Mutations in the stalk of the measles virus hemagglutinin protein decrease fusion but do not interfere with virus-specific interaction with the homologous fusion protein
UMass Chan AffiliationsDepartment of Molecular Genetics and Microbiology
Document TypeJournal Article
Newcastle disease virus
Protein Structure, Tertiary
Sequence Homology, Amino Acid
Viral Fusion Proteins
Medicine and Health Sciences
MetadataShow full item record
AbstractThe hemagglutinin (H) protein of measles virus (MV) mediates attachment to cellular receptors. The ectodomain of the H spike is thought to consist of a membrane-proximal stalk and terminal globular head, in which resides the receptor-binding activity. Like other paramyxovirus attachment proteins, MV H also plays a role in fusion promotion, which is mediated through an interaction with the viral fusion (F) protein. The stalk of the hemagglutinin-neuraminidase (HN) protein of several paramyxoviruses determines specificity for the homologous F protein. In addition, mutations in a conserved domain in the Newcastle disease virus (NDV) HN stalk result in a sharp decrease in fusion and an impaired ability to interact with NDV F in a cell surface coimmunoprecipitation (co-IP) assay. The region of MV H that determines specificity for the F protein has not been identified. Here, we have adapted the co-IP assay to detect the MV H-F complex at the surface of transfected HeLa cells. We have also identified mutations in a domain in the MV H stalk, similar to the one in the NDV HN stalk, that also drastically reduce fusion yet do not block complex formation with MV F. These results indicate that this domain in the MV H stalk is required for fusion but suggest either that mutation of it indirectly affects the H-dependent activation of F or that the MV H-F interaction is mediated by more than one domain in H. This points to an apparent difference in the way the MV and NDV glycoproteins interact to regulate fusion.
SourceJ Virol. 2007 Sep;81(18):9900-10. Epub 2007 Jul 11. Link to article on publisher's site
Permanent Link to this Itemhttp://hdl.handle.net/20.500.14038/38444
Related ResourcesLink to Article in PubMed
Showing items related by title, author, creator and subject.
Unique structural solution from a VH3-30 antibody targeting the hemagglutinin stem of influenza A virusesHarshbarger, Wayne D.; Deming, Derrick; Lockbaum, Gordon J.; Attatippaholkun, Nattapol; Kamkaew, Maliwan; Hou, Shurong; Somasundaran, Mohan; Wang, Jennifer P.; Finberg, Robert W.; Zhu, Quan Karen; et al. (2021-01-25)Broadly neutralizing antibodies (bnAbs) targeting conserved influenza A virus (IAV) hemagglutinin (HA) epitopes can provide valuable information for accelerating universal vaccine designs. Here, we report structural details for heterosubtypic recognition of HA from circulating and emerging IAVs by the human antibody 3I14. Somatic hypermutations play a critical role in shaping the HCDR3, which alone and uniquely among VH3-30 derived antibodies, forms contacts with five sub-pockets within the HA-stem hydrophobic groove. 3I14 light-chain interactions are also key for binding HA and contribute a large buried surface area spanning two HA protomers. Comparison of 3I14 to bnAbs from several defined classes provide insights to the bias selection of VH3-30 antibodies and reveals that 3I14 represents a novel structural solution within the VH3-30 repertoire. The structures reported here improve our understanding of cross-group heterosubtypic binding activity, providing the basis for advancing immunogen designs aimed at eliciting a broadly protective response to IAV.
Vaccinia virus protein A46R targets multiple Toll-like-interleukin-1 receptor adaptors and contributes to virulenceStack, Julianne; Haga, Ismar R.; Schroder, Martina; Bartlett, Nathan W.; Maloney, Geraldine; Reading, Patrick; Fitzgerald, Katherine A.; Smith, Geoffrey L.; Bowie, Andrew G. (2005-03-16)Viral immune evasion strategies target key aspects of the host antiviral response. Recently, it has been recognized that Toll-like receptors (TLRs) have a role in innate defense against viruses. Here, we define the function of the vaccinia virus (VV) protein A46R and show it inhibits intracellular signalling by a range of TLRs. TLR signalling is triggered by homotypic interactions between the Toll-like-interleukin-1 resistance (TIR) domains of the receptors and adaptor molecules. A46R contains a TIR domain and is the only viral TIR domain-containing protein identified to date. We demonstrate that A46R targets the host TIR adaptors myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88), MyD88 adaptor-like, TIR domain-containing adaptor inducing IFN-beta (TRIF), and the TRIF-related adaptor molecule and thereby interferes with downstream activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases and nuclear factor kappaB. TRIF mediates activation of interferon (IFN) regulatory factor 3 (IRF3) and induction of IFN-beta by TLR3 and TLR4 and suppresses VV replication in macrophages. Here, A46R disrupted TRIF-induced IRF3 activation and induction of the TRIF-dependent gene regulated on activation, normal T cell expressed and secreted. Furthermore, we show that A46R is functionally distinct from another described VV TLR inhibitor, A52R. Importantly, VV lacking the A46R gene was attenuated in a murine intranasal model, demonstrating the importance of A46R for VV virulence.
Reduction of otherwise remarkably stable virus-specific cytotoxic T lymphocyte memory by heterologous viral infectionsSelin, Liisa K.; Vergilis, Kristin; Welsh, Raymond M.; Nahill, Sharon R. (1996-06-01)Experimental analyses of the acute cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) response to viruses have focused on studying these infections in immunologically naive hosts. In the natural environment, however, viral CTL responses occur in hosts that are already immune to other infectious agents. To address which factors contribute to the maintenance and waning of immunological memory, the following study examined the frequencies of virus-specific CTL precursor cells (pCTL) not only using the usual experimental paradigm where mice undergo acute infections with a single virus, and in mice immune to a single virus, but also in immune mice after challenge with various heterologous viruses. As determined by limiting dilution assays, the pCTL frequency (p/f) per CD8+ T cell specific for lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV), Pichinde virus (PV), or vaccinia virus (VV) increased during the acute infections, peaking at days 7-8 with frequencies as high as 1/27-1/74. Acute viral infections such as these elicit major expansions in the CD8+ T cell number, which has been reported to undergo apoptosis and decline after most of the viral antigen has been cleared. Although the decline in the total number of virus-specific pCTL after their peak in the acute infection was substantial, for all three viruses the virus-specific p/f per CD8+ T cell decreased only two- to fourfold and remained at these high levels with little fluctuation for well over a year. The ratios of the three immunodominant peptide-specific to total LCMV-specific clones remained unchanged between days 7 and 8 of acute infection and long-term memory, suggesting that the apoptotic events did not discriminate on the basis of T cell receptor specificity, but instead nonspecifically eliminated a large proportion of the activated T cells. However, when one to five heterologous viruses (LCMV, PV, VV, murine cytomegalovirus, and vesicular stomatitis virus) were sequentially introduced into this otherwise stable memory pool, the stability of the memory pool was disrupted. With each successive infection, after the immune system had returned to homeostasis, the memory p/f specific to viruses from earlier infections declined. Reductions in memory p/f were observed in all tested immunological compartments (spleen, peripheral blood, lymph nodes, and peritoneal cavity), and on average in the spleen revealed a 3 +/- 0.4-fold decrease in p/f after one additional viral infection and an 8.4 +/- 3-fold decrease after two additional viral infections. Thus, subsequent challenges with heterologous antigens, which themselves induce memory CTL, may contribute to the waning of CTL memory pool to earlier viruses as the immune system accommodates ever-increasing numbers of new memory cells within a limited lymphoid population. This demonstrates that virus infections do not occur in immunological isolation, and that CD8+ T cell responses are continually being modulated by other infectious agents.