The quantal nature of calcium release to caffeine in single smooth muscle cells results from activation of the sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+)-ATPase
UMass Chan AffiliationsDepartment of Physiology
Cell Membrane Permeability
Dose-Response Relationship, Drug
Ion Channel Gating
Ryanodine Receptor Calcium Release Channel
Medicine and Health Sciences
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AbstractCalcium release from intracellular stores occurs in a graded manner in response to increasing concentrations of either inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate or caffeine. To investigate the mechanism responsible for this quantal release phenomenon, [Ca2+] changes inside intracellular stores in isolated single smooth muscle cells were monitored with mag-fura 2. Following permeabilization with saponin or alpha-toxin the dye, loaded via its acetoxymethyl ester, was predominantly trapped in the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR). Low caffeine concentrations in the absence of ATP induced only partial Ca2+ release; however, after inhibiting the calcium pump with thapsigargin the same stimulus released twice as much Ca2+. When the SR Ca(2+)-ATPase was rendered non-functional by depleting its "ATP pool," submaximal caffeine doses almost fully emptied the stores of Ca2+. We conclude that quantal release of Ca2+ in response to caffeine in these smooth muscle cells is largely due to the activity of the SR Ca(2+)-ATPase, which appears to return a portion of the released Ca2+ back to the SR, even in the absence of ATP. Apparently the SR Ca(2+)-ATPase is fueled by ATP, which is either compartmentalized or bound to the SR.
J Biol Chem. 1996 Jan 26;271(4):1821-4.
Permanent Link to this Itemhttp://hdl.handle.net/20.500.14038/42455
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Ca(2+) spark sites in smooth muscle cells are numerous and differ in number of ryanodine receptors, large-conductance K(+) channels, and coupling ratio between themZhuge, Ronghua; Fogarty, Kevin E.; Baker, Stephen P.; McCarron, John G.; Tuft, Richard A.; Lifshitz, Lawrence M.; Walsh, John V. Jr. (2004-08-13)Ca(2+) sparks are highly localized Ca(2+) transients caused by Ca(2+) release from sarcoplasmic reticulum through ryanodine receptors (RyR). In smooth muscle, Ca(2+) sparks activate nearby large-conductance, Ca(2+)-sensitive K(+) (BK) channels to generate spontaneous transient outward currents (STOC). The properties of individual sites that give rise to Ca(2+) sparks have not been examined systematically. We have characterized individual sites in amphibian gastric smooth muscle cells with simultaneous high-speed imaging of Ca(2+) sparks using wide-field digital microscopy and patch-clamp recording of STOC in whole cell mode. We used a signal mass approach to measure the total Ca(2+) released at a site and to estimate the Ca(2+) current flowing through RyR [I(Ca(spark))]. The variance between spark sites was significantly greater than the intrasite variance for the following parameters: Ca(2+) signal mass, I(Ca(spark)), STOC amplitude, and 5-ms isochronic STOC amplitude. Sites that failed to generate STOC did so consistently, while those at the remaining sites generated STOC without failure, allowing the sites to be divided into STOC-generating and STOC-less sites. We also determined the average number of spark sites, which was 42/cell at a minimum and more likely on the order of at least 400/cell. We conclude that 1) spark sites differ in the number of RyR, BK channels, and coupling ratio of RyR-BK channels, and 2) there are numerous Ca(2+) spark-generating sites in smooth muscle cells. The implications of these findings for the organization of the spark microdomain are explored.
Dihydropyridine receptors and type 1 ryanodine receptors constitute the molecular machinery for voltage-induced Ca2+ release in nerve terminalsDe Crescenzo, Valerie; Fogarty, Kevin E.; ZhuGe, Ronghua; Tuft, Richard A.; Lifshitz, Lawrence M.; Carmichael, Jeffrey; Bellve, Karl D.; Baker, Stephen P.; Zissimopoulos, Spyros; Lai, F. Anthony; et al. (2006-07-21)Ca2+ stores were studied in a preparation of freshly dissociated terminals from hypothalamic magnocellular neurons. Depolarization from a holding level of -80 mV in the absence of extracellular Ca2+ elicited Ca2+ release from intraterminal stores, a ryanodine-sensitive process designated as voltage-induced Ca2+ release (VICaR). The release took one of two forms: an increase in the frequency but not the quantal size of Ca2+ syntillas, which are brief, focal Ca2+ transients, or an increase in global [Ca2+]. The present study provides evidence that the sensors of membrane potential for VICaR are dihydropyridine receptors (DHPRs). First, over the range of -80 to -60 mV, in which there was no detectable voltage-gated inward Ca2+ current, syntilla frequency was increased e-fold per 8.4 mV of depolarization, a value consistent with the voltage sensitivity of DHPR-mediated VICaR in skeletal muscle. Second, VICaR was blocked by the dihydropyridine antagonist nifedipine, which immobilizes the gating charge of DHPRs but not by Cd2+ or FPL 64176 (methyl 2,5 dimethyl-4[2-(phenylmethyl)benzoyl]-1H-pyrrole-3-carboxylate), a non-dihydropyridine agonist specific for L-type Ca2+ channels, having no effect on gating charge movement. At 0 mV, the IC50 for nifedipine blockade of VICaR in the form of syntillas was 214 nM in the absence of extracellular Ca2+. Third, type 1 ryanodine receptors, the type to which DHPRs are coupled in skeletal muscle, were detected immunohistochemically at the plasma membrane of the terminals. VICaR may constitute a new link between neuronal activity, as signaled by depolarization, and a rise in intraterminal Ca2+.
Distinct intracellular calcium profiles following influx through N- versus L-type calcium channels: role of Ca2+-induced Ca2+ releaseTully, Keith; Treistman, Steven N. (2004-03-05)Selective activation of neuronal functions by Ca(2+) is determined by the kinetic profile of the intracellular calcium ([Ca(2+)](i)) signal in addition to its amplitude. Concurrent electrophysiology and ratiometric calcium imaging were used to measure transmembrane Ca(2+) current and the resulting rise and decay of [Ca(2+)](i) in differentiated pheochromocytoma (PC12) cells. We show that equal amounts of Ca(2+) entering through N-type and L-type voltage-gated Ca(2+) channels result in significantly different [Ca(2+)](i) temporal profiles. When the contribution of N-type channels was reduced by omega-conotoxin MVIIA treatment, a faster [Ca(2+)](i) decay was observed. Conversely, when the contribution of L-type channels was reduced by nifedipine treatment, [Ca(2+)](i) decay was slower. Potentiating L-type current with BayK8644, or inactivating N-type channels by shifting the holding potential to -40 mV, both resulted in a more rapid decay of [Ca(2+)](i). Channel-specific differences in [Ca(2+)](i) decay rates were abolished by depleting intracellular Ca(2+) stores with thapsigargin or by blocking ryanodine receptors with ryanodine, suggesting the involvement of Ca(2+)-induced Ca(2+) release (CICR). Further support for involvement of CICR is provided by the demonstration that caffeine slowed [Ca(2+)](i) decay while ryanodine at high concentrations increased the rate of [Ca(2+)](i) decay. We conclude that Ca(2+) entering through N-type channels is amplified by ryanodine receptor mediated CICR. Channel-specific activation of CICR provides a mechanism whereby the kinetics of intracellular Ca(2+) leaves a fingerprint of the route of entry, potentially encoding the selective activation of a subset of Ca(2+)-sensitive processes within the neuron.