Studies on antibody responses following neonatal immunization with influenza hemagglutinin DNA or protein
UMass Chan AffiliationsDepartment of Pathology
Program in Immunology and Virology
Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences
Document TypeJournal Article
KeywordsAge Factors; Animals; Animals, Newborn; Antibodies, Viral; Disease Models, Animal; Hemagglutinin Glycoproteins, Influenza Virus; Humans; Immunoglobulin G; Influenza A virus; Influenza Vaccines; Influenza, Human; Mice; Mice, Inbred BALB C; Th1 Cells; Th2 Cells; Vaccination; Vaccines, DNA; Vaccines, Synthetic
Medicine and Health Sciences
MetadataShow full item record
AbstractNeonatal mice have immature immune systems with defects in several components of inflammatory, innate, and specific immune responses and develop a preferential T helper type 2 response following immunization with many vaccine antigens. These studies were undertaken to determine whether 1-day-old neonatal mice immunized with plasmid DNA expressing influenza A/PR/8/34 hemagglutinin (H1) by either intramuscular (im) or gene gun (gg) inoculation were capable of generating humoral responses comparable to those in mice immunized as adults. The newborn mice developed stable, long-lived, protective anti-H1-specific IgG responses similar in titer to those of adult DNA-immunized mice. However, unlike the adult im and gg DNA immunizations, which develop polarized IgG2a and IgG1 responses, respectively, mice immunized as neonates developed a variety of IgG1, IgG2a, and mixed IgG1/IgG2a responses regardless of the inoculation method. Boosting increased but did not change these antibody profiles. In contrast to the DNA immunizations, inoculations of newborn mice with an A/PR/8/34 viral protein subunit preparation failed to elicit an antibody response. Temporal studies revealed that both responsiveness to protein vaccination and development of polarized patterns of T help following DNA immunization appeared by 2 weeks of age.
SourceVirology. 1999 May 10;257(2):406-14. Link to article on publisher's site
Permanent Link to this Itemhttp://hdl.handle.net/20.500.14038/34334
Related ResourcesLink to article in PubMed
Showing items related by title, author, creator and subject.
A human CD4+ T cell epitope in the influenza hemagglutinin is cross-reactive to influenza A virus subtypes and to influenza B virusBabon, Jenny Aurielle B.; Cruz, John; Ennis, Francis A.; Yin, Liusong; Terajima, Masanori (2012-09-01)The hemagglutinin protein (HA) of the influenza virus family is a major antigen for protective immunity. Thus, it is a relevant target for developing vaccines. Here, we describe a human CD4(+) T cell epitope in the influenza virus HA that lies in the fusion peptide of the HA. This epitope is well conserved in all 16 subtypes of the HA protein of influenza A virus and the HA protein of influenza B virus. By stimulating peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from a healthy adult donor with peptides covering the entire HA protein based on the sequence of A/Japan/305/1957 (H2N2), we generated a T cell line specific to this epitope. This CD4(+) T cell line recognizes target cells infected with influenza A virus seasonal H1N1 and H3N2 strains, a reassortant H2N1 strain, the 2009 pandemic H1N1 strain, and influenza B virus in cytotoxicity assays and intracellular-cytokine-staining assays. It also lysed target cells infected with avian H5N1 virus. We screened healthy adult PBMCs for T cell responses specific to this epitope and found individuals who had ex vivo gamma interferon (IFN-gamma) responses to the peptide epitope in enzyme-linked immunospot (ELISPOT) assays. Almost all donors who responded to the epitope had the HLA-DRB1*09 allele, a relatively common HLA allele. Although natural infection or standard vaccination may not induce strong T and B cell responses to this highly conserved epitope in the fusion peptide, it may be possible to develop a vaccination strategy to induce these CD4(+) T cells, which are cross-reactive to both influenza A and B viruses.
IL-2 and IL-6 cooperate to enhance the generation of influenza-specific CD8 T cells responding to live influenza virus in aged mice and humansZhou, Xin; Hopkins, Jacob W.; Wang, Chongkai; Brahmakshatriya, Vinayak; Swain, Susan L.; Kuchel, George A.; Haynes, Laura; McElhaney, Janet E. (2016-06-14)An age-related decline in cytolytic activity has been described in CD8+ T cells and we have previously shown that the poor CD8+ effector T cell responses to influenza A/H3N2 challenge result from a decline in the proportion and function of these cytolytic T lymphocytes (CTL). Here, we describe that addition of exogenous cytokines to influenza-stimulated PBMC from both aged mice and humans, enhances the generation of influenza specific CD8 CTL by increasing their proliferation and survival. Our data show that the addition of IL-2 and IL-6 to splenocytes from mice previously infected with influenza virus restores the aged CD8+ T cell response to that observed in young mice. In humans, IL-2 plus IL-6 also reduces the proportion of apoptotic effector CD8+ T cells to levels resembling those of younger adults. In HLA-A2+ donors, MHC Class I tetramer staining showed that adding both exogenous IL-2 and IL-6 resulted in greater differentiation into influenza-specific effector CD8+ T cells. Since this effect of IL-2/IL-6 supplementation can be reproduced with the addition of Toll-like receptor agonists, it may be possible to exploit this mechanism and design new vaccines to improve the CD8 T cell response to influenza vaccination in older adults.
Performance of rapid SOFIA Influenza A+B test compared to Luminex x-TAG respiratory viral panel assay in the diagnosis of influenza A, B, and subtype H3Selove, William; Rao, Lokinendi V. (2016-04-01)Influenza is an acute respiratory illness caused by influenza A or B viruses that occur in outbreaks, mainly during the winter season. Rapid laboratory diagnosis of influenza can help guide the clinical management of suspected patients effectively. Clinical sensitivities and specificities of the rapid influenza diagnostic tests have varied considerably in the literature. Most of these studies are evaluated using previously frozen or stored specimens that had previously tested positive. This study compares the performance of the rapid SOFIA Influenza A+B test to nucleic acid multiplex test x-TAG respiratory viral panel (RVP) assay in freshly collected nasal aspirates and measured simultaneously by both assays. Retrospective data from 1649 nasal aspirates (September 2014 to May 2015) collected from adults as well as from children tested simultaneously by both rapid SOFIA Influenza A+B FIA immunofluorescence (Quidel, San Diego, CA) and qualitative nucleic acid multiplex RVP assay X-TAG Luminex technology (Luminex, Austin, Texas, USA) were analyzed. Concordance, and analytical sensitivity and specificity were evaluated for influenza A, subtypes H1 and H3, and influenza B. Prevalence for influenza A by RVP was 15%, for subtype H3 it was 11.2%, and for influenza B, 2.9%. None of the aspirates were positive for influenza A subtype H1. SOFIA Influenza rapid test demonstrated good specificity and low sensitivity compared with a nucleic acid test for influenza A, subtype H3, and for influenza B. SOFIA Influenza A + B test performed well in providing a rapid diagnosis, however, confirmatory molecular testing is recommended for negative test results. Re-evaluation of test performance should be periodically carried out during outbreaks with the emergence and circulation of new influenza strains.