BALB C; Mice, Inbred C57BL; Mice, Inbred CBA; Mice, Knockout; Protein Biosynthesis; *Proteins; Radiation Chimera; Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell, alpha-beta; Skin Transplantation; T-Lymphocyte Subsets; Time Factors; Transplantation Tolerance; Viral Load
Medicine and Health Sciences
MetadataShow full item record
AbstractTolerance-based stem cell transplantation using sublethal conditioning is being considered for the treatment of human disease, but safety and efficacy remain to be established. We have shown that mouse bone marrow recipients treated with sublethal irradiation plus transient blockade of the CD40-CD154 costimulatory pathway develop permanent hematopoietic chimerism across allogeneic barriers. We now report that infection with lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus at the time of transplantation prevented engraftment of allogeneic, but not syngeneic, bone marrow in similarly treated mice. Infected allograft recipients also failed to clear the virus and died. Postmortem study revealed hypoplastic bone marrow and spleens. The cause of death was virus-induced IFN-alphabeta. The rejection of allogeneic bone marrow was mediated by a radioresistant CD8(+)TCR-alphabeta(+)NK1.1(-) T cell population. We conclude that a noncytopathic viral infection at the time of transplantation can prevent engraftment of allogeneic bone marrow and result in the death of sublethally irradiated mice treated with costimulation blockade. Clinical application of stem cell transplantation protocols based on costimulation blockade and tolerance induction may require patient isolation to facilitate the procedure and to protect recipients.
J Immunol. 2002 Jun 15;168(12):6047-56.
Permanent Link to this Itemhttp://hdl.handle.net/20.500.14038/33629
Showing items related by title, author, creator and subject.
Viral Abrogation of Stem Cell Transplantation Tolerance Causes Graft Rejection and Host Death by Different Mechanisms: A DissertationForman, Daron (2002-05-22)Tolerance-based stem cell transplantation using sub-lethal conditioning is being considered for the treatment of human disease, but safety and efficacy remain to be established. In order to study these two issues, we first established that mouse bone marrow recipients treated with sub-lethal irradiation plus transient blockade of the CD40-CD154 costimulatory pathway develop permanent hematopoietic chimerism across allogeneic barriers. Our conditioning regimen of 6 Gy irradiation, a short course of anti-CD154 mAb and 25 million fully allogeneic BALB/c bone marrow cells consistently produced long-term, stable, and multilineage chimerism in C57BL/6 recipients. Furthermore, chimeric mice displayed donor-specific transplantation tolerance, as BALB/c skin allografts were permanently accepted while third-party CBA/JCr skin allografts were promptly rejected. We next determined both the safety and efficacy of this protocol by infecting chimeric mice with lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) either at the time of transplantation or at several time points afterwards. Infection with LCMV at the time of transplantation prevented engraftment of allogeneic, but not syngeneic, bone marrow in similarly treated mice. Surprisingly, infected allograft recipients also failed to clear the virus and died. Post-mortem study revealed hypoplastic bone marrow and spleens. Hypoplasia and death in these mice required the combination of 6 Gy irradiation, LCMV infection on the day of transplantation, and an allogeneic bone marrow transplant but did not require the presence of anti-CDl54 mAb. Allochimeric mice infected with LCMV 15 days after transplantation were able to survive and maintain their bone marrow graft, indicating that the deleterious effects of LCMV infection on host and graft survival are confined to a narrow window of time during the tolerization and transplantation process. The final section of this thesis studied the mechanisms of graft rejection and death in sublethally irradiated recipients of allogeneic bone marrow and infection with LCMV at the time of bone marrow transplantation. Infection of interferon-α/β receptor knockout mice at the time of transplantation prevented the engraftment of allogeneic bone marrow, but the mice survived. Therefore, IFN-αβ is involved in the development of marrow hypoplasia and death, whereas a second mechanism is involved in blocking the development of chimerism in these mice. Through the use of depleting mAb's and knockout mice we demonstrate that three types of recipients survived and became chimeric after being given sublethal irradiation, anti-CD154 mAb, an allogeneic bone marrow transplant and a day 0 LCMV infection: mice depleted of CD8+ T cells, CD8 knockout mice, and TCR-αβ knockout mice. Our data indicate that the mediator of bone marrow allograft destruction in LCMV-infected mice treated with costimulatory blockade is a radioresistant CD8+ NK1.1- TCRαβ+ T cell. We conclude that a non-cytopathic viral infection at the time of transplantation can prevent engraftment of allogeneic bone marrow and result in the death of sub-lethally irradiated mice treated with costimulation blockade. The abrogation of allogeneic bone marrow engraftment is mediated by a population of CD8+ NK1.1- TCRαβ+ T cells and the mediator of hypoplasia and death is viral induction of IFN-αβ.
CD40-CD154 Blockade Facilitates Induction of Allogeneic Hematopoietic Chimerism and Transplantation Tolerance: A DissertationSeung, Edward (2003-05-14)Allogeneic hematopoietic chimerism leading to central tolerance has significant therapeutic potential. Establishment of hematopoietic chimerism created by stem cell transplantation has been shown to prevent and cure a number of autoimmune diseases and induce the most robust and long-lasting form of transplantation tolerance known. However, the realization of the vast clinical potential of hematopoietic chimerism for induction of transplantation tolerance has been impeded by the toxicity of the host conditioning regimen and the development of graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). This thesis describes the development of stem cell transplantation protocols that 1) reduce the host conditioning regimen; and 2) abrogate the development of GVHD. When applied to the treatment of autoimmune diabetic NOD mice, a model of type 1 diabetes, stem cell transplantation was able to 3) prevent autoimmune recurrence; and 4) permit curative pancreatic islet transplantation. I first describe a tolerance-based stem cell transplantation protocol that combines sub-lethal irradiation with transient blockade of the CD40-CD154 costimulatory pathway using an anti-CD154 antibody. With this protocol, I established hematopoietic chimerism in BALB/c mice transplanted with fully allogeneic C57BL/6 bone marrow. All chimeric mice treated with anti-CD154 antibody remained free of graft vs.host disease (GVHD) and accepted donor-origin but not third party skin allografts. It was similarly possible to create allogeneic hematopoietic chimerism in NOD/Lt mice with spontaneous autoimmune diabetes. Pancreatic islet allografts transplanted into chimeric NOD/Lt mice were resistant not only to allorejection but also to recurrence of autoimmunity. I conclude that it is possible to establish robust allogeneic hematopoietic chimerism in sub-lethally irradiated mice without subsequent GVHD by blocking the CD40-CD154 costimulatory pathway using as few as two injections of anti-CD154 antibody. I also conclude that chimerism created in this way generates donor-specific allograft tolerance and reverses the predisposition to recurrent autoimmune diabetes in NOD/Lt mice, enabling them to accept curative islet allografts. In order to further reduce the impediments associated with the implementation of allogeneic hematopoietic chimerism as a therapeutic modality, I adapted a costimulation blockade-based protocol developed for solid organ transplantation for use in stem cell transplantation. The protocol combines a donor-specific transfusion (DST) with anti-CD154 antibody to induce peripheral transplantation tolerance. When applied to stem cell transplantation, administration of DST, anti-CD154 antibody, and allogeneic bone marrow led to hematopoietic chimerism and central tolerance with no myeloablation (i.e. no radiation) and no GVHD in 3 different strains of mice. The development of donor-specific tolerance in this system was shown to involve deletion of both peripheral host alloreactive CD8+ T cells and nascent intrathymic alloreactive CD8+ T cells. In the absence of large numbers of host alloreactive CD8+ T cells, the cell transfusion that precedes transplantation need not be of donor-origin, suggesting that both allo-specific and non-allo-specific mechanisms regulate engraftment. Agents that interfere with peripheral transplantation tolerance partially impair establishment of chimerism. I conclude that robust allogeneic hematopoietic chimerism and central tolerance can be established in the absence of host myeloablative conditioning using a peripheral transplantation tolerance protocol.
Different mechanisms control peripheral and central tolerance in hematopoietic chimeric miceYamazaki, Masahiro; Pearson, Todd; Brehm, Michael A.; Miller, David M.; Mangada, Julie A.; Markees, Thomas G.; Shultz, Leonard D.; Mordes, John P.; Rossini, Aldo A.; Greiner, Dale L. (2007-06-15)Regulatory T cells (Treg) are important in peripheral tolerance, but their role in establishing and maintaining hematopoietic mixed chimerism and generating central tolerance is unclear. We now show that costimulation blockade using a donor-specific transfusion and anti-CD154 antibody applied to mice given bone marrow and simultaneously transplanted with skin allografts leads to hematopoietic chimerism and permanent skin allograft survival. Chimeric mice bearing intact skin allografts fail to generate effector/memory T cells against allogeneic targets as shown by the absence of IFNgamma-producing CD44(high)CD8+ T cells and in vivo cytotoxicity. Depletion of Tregs by injection of anti-CD4 or anti-CD25 antibody prior to costimulation blockade prevents chimerism, shortens skin allograft survival and leads to generation of effector/memory cytotoxic T cells. Depletion of Tregs by injection of anti-CD4 or anti-CD25 antibody two months after transplantation leads to loss of skin allografts even though mice remain chimeric and exhibit little in vivo cytotoxicity. In contrast, chimerism is lost, but skin allografts survive following naive T-cell injection. We conclude that hematopoietic chimerism and peripheral tolerance may be maintained by different mechanisms in mixed hematopoietic chimeras.