Mitsial, S. Alex
Document TypeJournal Article
Endothelial Growth Factors
Hypoxia-Inducible Factor 1
Hypoxia-Inducible Factor 1, alpha Subunit
Muscle, Smooth, Vascular
Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A
Vascular Endothelial Growth Factors
Medicine and Health Sciences
MetadataShow full item record
SourceChest. 1998 Jul;114(1 Suppl):25S-28S.
Permanent Link to this Itemhttp://hdl.handle.net/20.500.14038/49416
NotesMedical student Victoria Arthur participated in this study as part of the Senior Scholars research program.
Related ResourcesLink to Article in PubMed
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Distinct genetic interactions between multiple Vegf receptors are required for development of different blood vessel types in zebrafishCovassin, Laurence D.; Villefranc, Jacques A.; Kacergis, Michael C.; Weinstein, Brant M.; Lawson, Nathan D. (2006-04-18)Recent evidence indicates a specific role for vascular endothelial growth factor a (Vegfa) during artery development in both zebrafish and mouse embryos, whereas less is known about signals that govern vein formation. In zebrafish, loss of vegfa blocks segmental artery formation and reduces artery-specific gene expression, whereas veins are largely unaffected. Here, we describe a mutation in the zebrafish vegf receptor-2 homolog, kdra, which eliminates its kinase activity and leads to specific defects in artery development. We further find that Flt4, a receptor for Vegfc, cooperates with Kdr during artery morphogenesis, but not differentiation. We also identify an additional zebrafish vegfr-2 ortholog, referred to as kdrb, which can partially compensate for loss of kdra but is dispensable for vascular development in wild-type embryos. Interestingly, we find that these Vegf receptors are also required for formation of veins but in distinct genetic interactions that differ from those required for artery development. Taken together, our results indicate that formation of arteries and veins in the embryo is governed in part by different Vegf receptor combinations and suggest a genetic mechanism for generating blood vessel diversity during vertebrate development.
Increased vascular endothelial growth factor production in the lungs of rats with hypoxia-induced pulmonary hypertensionChristou, Helen; Yoshida, Atsushi; Arthur, Victoria; Morita, Toshisuke; Kourembanas, Stella (1998-06-25)Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is a potent mitogenic and permeability factor targeting predominantly endothelial cells. At least two tyrosine kinase receptors, Flk-1 and Flt-1, mediate its action and are mostly expressed by endothelial cells. VEGF and VEGF receptor expression are upregulated by hypoxia in vivo and the role of VEGF in hypoxia-induced angiogenesis has been extensively studied in a variety of disease entities. Although VEGF and its receptors are abundantly expressed in the lung, their role in hypoxic pulmonary hypertension and the accompanying vascular remodeling are incompletely understood. We report in this in vivo study that hypoxia increases mRNA levels for both VEGF and Flk-1 in the rat lung. The kinetics of the hypoxic response differ between receptor and ligand: Flk-1 mRNA showed a biphasic response to hypoxia with a significant, but transient, rise in mRNA levels observed after 9-15 h of hypoxic exposure and the highest levels noted after 3 wk. In contrast, VEGF mRNA levels did not show a significant increase with acute hypoxia, but increased progressively after 1-3 wk of hypoxia. By in situ hybridization, VEGF mRNA was localized predominantly in alveolar epithelial cells with increased signal in the lungs of hypoxic animals compared with controls. Immunohistochemical staining with anti-VEGF antibodies localized VEGF peptide throughout the lung parenchyma and was increased in hypoxic compared with normoxic animals. Furthermore, hypoxic animals had significantly higher circulating VEGF concentrations compared with normoxic controls. Lung vascular permeability as measured by extravasation of Evans Blue dye was not significantly different between normoxic and hypoxic animals, although a tendency for increased permeability was seen in the hypoxic animals. These findings suggest a possible role for VEGF in the pulmonary response to hypoxia.
Factors associated with amputation or graft occlusion one year after lower extremity bypass in northern New EnglandGoodney, Philip P.; Nolan, Brian W.; Schanzer, Andres; Eldrup-Jorgensen, Jens; Bertges, Daniel J.; Stanley, Andrew C.; Stone, David H.; Walsh, Daniel B.; Powell, Richard J.; Likosky, Donald S.; et al. (2010-01-15)BACKGROUND: Optimal patient selection for lower extremity bypass surgery requires surgeons to predict which patients will have durable functional outcomes following revascularization. Therefore, we examined risk factors that predict amputation or graft occlusion within the first year following lower extremity bypass. METHODS: Using our regional quality-improvement initiative in 11 hospitals in northern New England, we studied 2,306 lower extremity bypass procedures performed in 2,031 patients between January 2003 and December 2007. Sixty surgeons contributed to our database, and over 100 demographic and clinical variables were abstracted by trained researchers. Cox proportional hazards models were used to generate hazard ratios and surrounding 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for our combined outcome measure of major amputation (above-knee or below-knee) or permanent graft occlusion (loss of secondary patency) occurring within the first year postoperatively. RESULTS: We found that within our cohort of 2,306 bypass procedures 17% resulted in an amputation or graft occlusion within 1 year of surgery. Of the 143 amputations performed (8% of all limbs undergoing bypasses), 17% occurred in the setting of a patent graft. Similarly, of the 277 graft occlusions (12% of all bypasses), 42% resulted in a major amputation. We identified eight preoperative patient characteristics associated with amputation or graft occlusion in multivariate analysis: age <50, nonambulatory status preoperatively, dialysis dependence, diabetes, critical limb ischemia, need for venovenostomy, tarsal target, and living preoperatively in a nursing home. While patients with no risk factors had 1-year amputation/occlusion rates that were <1%, patients with three or more risk factors had a nearly 30% chance of suffering amputation or graft occlusion by 1 year postoperatively. When we compared risk-adjusted rates of amputation/occlusion across centers, we found that one center in our region performed significantly better than expected (observed/expected ratio 0.7, 95% CI 0.6-0.9, p < 0.04). CONCLUSION: Preoperative risk factors allow surgeons to predict the risk of amputation or graft occlusion following lower extremity bypass and to more precisely inform patients about their operative risk and functional outcomes. Additionally, our model facilitates comparison of risk-adjusted outcomes across our region. We believe quality-improvement measures such as these will allow surgeons to identify best practices and thereby improve outcomes across centers. All rights reserved.