Joint influences of obesity, diabetes, and hypertension on indices of ventricular remodeling: Findings from the community-based Framingham Heart Study
Authorsvon Jeinsen, Beatrice
Vasan, Ramachandran S.
McManus, David D.
Mitchell, Gary F.
UMass Chan AffiliationsDivision of Cardiovascular Medicine, Department of Medicine
Body mass index
Cardiovascular disease risk
Endocrine System Diseases
Nutritional and Metabolic Diseases
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AbstractINTRODUCTION: Obesity, hypertension, and diabetes are independently associated with cardiac remodeling and frequently co-cluster. The conjoint and separate influences of these conditions on cardiac remodeling have not been investigated. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We evaluated 5,741 Framingham Study participants (mean age 50 years, 55% women) who underwent echocardiographic measurements of left ventricular (LV) mass (LVM), LV ejection fraction (LVEF), global longitudinal strain (GLS), mitral E/e', left atrial end-systolic (peak) dimension (LASD) and emptying fraction (LAEF). We used multivariable generalized linear models to estimate the adjusted-least square means of these measures according to cross-classified categories of body mass index (BMI; normal, overweight and obese), hypertension (yes/no), and diabetes (yes/no). RESULTS: We observed statistically significant interactions of BMI category, hypertension, and diabetes with LVM, LVEF, GLS, and LAEF (p for all 3-way interactions < 0.01). Overweight and obesity (compared to normal BMI), hypertension, and diabetes status were individually and conjointly associated with higher LVM and worse GLS (p < 0.01 for all). We observed an increase of 34% for LVM and of 9% for GLS between individuals with a normal BMI and without hypertension or diabetes compared to obese individuals with hypertension and diabetes. Presence of hypertension was associated with higher LVEF, whereas people with diabetes had lower LVEF. CONCLUSIONS: Obesity, hypertension, and diabetes interact synergistically to influence cardiac remodeling. These findings may explain the markedly heightened risk of heart failure and cardiovascular disease when these factors co-cluster.
von Jeinsen B, Vasan RS, McManus DD, Mitchell GF, Cheng S, Xanthakis V. Joint influences of obesity, diabetes, and hypertension on indices of ventricular remodeling: Findings from the community-based Framingham Heart Study. PLoS One. 2020 Dec 10;15(12):e0243199. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0243199. PMID: 33301464; PMCID: PMC7728232. Link to article on publisher's site