Microscopic colitis: A review of etiology, treatment and refractory disease
UMass Chan AffiliationsDepartment of Medicine, Division of Gastroenterology
Etiology of microscopic colitis
Refractory microscopic colitis
Steroid-dependent microscopic colitis
Digestive System Diseases
Immune System Diseases
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AbstractMicroscopic colitis is a common cause of chronic, nonbloody diarrhea. Microscopic colitis is more common in women than men and usually affects patients in their sixth and seventh decade. This article reviews the etiology and medical management of microscopic colitis. The etiology of microscopic colitis is unknown, but it is associated with autoimmune disorders, such as celiac disease, polyarthritis, and thyroid disorders. Smoking has been identified as a risk factor of microscopic colitis. Exposure to medications, such as non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, proton pump inhibitors, and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, is suspected to play a role in microscopic colitis, although their direct causal relationship has not been proven. Multiple medications, including corticosteroids, anti-diarrheals, cholestyramine, bismuth, 5-aminosalicylates, and immunomodulators, have been used to treat microscopic colitis with variable response rates. Budesonide is effective in inducing and maintaining clinical remission but relapse rate is as high as 82% when budesonide is discontinued. There is limited data on management of steroid-dependent microscopic colitis or refractory microscopic colitis. Immunomodulators seem to have low response rate 0%-56% for patients with refractory microscopic colitis. Response rate 66%-100% was observed for use of anti-tumor necrosis factor (TNF) therapy for refractory microscopic colitis. Anti-TNF and diverting ileostomy may be an option in severe or refractory microscopic colitis.
SourceWorld J Gastroenterol. 2015 Aug 7;21(29):8804-10. doi: 10.3748/wjg.v21.i29.8804. Link to article on publisher's site
Permanent Link to this Itemhttp://hdl.handle.net/20.500.14038/39827
Related ResourcesLink to Article in PubMed
Copyright ©The Author(s) 2015. Published by Baishideng Publishing Group Inc. This article is an open-access article which was selected by an in-house editor and fully peer-reviewed by external reviewers. It is distributed in accordance with the Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial (CC BY-NC 4.0) license, which permits others to distribute, remix, adapt, build upon this work non-commercially, and license their derivative works on different terms, provided the original work is properly cited and the use is non-commercial. See: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/
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Management of microscopic colitis: challenges and solutionsShor, Julia; Churrango, Gustavo; Hosseini, Nooshin; Marshall, Christopher (2019-02-27)Microscopic colitis (MC) is a chronic inflammatory bowel disease characterized by nonbloody diarrhea in the setting of normal appearing colonic mucosa. MC has two main subtypes based on histopathologic features, collagenous colitis and lymphocytic colitis. Management of both subtypes is the same, with treatment goal of reducing the number of bowel movements and improving consistency. First-line treatment involves counseling the patient about decreasing their risk factors, like discontinuing smoking and avoiding medications with suspected association such as NSAIDs, proton pump inhibitor, ranitidine, and sertraline. Starting loperamide for immediate symptomatic relief is used as an adjunct to therapy with glucocorticoids. Budesonide is considered first-line treatment for MC given its favorable side effect profile and good efficacy, though relapse rates are high. Systemic glucocorticoids should be reserved to patients unable to take budesonide. In glucocorticoid refractory disease, medications that have been tried include cholestyramine, bismuth salicylate, antibiotics, probiotics, aminosalicylates, immunomodulators, and anti-tumor necrosis factor-alpha inhibitors. More research is needed for the creation of a systematic stepwise approach for relapsing and refractory disease.
Microscopic Colitis After Fecal Microbiota TransplantFasullo, Matthew J.; Al-Azzawi, Yasir; Abergel, Jeffrey (2017-07-19)Microscopic colitis (MC) is an inflammatory condition of the large bowel that is associated with chronic, nonbloody diarrhea. Colonoscopy usually demonstrates normal mucosa, while tissue biopsy reveals intraepithelial lymphocytes or a subepithelial collagen band. Although no specific antibody has been discovered, MC is associated with several autoimmune disorders such as celiac disease, Hashimoto's thyroiditis, and rheumatoid arthritis. There are only a small number of case reports documenting possible hereditary MC cases, but up to 12% of patients with MC have a family history of inflammatory bowel disease. Other associations include proton pump inhibitor use, cigarette smoking, HLA-DQ2/86, and possibly some gastrointestinal infections.
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