UMass Chan AffiliationsDepartment of Molecular Genetics and Microbiology
Department of Pathology
Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences
KeywordsAcute Disease; Animals; Antigens, Differentiation, T-Lymphocyte; Cell Separation; *Cell Transformation, Viral; Cross Reactions; Cytomegalovirus Infections; *Cytotoxicity, Immunologic; *Lymphocyte Activation; Lymphocytic Choriomeningitis; Male; Mice; Mice, Inbred A; Mice, Inbred BALB C; Mice, Inbred C3H; Mice, Inbred C57BL; T-Lymphocytes, Cytotoxic; Vaccinia
Medicine and Health Sciences
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AbstractInfections with a variety of viruses (lymphocytic choriomeningitis (LCMV), murine cytomegalovirus, Pichinde virus, vaccinia virus) stimulated C57BL/6 mice to generate allospecific CTL coincidental with the generation of virus-specific CTL. In C57BL/6 (H-2b) mice, LCMV-induced CTL with reactivity against cells from mice bearing gene products of the d, f, k, p, q, and s but not the b MHC loci. Studies with congenic mouse strains indicated that the MHC loci coded for the target of the allospecific killer cells. The targets of the allospecific CTL were further identified as class I MHC Ag by three criteria: 1) target cells from congenic strains of mice differing from effector cells only in the expression of class I Ag were sensitive to lysis; 2) fibroblasts expressing low levels of class I Ag were resistant to lysis but were rendered sensitive after treatment with IFN-beta, which induced higher expression of class I Ag; and 3) antibody specific for class I Ag expressed on the target cell blocked killing. Studies with congenic mouse strains also suggested that the ability to generate high levels of the virus-induced allospecific killer cells was also under MHC regulation, as H-2b mice generated high levels and H-2k mice low levels of the allospecific CTL. Both C3H/St and C57BL/6 mice immunized against LCMV developed detectable LCMV-specific CTL when later challenged with either murine cytomegalovirus, Pichinde virus, or vaccinia virus, indicating that a virus infection can stimulate the reappearance of memory CTL. Cold target competition studies indicated no cross-reactivities between these viruses or allogeneic cells at the CTL level. Both the allospecific CTL and the reactivated LCMV-specific CTL were found in blast-size lymphocyte preparations. Spleen cells taken from LCMV-infected C57BL/6 mice 5 days post-infection spontaneously generated into allospecific and virus-specific CTL after 2 days of culture. The generation of both was dependent on the presence of supernatant factors produced only in the presence of L3T4+ cells. These factors activated allospecific CTL in spleen cells from virus-primed mice but not from control mice. We suggest that lymphokines produced as a consequence of virus infection may act to stimulate the proliferation and activation of CTL not specific to the challenge virus, resulting in a virus-induced polyclonal CTL stimulation.
J Immunol. 1989 Mar 1;142(5):1710-8.
Permanent Link to this Itemhttp://hdl.handle.net/20.500.14038/34087
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Independent regulation of lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus-specific T cell memory pools: relative stability of CD4 memory under conditions of CD8 memory T cell lossVarga, Steven Michael; Selin, Liisa K.; Welsh, Raymond M. (2001-02-13)Infection of mice with a series of heterologous viruses causes a reduction of memory CD8(+) T cells specific to viruses from earlier infections, but the fate of the virus-specific memory CD4(+) T cell pool following multiple virus infections has been unknown. We have previously reported that the virus-specific CD4(+) Th precursor (Thp) frequency remains stable into long-term immunity following lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) infection. In this study, we questioned whether heterologous virus infections or injection with soluble protein CD4 Ags would impact this stable LCMV-specific CD4(+) Thp memory pool. Limiting dilution analyses for IL-2-producing cells and intracellular cytokine staining for IFN-gamma revealed that the LCMV-specific CD4(+) Thp frequency remains relatively stable following multiple heterologous virus infections or protein Ag immunizations, even under conditions that dramatically reduce the LCMV-specific CD8(+) CTL precursor frequency. These data indicate that the CD4(+) and CD8(+) memory T cell pools are regulated independently and that the loss in CD8(+) T cell memory following heterologous virus infections is not a consequence of a parallel loss in the memory CD4(+) T cell population.
Dynamics of memory T cell proliferation under conditions of heterologous immunity and bystander stimulationKim, Sung-Kwon; Brehm, Michael A.; Welsh, Raymond M.; Selin, Liisa K. (2002-06-22)By examining adoptively transferred CSFE-labeled lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV)-immune donor T cells in Thy-1 congenic hosts inoculated with viruses or with the cytokine inducer poly(I:C), strikingly different responses of bona fide memory T cells were found in response to different stimuli. Poly(I:C) (cytokine) stimulation caused a limited synchronized division of memory CD8 T cells specific to each of five LCMV epitopes, with no increase and sometimes a loss in number, and no change in their epitope hierarchy. Homologous LCMV infection caused more than seven divisions of T cells specific for each epitope, with dramatic increases in number and minor changes in hierarchy. Infections with the heterologous viruses Pichinde and vaccinia (VV) caused more than seven divisions and increases in number of T cells specific to some putatively cross-reactive but not other epitopes and resulted in substantial changes in the hierarchy of the LCMV-specific T cells. Hence, there can be memory T cell division without proliferation (i.e., increase in cell number) in the absence of Ag and division with proliferation in the presence of Ag from homologous or heterologous viruses. Heterologous protective immunity between viruses is not necessarily reciprocal, given that LCMV protects against VV but VV does not protect against LCMV. VV elicited proliferation of LCMV-induced CD8 and CD4 T cells, whereas LCMV did not elicit proliferation of VV-induced T cells. Thus, depending on the pathogen and the sequence of infection, a heterologous agent may selectively stimulate the memory pool in patterns consistent with heterologous immunity.
Direct visualization of cross-reactive effector and memory allo-specific CD8 T cells generated in response to viral infectionsBrehm, Michael A.; Markees, Thomas G.; Daniels, Keith A.; Greiner, Dale L.; Rossini, Aldo A.; Welsh, Raymond M. (2003-04-12)CD8 T cell cross-reactivity between heterologous viruses has been shown to provide protective immunity, induce immunopathology, influence the immunodominance of epitope-specific T cell responses, and shape the overall memory population. Virus infections also induce cross-reactive allo-specific CTL responses. In this study, we quantified the allo-specific CD8 T cells elicited by infection of C57BL/6 (B6) mice with lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV). Cross-reactive LCMV-specific CD8 T cells were directly visualized using LCMV peptide-charged MHC tetramers to costain T cells that were stimulated to produce intracellular IFN-gamma in response to allogeneic target cells. The cross-reactivity between T cells specific for LCMV and allogeneic Ags was broad-based, in that it involved multiple LCMV-derived peptides, but there were distinctive patterns of reactivity against allogeneic cells with different haplotypes. Experiments indicated that this cross-reactivity was not due to the expression of two TCR per cell, and that the patterns of allo-reactivity changed during sequential infection with heterologous viruses. The allo-specific CD8 T cells generated by LCMV infection were maintained at relatively high frequencies in the memory pool, indicating that memory allo-specific CD8 T cell populations can arise as a consequence of viral infections. Mice previously infected with LCMV and harboring allo-specific memory T cells were refractory to the induction of tolerance to allogeneic skin grafts.