Control of Adipocyte Thermogenesis and Lipogenesis through beta3-Adrenergic and Thyroid Hormone Signal Integration
AuthorsGuilherme, Adilson L.
Bedard, Alexander H.
Nicoloro, Sarah M.
Czech, Michael P.
Document TypeJournal Article
de novo lipogenesis
Amino Acids, Peptides, and Proteins
Cellular and Molecular Physiology
Genetics and Genomics
Hormones, Hormone Substitutes, and Hormone Antagonists
MetadataShow full item record
AbstractHere, we show that beta adrenergic signaling coordinately upregulates de novo lipogenesis (DNL) and thermogenesis in subcutaneous white adipose tissue (sWAT), and both effects are blocked in mice lacking the cAMP-generating G protein-coupled receptor Gs (Adipo-GsalphaKO) in adipocytes. However, UCP1 expression but not DNL activation requires rapamycin-sensitive mTORC1. Furthermore, beta3-adrenergic agonist CL316243 readily upregulates thermogenic but not lipogenic genes in cultured adipocytes, indicating that additional regulators must operate on DNL in sWAT in vivo. We identify one such factor as thyroid hormone T3, which is elevated locally by adrenergic signaling. T3 administration to wild-type mice enhances both thermogenesis and DNL in sWAT. Mechanistically, T3 action on UCP1 expression in sWAT depends upon cAMP and is blocked in Adipo-GsalphaKO mice even as elevated DNL persists. Thus, T3 enhances sWAT thermogenesis by amplifying cAMP signaling, while its control of adipocyte DNL can be mediated independently of both cAMP and rapamycin-sensitive mTORC1.
Guilherme A, Yenilmez B, Bedard AH, Henriques F, Liu D, Lee A, Goldstein L, Kelly M, Nicoloro SM, Chen M, Weinstein L, Collins S, Czech MP. Control of Adipocyte Thermogenesis and Lipogenesis through β3-Adrenergic and Thyroid Hormone Signal Integration. Cell Rep. 2020 May 5;31(5):107598. doi: 10.1016/j.celrep.2020.107598. PMID: 32375048. Link to article on publisher's site
Permanent Link to this Itemhttp://hdl.handle.net/20.500.14038/41459
RightsCopyright 2020 The Authors. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/)
Showing items related by title, author, creator and subject.
CIS/SOCS Proteins in Growth Hormone Action: A DissertationDu, Ling (2000-10-01)CIS/SOCS (cytokine-inducible SH2 protein/suppressor of cytokine signaling) are a family of proteins that are thought to act as negative regulators of signaling by erythropoetin, interleukin-6 and other cytokines whose receptors are related to the growth hormone receptor (GHR), and like growth hormone (GH), signal through the JAK/STAT pathway. We examined the possibility that CIS/SOCS proteins may also be involved in GH signaling, in particular, in termination of the transient insulin-like effects of GH. mRNAs for CIS, SOCS3, and to a lesser extent SOCS1 were detectable by Northern blot analysis of rat adipocyte total RNA, and the expression of CIS and SOCS3 was markedly increased 30 min after incubation with 500 ng/ml hGH. Both CIS and SOCS3 were detected in adipocyte extracts by immunoprecipitation and immunoblotting with their corresponding antisera. GH stimulated the tyrosine phosphorylation of a 120 kDa protein (p120) that was co-precipitated from adipocyte extracts along with αCIS and detected in Western blots with phospho-tyrosine antibodies. However, no tyrosine phosphorylated proteins in these cell extracts were immunoprecipitated with antibodies to CIS3/SOCS3. p120 was later identified as the GHR based on the observations that two GHR antibodies recognized p120 in scale-up experiments and that p120 and the GHR share several characteristics, including their molecular weights, tyrosine phosphorylation upon GH stimulation, interaction with CIS, similar extent of glycosylation as judged by electrophoretic mobility shift after Endo F digestion, comparable mobility shifts upon thrombin digestion, and N-terminal histidine-tagging. The findings, however, do not rule out the possibility that there might be other tyrosine phosphorylated 120 kDa protein(s) that interact with CIS and contribute to the p120 signal, as well as the GHR. Further studies of the association of CIS with the GHR revealed that CIS might selectively interact with multiply tyrosine phosphorylated forms of the GHR, and these tyrosines are likely located near the carboxyl end of the GHR. Overexpression of CIS partially inhibited GH-induced STAT5 phosphorylation in CHO cells. Studies in freshly isolated and GH-deprived (sensitive) adipocytes revealed that the abundance of CIS does not correlate with the termination of the insulin-like effects of GH or the emergence of refractoriness. Neither the association of CIS with the GHR nor the tyrosine phosphorylation status of the GHR, JAK2 and STAT5 appear responsible for refractoriness in adipocytes. These data imply that some negative regulators other than CIS might contribute to the termination of GH-induced insulin-like effects in adipocytes.
Maternal 3,3'-Diiodothyronine Sulfate Formation from Guinea Pig Placenta Perfused with 3,3',5-TriodothyronineWu, Sing-Yung; Emerson, Charles H.; Tjioe, Edward; Chen, Dong-Bao (2021-09-01)OBJECTIVE: Serum 3, 3',5-triiodothyronine (T3) remains low in near-term fetus to prevent the growing fetus from undue exposure to its active catabolic effect in mammals. The present study was undertaken to gain insight in the role of placenta in T3 metabolism, fetal to maternal transfer of T3, and its metabolites by in situ placenta perfusion with outer-ring labeled [(125)I]-T3 in pregnant guinea pig, a species showing increased sulfated 3, 3'-diiodothyronine (T2S) levels in maternal serum in late pregnancy (term = 65 days), similarly to humans in pregnancy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: One-pass placenta perfusions performed on pregnant guinea pigs were studied between 58 - 65 days of gestation. In two separate experiments, the umbilical artery of the guinea pig placenta was perfused in situ at 37 degrees C with outer-ring labeled [(125)I]-T3. Maternal sera and umbilical effluents were obtained for analysis at the end of a 60-minute perfusion, when the steady-state levels of radioactivity were reached in the placenta effluent after 30-minute. RESULTS: Sulfated [(125)I]-T2S was readily detected in the maternal serum as the major metabolite of T3 following the perfusion of placenta with [(125)I]-T3, suggesting that placental inner-ring deiodinase and sulfotransferase may play an important role in fetal T3 homeostasis and in the fetal to maternal transfer of sulfated iodothyronine metabolites. CONCLUSIONS: The expression of type 3 deiodinase (D3) and thyroid hormone sulfotransferase activity in placenta may play an important role to protect developing organs against undue exposure to active thyroid hormone in late gestation in the fetus. The combined activities of D3 and sulfotransferase promoted a placental transfer of T2S into maternal circulation. The maternal circulation of T2S is fetal T3 in origin and its role as a fetal thyroid function biomarker deserves further evaluations and studies.
Signal Transduction Mechanisms for the Stimulation of Lipolysis by Growth Hormone: A DissertationYip, Rupert G. (1994-08-01)The purpose of this study was to investigate the mechanism of action of lipolysis by growth hormone in rat adipocytes. GH-induced lipolysis, in contrast to that of isoproterenol (ISO), is slow in onset (lag time >1h), small in magnitude (~2X basal). and requires corticosteroid. Evidence for direct coupling between GH receptors and adenylyl cyclase or G-proteins is lacking, and although we could detect no measurable change in cAMP content after treatment with GH + dexamethasone (Dex), it is likely that cAMP activation of protein kinase A is a central event in GH-induced lipolysis. Rp-cAMPS, a competitive antagonist of cAMP was equally effective in decreasing lipolysis in tissues treated with GH/Dex or a comparably lipolytic dose of ISO. Incorporation of 32P from γ-32P-ATP into kemptide, a synthetic oligopeptide substrate for protein kinase A, was increased in homogenates of GH/Dex-treated tissue. This increase was correlated with increased lipolysis. Earlier estimates based upon 32P-ribosylation of Gi catalysed by pertussis toxin (PTx) suggested that the abundance of Gi in adipocyte membranes was decreased 4h after treatment of hypophysectomized rats with GH. We therefore examined the possibility that changes in amount or distribution of G-proteins in adipocyte membranes might account for the lipolytic action of GH. Homogenates of GH/Dex-treated and control adipocytes were subjected to differential centrifugation and the abundance of G-proteins in low speed, l6k x g (16k), pellets and high speed, 100k x g (100k), pellets were determined by quantitative Western analysis with densitometry. A 35% loss of Giα2 from the l6k pellet compared from tissues treated with GH/Dex was associated with a 70% increase of Giα2 in the 100k pellet. No change in Gsα was observed in the l6k pellet but a 35% loss of Gsα was seen in the 100k pellet. The G proteins in the l6k pellet were fractionated on a continuous sucrose gradient followed by quantitation with Western analysis or autoradiography after 32P-NAD ribosylation. Giα2 was consistently shifted from heavier to lighter fractions of the l6k pellet after treatment with GH/Dex. Similar shifts of Gsα were not seen. The distribution of 32P-labelled proteins was comparably altered after incubation of homogenates of control and GH/Dex treated adipocytes with PTx and 32P-NAD. These shifts were blocked by treatment of adipocytes with 100μM colchicine which also blocked the lipolytic action of GH/Dex. We propose that an action of GH/Dex on the cytoskeleton of fat cells may change the cellular distribution of G-proteins in a manner that produces a relative decrease in the tonic inhibitory influence of Gi on adenylyl cyclase.