Inhibitors of hydroxymethylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase and risk of fracture among older women
AuthorsChan, K. Arnold
Andrade, Susan E.
Buist, Diana S. M.
Chase, Gary A.
Donahue, James G.
Goodman, Michael J.
Gurwitz, Jerry H.
LaCroix, Andrea Z.
UMass Chan AffiliationsDepartment of Medicine, Division of Geriatric Medicine
Meyers Primary Care Institute
Aged, 80 and over
Confounding Factors (Epidemiology)
Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors
Health Services Research
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AbstractBACKGROUND: Inhibitors of hydroxymethylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase (statins) increase new bone formation in rodents and in human cells in vitro. Statin use is associated with increased bone mineral density of the femoral neck. We undertook a population-based case-control study at six health-maintenance organisations in the USA to investigate further the relation between statin use and fracture risk among older women. METHODS: We investigated women aged 60 years or older. Exposure, outcome, and confounder information was obtained from automated claims and pharmacy data from October, 1994, to September, 1997. Cases had an incident diagnosis of non-pathological fracture of the hip, humerus, distal tibia, wrist, or vertebrae between October, 1996, and September, 1997. Controls had no fracture during this period. We excluded women with records of dispensing of drugs to treat osteoporosis. FINDINGS: There were 928 cases and 2747 controls. Compared with women who had no record of statin dispensing during the previous 2 years, women with 13 or more statin dispensings during this period had a decreased risk of non-pathological fracture (odds ratio 0.48 [95% CI 0.27-0.83]) after adjustment for age, number of hospital admissions during the previous year, chronic disease score, and use of non-statin lipid-lowering drugs. No association was found between fracture risk and fewer than 13 dispensings of statins or between fracture risk and use of non-statin lipid-lowering drugs. INTERPRETATION: Statins seem to be protective against non-pathological fracture among older women. These findings are compatible with the hypothesis that statins increase bone mineral density in human beings and thereby decrease the risk of osteoporotic fractures.
SourceLancet. 2000 Jun 24;355(9222):2185-8. Link to article on publisher's site
Permanent Link to this Itemhttp://hdl.handle.net/20.500.14038/36874
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Impact of prevalent fractures on quality of life: baseline results from the global longitudinal study of osteoporosis in womenAdachi, Jonathan D.; Adami, Silvano; Gehlbach, Stephen H.; Anderson, Frederick A. Jr.; Boonen, Steven; Chapurlat, Roland D.; Compston, Juliet E.; Cooper, Cyrus; Delmas, Pierre; Diez-Perez, Adolfo; et al. (2010-09-17)OBJECTIVE: To examine several dimensions of health-related quality of life (HRQL) in postmenopausal women who report previous fractures, and to provide perspective by comparing these findings with those in other chronic conditions (diabetes, arthritis, lung disease). PATIENTS AND METHODS: Fractures are a major cause of morbidity among older women. Few studies have examined HRQL in women who have had prior fractures and the effect of prior fracture location on HRQL. In this observational study of 57,141 postmenopausal women aged 55 years and older (enrollment from December 2007 to March 2009) from 17 study sites in 10 countries, HRQL was measured using the European Quality of Life 5 Dimensions Index (EQ-5D) and the health status, physical function, and vitality questions of the Medical Outcomes Study 36-Item Short Form Health Survey (SF-36). RESULTS: Reductions in EQ-5D health-utility scores and SF-36-measured health status, physical function, and vitality were seen in association with 9 of 10 fracture locations. Spine, hip, and upper leg fractures resulted in the greatest reductions in quality of life (EQ-5D scores, 0.62, 0.64, and 0.61, respectively, vs 0.79 without prior fracture). Women with fractures at any of these 3 locations, as well as women with a history of multiple fractures (EQ-5D scores, 0.74 for 1 prior fracture, 0.68 for 2, and 0.58 for >/=3), had reductions in HRQL that were similar to or worse than those in women with other chronic diseases (0.67 for diabetes, 0.69 for arthritis, and 0.71 for lung disease). CONCLUSION: Previous fractures at a variety of bone locations, particularly spine, hip, and upper leg, or involving more than 1 location are associated with significant reductions in quality of life.
Regional differences in treatment for osteoporosis. The Global Longitudinal Study of Osteoporosis in Women (GLOW)Diez-Perez, Adolfo; Hooven, Frederick H.; Adachi, Jonathan D.; Adami, Silvano; Anderson, Frederick A. Jr.; Chapurlat, Roland D.; Compston, Juliet E.; Cooper, Cyrus; Delmas, Pierre; Greenspan, Susan L.; et al. (2011-09-25)PURPOSE: To determine if important geographic differences exist in treatment rates for osteoporosis and whether this variation can be explained by regional variation in risk factors. METHODS: The Global Longitudinal Study of Osteoporosis in Women is an observational study of women >/=55years sampled from primary care practices in 10 countries. Self-administered questionnaires were used to collect data on patient characteristics, risk factors for fracture, previous fractures, anti-osteoporosis medication, and health status. RESULTS: Among 58,009 women, current anti-osteoporosis medication use was lowest in Northern Europe (16%) and highest in USA and Australia (32%). Between 48% (USA, Southern Europe) and 68% (Northern Europe) of women aged >/=65years with a history of spine or hip fracture since age 45 were untreated. Among women with osteoporosis, the percentage of treated cases was lowest in Europe (45-52% versus 62-65% elsewhere). Women with osteopenia and no other risk factors were treated with anti-osteoporosis medication most frequently in USA (31%) and Canada (31%), and least frequently in Southern Europe (12%), Northern Europe (13%), and Australia (16%). After adjusting for risk factors, US women were threefold as likely to be treated with anti-osteoporosis medication as Northern European women (odds ratio 2.8; 95% confidence interval 2.5-3.1) and 1.5 times as likely to be treated as Southern European women (1.5, 1.4-1.6). Up to half of women reporting previous hip or spine fracture did not receive treatment. CONCLUSIONS: The likelihood of being treated for osteoporosis differed between regions, and cannot be explained by variation in risk factors. Many women at risk of fracture do not receive prophylaxis.
Failure to perceive increased risk of fracture in women 55 years and older: the Global Longitudinal Study of Osteoporosis in Women (GLOW)Siris, Ethel S.; Gehlbach, Stephen H.; Adachi, J. D.; Boonen, S.; Chapurlat, R. D.; Compston, J. E.; Cooper, C.; Delmas, P.; Diez-Perez, A.; Hooven, Fred H.; et al. (2011-01-02)We compared self-perception of fracture risk with actual risk among 60,393 postmenopausal women aged >/=55 years, using data from the Global Longitudinal Study of Osteoporosis in Women (GLOW). Most postmenopausal women with risk factors failed to appreciate their actual risk for fracture. Improved education about osteoporosis risk factors is needed. INTRODUCTION: This study seeks to compare self-perception of fracture risk with actual risk among postmenopausal women using data from GLOW. METHODS: GLOW is an international, observational, cohort study involving 723 physician practices in 17 sites in ten countries in Europe, North America, and Australia. Participants included 60,393 women >/=55 years attended by their physician during the previous 24 months. The sample was enriched so that two thirds were >/=65 years. Baseline surveys were mailed October 2006 to February 2008. Main outcome measures were self-perception of fracture risk in women with elevated risk vs women of the same age and frequency of risk factors for fragility fracture. RESULTS: In the overall study population, 19% (10,951/58,434) of women rated their risk of fracture as a little/much higher than that of women of the same age; 46% (27,138/58,434) said it was similar; 35% (20,345/58,434) believed it to be a little/much lower. Among women whose actual risk was increased based on the presence of any one of seven risk factors for fracture, the proportion who recognized their increased risk ranged from 19% for smokers to 39% for current users of glucocorticoid medication. Only 33% (4,185/12,612) of those with >/=2 risk factors perceived themselves as being at higher risk. Among women reporting a diagnosis of osteopenia or osteoporosis, only 25% and 43%, respectively, thought their risk was increased. CONCLUSION: In this international, observational study, most postmenopausal women with risk factors failed to appreciate their actual risk for fracture.