Dynamics of memory T cell proliferation under conditions of heterologous immunity and bystander stimulation
UMass Chan AffiliationsDepartment of Pathology
Lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus
Mice, Inbred C57BL
Medicine and Health Sciences
MetadataShow full item record
AbstractBy examining adoptively transferred CSFE-labeled lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV)-immune donor T cells in Thy-1 congenic hosts inoculated with viruses or with the cytokine inducer poly(I:C), strikingly different responses of bona fide memory T cells were found in response to different stimuli. Poly(I:C) (cytokine) stimulation caused a limited synchronized division of memory CD8 T cells specific to each of five LCMV epitopes, with no increase and sometimes a loss in number, and no change in their epitope hierarchy. Homologous LCMV infection caused more than seven divisions of T cells specific for each epitope, with dramatic increases in number and minor changes in hierarchy. Infections with the heterologous viruses Pichinde and vaccinia (VV) caused more than seven divisions and increases in number of T cells specific to some putatively cross-reactive but not other epitopes and resulted in substantial changes in the hierarchy of the LCMV-specific T cells. Hence, there can be memory T cell division without proliferation (i.e., increase in cell number) in the absence of Ag and division with proliferation in the presence of Ag from homologous or heterologous viruses. Heterologous protective immunity between viruses is not necessarily reciprocal, given that LCMV protects against VV but VV does not protect against LCMV. VV elicited proliferation of LCMV-induced CD8 and CD4 T cells, whereas LCMV did not elicit proliferation of VV-induced T cells. Thus, depending on the pathogen and the sequence of infection, a heterologous agent may selectively stimulate the memory pool in patterns consistent with heterologous immunity.
J Immunol. 2002 Jul 1;169(1):90-8.
Permanent Link to this Itemhttp://hdl.handle.net/20.500.14038/38244
Showing items related by title, author, creator and subject.
Independent regulation of lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus-specific T cell memory pools: relative stability of CD4 memory under conditions of CD8 memory T cell lossVarga, Steven Michael; Selin, Liisa K.; Welsh, Raymond M. (2001-02-13)Infection of mice with a series of heterologous viruses causes a reduction of memory CD8(+) T cells specific to viruses from earlier infections, but the fate of the virus-specific memory CD4(+) T cell pool following multiple virus infections has been unknown. We have previously reported that the virus-specific CD4(+) Th precursor (Thp) frequency remains stable into long-term immunity following lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) infection. In this study, we questioned whether heterologous virus infections or injection with soluble protein CD4 Ags would impact this stable LCMV-specific CD4(+) Thp memory pool. Limiting dilution analyses for IL-2-producing cells and intracellular cytokine staining for IFN-gamma revealed that the LCMV-specific CD4(+) Thp frequency remains relatively stable following multiple heterologous virus infections or protein Ag immunizations, even under conditions that dramatically reduce the LCMV-specific CD8(+) CTL precursor frequency. These data indicate that the CD4(+) and CD8(+) memory T cell pools are regulated independently and that the loss in CD8(+) T cell memory following heterologous virus infections is not a consequence of a parallel loss in the memory CD4(+) T cell population.
Direct visualization of cross-reactive effector and memory allo-specific CD8 T cells generated in response to viral infectionsBrehm, Michael A.; Markees, Thomas G.; Daniels, Keith A.; Greiner, Dale L.; Rossini, Aldo A.; Welsh, Raymond M. (2003-04-12)CD8 T cell cross-reactivity between heterologous viruses has been shown to provide protective immunity, induce immunopathology, influence the immunodominance of epitope-specific T cell responses, and shape the overall memory population. Virus infections also induce cross-reactive allo-specific CTL responses. In this study, we quantified the allo-specific CD8 T cells elicited by infection of C57BL/6 (B6) mice with lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV). Cross-reactive LCMV-specific CD8 T cells were directly visualized using LCMV peptide-charged MHC tetramers to costain T cells that were stimulated to produce intracellular IFN-gamma in response to allogeneic target cells. The cross-reactivity between T cells specific for LCMV and allogeneic Ags was broad-based, in that it involved multiple LCMV-derived peptides, but there were distinctive patterns of reactivity against allogeneic cells with different haplotypes. Experiments indicated that this cross-reactivity was not due to the expression of two TCR per cell, and that the patterns of allo-reactivity changed during sequential infection with heterologous viruses. The allo-specific CD8 T cells generated by LCMV infection were maintained at relatively high frequencies in the memory pool, indicating that memory allo-specific CD8 T cell populations can arise as a consequence of viral infections. Mice previously infected with LCMV and harboring allo-specific memory T cells were refractory to the induction of tolerance to allogeneic skin grafts.
Innate immunity to viruses: control of vaccinia virus infection by gamma delta T cellsSelin, Liisa K.; Santolucito, Paul A.; Pinto, Amelia K.; Szomolanyi-Tsuda, Eva; Welsh, Raymond M. (2001-05-22)The existence of gammadelta T cells has been known for over 15 years, but their significance in innate immunity to virus infections has not been determined. We show here that gammadelta T cells are well suited to provide a rapid response to virus infection and demonstrate their role in innate resistance to vaccinia virus (VV) infection in both normal C57BL/6 and beta TCR knockout (KO) mice. VV-infected mice deficient in gammadelta T cells had significantly higher VV titers early postinfection (PI) and increased mortality when compared with control mice. There was a rapid and profound VV-induced increase in IFN-gamma-producing gammadelta T cells in the peritoneal cavity and spleen of VV-infected mice beginning as early as day 2 PI. This rapid response occurred in the absence of priming, as there was constitutively a significant frequency of VV-specific gammadelta T cells in the spleen in uninfected beta TCR KO mice, as demonstrated by limiting dilution assay. Also, like NK cells, another mediator of innate immunity to viruses, gammadelta T cells in uninfected beta TCR KO mice expressed constitutive cytolytic activity. This cytotoxicity was enhanced and included a broader range of targets after VV infection. VV-infected beta TCR KO mice cleared most of the virus by day 8 PI, the peak of the gammadelta T cell response, but thereafter the gammadelta T cell number declined and the virus recrudesced. Thus, gammadelta T cells can be mediators of innate immunity to viruses, having a significant impact on virus replication early in infection in the presence or absence of the adaptive immune response.