Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and obesity in US males and females, age 8-15 years: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2001-2004
UMass Chan AffiliationsShriver Center
Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities Research Center
Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity
Body Mass Index
Central Nervous System Stimulants
Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)
National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES)
Dietetics and Clinical Nutrition
Gender and Sexuality
Nutritional and Metabolic Diseases
Pathological Conditions, Signs and Symptoms
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AbstractWHAT IS ALREADY KNOWN ABOUT THIS SUBJECT: Youth with ADHD may be at increased risk for obesity. Medications used to treat ADHD can affect weight. Few studies have investigated possible gender differences in associations between ADHD and obesity. WHAT THIS STUDY ADDS: Nationally representative of US youth aged 8-15 years. Height and weight were measured, and ADHD assessed by structured diagnostic interview and parent report. Associations between ADHD and obesity are reported for males and females to enable gender comparisons. OBJECTIVE: To investigate how associations between attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and obesity differ by gender and medication use in a nationally representative sample of US youth in which height and weight were measured. METHODS: Youth age 8-15 (n = 3050) studied in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2001-2004. Obesity was defined as >/=95th percentile of US body mass index-for-age reference. ADHD was determined by asking parents if child had been diagnosed and using the Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children IV. Gender-stratified multivariable logistic regression was used to estimate odds of obesity for youth with ADHD (medicated and unmedicated) relative to youth without ADHD. RESULTS: Males with ADHD who were medicated had lower odds of obesity compared to males without ADHD (adjusted odds ratio [OR] = 0.42, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.23-0.78). Unmedicated males with ADHD were as likely as males without ADHD to be obese (adjusted OR = 1.02, 95% CI = 0.43-2.42). The odds of obesity for females taking medication for ADHD did not differ statistically from those of females without ADHD (adjusted OR = 1.21, 95% CI = 0.52-2.81). Females with ADHD not taking medication had odds of obesity 1.54 times those of females without ADHD; however, the 95% CI (0.79-2.98) was wide and not statistically significant at alpha = 0.05. CONCLUSIONS: Associations between ADHD and obesity are influenced by treatment of ADHD with medication and may differ by gender. Youth with ADHD who are not treated with medication are as or more likely than youth without ADHD to be obese. the Study of Obesity.
Byrd HC, Curtin C, Anderson SE. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and obesity in US males and females, age 8-15 years: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2001-2004. Pediatr Obes. 2013 Dec;8(6):445-53. doi: 10.1111/j.2047-6310.2012.00124.x. Epub 2013 Jan 16. PubMed PMID: 23325553; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3638065. Link to article on publisher's site
Permanent Link to this Itemhttp://hdl.handle.net/20.500.14038/34796
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Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder, Screen Time, Physical Activity, and Diet Quality: A DissertationCurtin, Carol (2015-07-30)Background. Emerging evidence suggests that youth with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) may engage in sub-optimal health behaviors including high levels of screen time, low physical activity participation, and consumption of poor diets. These are independent risk factors for adverse health outcomes, and health-related behavior patterns established in childhood can track into adulthood. Thus, identifying and addressing dietary and physical activity habits in sub-populations of youth have important implications for health over the lifespan. The specific aims of this dissertation were to: (1) compare screen time between youth with and without ADHD and to assess its relationship to ADHD symptomatology; (2) compare participation in physical activity (PA) between adolescents with and without ADHD and to assess the relationship of PA participation to ADHD symptomatology; and (3) evaluate the association of diet quality and dietary patterns to ADHD symptomatology among youth ages 8-15 years. Methods. The aforementioned outcomes of interest were analyzed using data from the continuous National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2001-2004. These waves of NHANES included a structured DSM-IV-based interview administered to parents that identified youth with ADHD and also yielded symptom counts for hyperactivity/impulsivity and inattention. Screen time and physical activity data were obtained from questionnaires that queried the amount of time spent watching television, playing videos, or using the computer outside of school time, and also surveyed the types, frequency, and duration of PA in which youth participated. Diet quality and dietary patterns, which included consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs), total calorie intake, and eating frequency, were obtained by a 24-hour dietary recall using the Automated Multiple Pass Method of interviewing. Linear and logistic regression models adjusted for sociodemographic factors and anxiety/depression were employed to address the specific aims. Results. The findings suggest that youth with ADHD are at the same, if not higher, risk for engaging in suboptimal health behaviors. Overall, youth participating in NHANES engaged in excessive amounts of screen time, failed to acquire sufficient physical activity, and consumed diets of poor quality. However, our findings suggest that ADHD symptomatology places youth at higher risk for sedentary behavior and poor diet quality. Relative to screen time, youth with ADHD showed a trend toward increased screen time, as did youth who took medication. ADHD symptoms were also associated with over two hours of daily TV viewing and overall increased screen time, and this was particularly true for children ages 8-11 years. Relative to physical activity, the outcomes did not differ between youth with and without ADHD, but the majority of youth did not meet the recommended guidelines of 60 minutes or more of moderate-to-vigorous PA each day. Diet quality was poor across the population of youth who participated in NHANES, and hyperactive/impulsive symptoms were associated with an even greater decrease in diet quality in both children and adolescents. In males, the presence of hyperactive/impulsive symptoms was associated with a decrease in diet quality, whereas in females, inattentive symptoms accounted for a decrease in diet quality. No differences in the other dietary patterns (i.e., SSB consumption, total energy intake, and eating frequency) were observed. Conclusions. The diagnosis of ADHD and/or its symptoms are associated with less-than-recommended levels of screen time and poor diet quality, though youth in general were found to be engaging in suboptimal sedentary, physical activity, and dietary behaviors. The mechanisms for why youth with ADHD may have increased vulnerability to poorer health behaviors are not yet well understood. The findings from this dissertation support the need for ongoing efforts to address lifestyle factors among the nation’s youth generally, but may also stimulate new hypotheses about the needs of youth with ADHD from both public health and clinical perspectives, and encourage research on the implications of ADHD symptomatology on health-related behaviors and lifestyle factors.
Red blood cell membrane trans fatty acid levels and risk of non-Hodgkin lymphoma: a prospective nested case-control studyArdisson Korat, Andres V.; Chiu, Yu-Han; Bertrand, Kimberly A.; Zhang, Shumin; Epstein, Mara M.; Rosner, Bernard A.; Chiuve, Stephanie; Campos, Hannia; Giovannucci, Edward L.; Chavarro, Jorge E.; et al. (2020-10-06)BACKGROUND: Trans fatty acid (TFA) intake persists in much of the world, posing ongoing threats to public health that warrant further elucidation. Published evidence suggests a positive association of self-reported TFA intake with non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) risk. OBJECTIVES: To confirm those reports, we conducted a prospective study of prediagnosis RBC membrane TFA levels and risk of NHL and common NHL histologic subtypes. METHODS: We conducted a nested case-control study in Nurses' Health Study and Health Professionals Follow-Up Study participants with archived RBC specimens and no history of cancer at blood draw (1989-1090 and 1994-1995, respectively). We confirmed 583 incident NHL cases (332 women and 251 men) and individually matched 583 controls on cohort (sex), age, race, and blood draw date/time. We analyzed RBC membrane TFA using GLC (in 2013-2014) and expressed individual TFA levels as a percentage of total fatty acids. We used unconditional logistic regression adjusted for the matching factors to estimate ORs and 95% CIs for overall NHL risk per 1 SD increase in TFA level and assessed histologic subtype-specific associations with multivariable polytomous logistic regression. RESULTS: Total and individual TFA levels were not associated with risk of all NHL or most subtypes. We observed a positive association of total TFA levels with diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL) risk [n = 98 cases; OR (95% CI) per 1 SD increase: 1.30 (1.05, 1.61); P = 0.015], driven by trans 18:1n-9(omega-9)/elaidic acid [OR (95% CI): 1.34 (1.08, 1.66); P = 0.007], trans 18:1n-7/vaccenic acid [OR (95% CI): 1.28 (1.04, 1.58); P = 0.023], and trans 18:2n-6t,t [OR (95% CI): 1.26 (1.01, 1.57); P = 0.037]. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings extended evidence for TFA intake and DLBCL risk but not for other NHL subtypes. Reduced TFA consumption through dietary choices or health policy measures may support prevention of DLBCL, an aggressive NHL subtype.
Maternal exposure to high-fat diet during pregnancy and lactation predisposes normal weight offspring mice to develop hepatic inflammation and insulin resistanceSaengnipanthkul, Suchaorn; Noh, Hye Lim; Friedline, Randall H.; Suk, Sujin; Choi, Stephanie; Acosta, Nicholas K.; Tran, Duy A.; Hu, Xiaodi; Inashima, Kunikazu; Kim, Allison M.; et al. (2021-03-01)Increasing evidence shows a potential link between the perinatal nutrient environment and metabolic outcome in offspring. Here, we investigated the effects of maternal feeding of a high-fat diet (HFD) during the perinatal period on hepatic metabolism and inflammation in male offspring mice at weaning and in early adulthood. Female C57BL/6 J mice were fed HFD or normal chow (NC) for 4 weeks before mating and during pregnancy and lactation. The male offspring mice were weaned onto an NC diet, and metabolic and molecular experiments were performed in early adulthood. At postnatal day 21, male offspring mice from HFD-fed dams (Off-HFD) showed significant increases in whole body fat mass and fasting levels of glucose, insulin, and cholesterol compared to male offspring mice from NC-fed dams (Off-NC). The RT-qPCR analysis showed two- to fivefold increases in hepatic inflammatory markers (MCP-1, IL-1beta, and F4/80) in Off-HFD mice. Hepatic expression of G6Pase and PEPCK was elevated by fivefold in the Off-HFD mice compared to the Off-NC mice. Hepatic expression of GLUT4, IRS-1, and PDK4, as well as lipid metabolic genes, CD36, SREBP1c, and SCD1 were increased in the Off-HFD mice compared to the Off-NC mice. In contrast, CPT1a mRNA levels were reduced by 60% in the Off-HFD mice. At postnatal day 70, despite comparable body weights to the Off-NC mice, Off-HFD mice developed hepatic inflammation with increased expression of MCP-1, CD68, F4/80, and CD36 compared to the Off-NC mice. Despite normal body weight, Off-HFD mice developed insulin resistance with defects in hepatic insulin action and insulin-stimulated glucose uptake in skeletal muscle and brown fat, and these metabolic effects were associated with hepatic inflammation in Off-HFD mice. Our findings indicate hidden, lasting effects of maternal exposure to HFD during pregnancy and lactation on metabolic homeostasis of normal weight offspring mice.