"Don't lose hope early": Hemorrhagic diffuse axonal injury on head computed tomography is not associated with poor outcome in moderate to severe traumatic brain injury patients
Compton, Rebecca A.
Khan, Muhammad W.
Carandang, Raphael A.
Hall, Wiley R.
UMass Chan AffiliationsDepartment of Surgery
Department of Psychiatry
Department of Neurology (Neurocritical Care)
Document TypeJournal Article
KeywordsTraumatic brain injury
diffuse axonal injury
traumatic axonal injury
Nervous System Diseases
Translational Medical Research
MetadataShow full item record
AbstractBACKGROUND: Diffuse axonal injury (DAI) on magnetic resonance imaging has been associated with poor functional outcome after moderate-severe traumatic brain injury (msTBI). Yet, DAI assessment with highly sensitive magnetic resonance imaging techniques is unfeasible in the acute trauma setting, and computed tomography (CT) remains the key diagnostic modality despite its lower sensitivity. We sought to determine whether CT-defined hemorrhagic DAI (hDAI) is associated with discharge and favorable 3- and 12-month functional outcome (Glasgow Coma Scale score > /=4) after msTBI. METHODS: We analyzed 361 msTBI patients from the single-center longitudinal Outcome Prognostication in Traumatic Brain Injury study collected over 6 years (November 2009 to November 2015) with prospective outcome assessments at 3 months and 12 months. Patients with microhemorrhages on CT were designated "CT-hDAI-positive" and those without as "CT-hDAI-negative." For secondary analyses "CT-hDAI-positive" was stratified into two phenotypes according to presence ("associated") versus absence ("predominant") of concomitant large acute traumatic lesions to determine whether presence versus absence of additional focal mass lesions portends a different prognosis. RESULTS: Seventy (19%) patients were CT-hDAI-positive (n = 36 predominant; n = 34 associated hDAI). In univariate analyses, CT-hDAI-positive status was associated with discharge survival (p = 0.004) and favorable outcome at 3 months (p = 0.003) and 12 months (p = 0.005). After multivariable adjustment, CT-hDAI positivity was no longer associated with discharge survival and functional outcome (all ps > 0.05). Stratified by hDAI phenotype, predominant hDAI patients had worse trauma severity, longer intensive care unit stays, and more systemic medical complications. Predominant hDAI, but not associated hDAI, was an independent predictor of discharge survival (adjusted odds ratio, 24.7; 95% confidence interval [CI], 3.2-192.6; p = 0.002) and favorable 12-month outcome (adjusted odds ratio, 4.7; 95% CI, 1.5-15.2; p = 0.01). Sensitivity analyses using Cox regression confirmed this finding for 1-year survival (adjusted hazard ratio, 5.6; 95% CI, 1.3-23; p = 0.048). CONCLUSION: The CT-defined hDAI was not an independent predictor of unfavorable short- and long-term outcomes and should not be used for acute prognostication in msTBI patients. Predominant hDAI patients had good clinical outcomes when supported to intensive care unit discharge and beyond. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Prognostic study, level III.
J Trauma Acute Care Surg. 2018 Mar;84(3):473-482. doi: 10.1097/TA.0000000000001733. Link to article on publisher's site
Permanent Link to this Itemhttp://hdl.handle.net/20.500.14038/50334
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Brain Injury Clubhouses [English, Spanish and Portuguese versions]McKay, Colleen E.; Young, Jason; Johnson, Cindi; Seel, Ronald T (2021-05-04)The National Institutes of Health (NIH) reported that the number of people living with permanent disability from brain injury grows annually as medical technology has advanced in life saving techniques. However, community-based programs which enable brain injury survivors to live productive lives throughout the entire course of recovery have not grown proportionately to meet this the need. Brain Injury Clubhouses were developed to address the need for coordinated, long-term, community-based supports for brain survivors in a community-based setting. Brain Injury Clubhouses are designed to improve the lives of persons with ABI and reduce strain on caregivers and healthcare services The information in this research brief is designed to provide funders, administrators, policy makers, and other stakeholders with an overview of Brain Injury Clubhouses. The brief also provides outcomes associated with participation in a Brain Injury Clubhouse from a recent research study to provide stakeholders with a better understanding of Brain Injury Clubhouses.
Frequency and impact of intensive care unit complications on moderate-severe traumatic brain injury: early results of the Outcome Prognostication in Traumatic Brain Injury (OPTIMISM) StudyMuehlschlegel, Susanne; Carandang, Raphael A.; Ouillette, Cynthia; Hall, Wiley R.; Anderson, Frederick A. Jr.; Goldberg, Robert J. (2013-06-01)BACKGROUND: Known predictors of adverse outcomes in patients with moderate-severe TBI (msTBI) explain only a relatively small proportion of patient-related outcomes. The frequency and impact of intensive care unit complications (ICU-COMPL) on msTBI-associated outcomes are poorly understood. METHODS: In 213 consecutive msTBI patients admitted to a Level I Trauma Center neuro trauma ICU, twenty-eight ICU-COMPL (21 medical and 7 neurological) were prospectively collected and adjudicated by group consensus, using pre-defined criteria. We determined frequencies, and explored associations of ICU-COMPL and hospital discharge outcomes using multivariable logistic regression. RESULTS: The average age of the study sample was 53 years, and the median presenting Glasgow Coma Scale and Injury Severity Scores were 5 and 27, respectively. Hyperglycemia (79%), fever (62%), systemic inflammatory response syndrome (60%), and hypotension requiring vasopressors (42%) were the four most common medical ICU-COMPL. Herniation (39%), intracranial rebleed (39%), and brain edema requiring osmotherapy (37%) were the three most common neurological ICU-COMPL. After adjusting for admission variables, duration of ventilation, and ICU length-of-stay, patients with brain edema (OR 5.8; 95% CI 2, 16.7) had a significantly increased odds for dying during hospitalization whereas patients with hospital-acquired urinary tract infection (UTI) had a decreased odds (OR 0.05; 95% CI 0.005, 0.6). Sensitivity analysis revealed that UTI occurred later, suggesting a non-causal association with survival. Brain herniation (OR 15.7; 95% CI 2.6, 95.4) was associated with an unfavorable functional status (GOS 1-3). CONCLUSION: ICU-COMPL are very common after msTBI, have a considerable impact on short-term outcomes, and should be considered in the prognostication of these high risk patients. Survival associations of time-dependent complications warrant cautious interpretation.
Predictors of Post-injury Mortality in Elderly Patients with Trauma: A Master's ThesisPsoinos, Charles M. (2016-07-21)Background: Traumatic injury remains a major cause of mortality in the US. Older Americans experience lower rates of injury and higher rates of death at lower injury severity than their younger counterparts. The objectives of this study were to explore pre-injury factors and injury patterns that are associated with post-discharge mortality among injured elderly surviving index hospitalization. Methods: We queried a 5% random sample of Medicare beneficiaries (n=2,002,420) for any hospitalization with a primary ICD-9 diagnosis code for injury. Patients admitted without urgent/emergent admission were excluded, as well as patients presenting from inpatient hospitalization or rehabilitation. The primary endpoint was all-cause mortality. Patients were categorized into three mortality groups: death within 0-30 days, 31-90 days, or 91- 365 days post-discharge from the index hospitalization. These groups were compared with those who survived greater than one year post-discharge. Univariate tests of association and multivariable logistic regression models were utilized to identify factors associated with mortality during the 3 examined periods. Results: 83,439 elderly patients (4.2%) were admitted with new injuries. 63,628 met inclusion criteria. 1,936 patients (3.0%) died during their index hospitalization, 2,410 (3.8%) died within 0-30 days, 3,084 (4.8%) died within 31-90 days, and 5,718 (9.0%) died within 91- 365 days after discharge. In multivariable adjusted models, advanced age, male sex, and higher Elixhauser score were associated with post-discharge mortality. The presence of critical injury had the greatest effect on mortality early after injury (0-30 days, OR 1.81, CI 1.64-2.00). Discharge to anywhere other than home without services was associated with an increased odds of dying. Conclusions: Socio-demographic characteristics, disposition, and co-morbid factors were the strongest predictors of post-discharge mortality. Efforts to reduce injury-related mortality should focus on injury prevention and modification of co-morbidities.