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dc.contributor.authorWassertheil-Smoller, Sylvia
dc.contributor.authorShumaker, Sally A.
dc.contributor.authorOckene, Judith K.
dc.contributor.authorTalavera, Greg A.
dc.contributor.authorGreenland, Philip
dc.contributor.authorCochrane, Barbara B.
dc.contributor.authorRobbins, John
dc.contributor.authorAragaki, Aaron K.
dc.contributor.authorDunbar-Jacob, Jacqueline
dc.date2022-08-11T08:11:05.000
dc.date.accessioned2022-08-23T17:32:07Z
dc.date.available2022-08-23T17:32:07Z
dc.date.issued2004-02-01
dc.date.submitted2008-02-26
dc.identifier.citationArch Intern Med. 2004 Feb 9;164(3):289-98. <a href="http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/archinte.164.3.289">Link to article on publisher's site</a>
dc.identifier.issn0003-9926 (Print)
dc.identifier.doi10.1001/archinte.164.3.289
dc.identifier.pmid14769624
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/20.500.14038/50887
dc.description.abstractBACKGROUND: Subclinical depression, often clinically unrecognized, may pose increased risk of cardiovascular disease. Few studies have prospectively investigated cardiovascular events related to depression in older women. We describe prevalence, cardiovascular correlates, and relationship to subsequent cardiovascular events of depressive symptoms among generally healthy postmenopausal women. METHODS: The Women's Health Initiative Observational Study followed up 93 676 women for an average of 4.1 years. Depression was measured at baseline with a short form of the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale. Risks of cardiovascular disease (CVD) events were estimated from Cox proportional hazards models adjusting for multiple demographic, clinical, and risk factor covariates. RESULTS: Current depressive symptoms above the screening cutoff point were reported by 15.8% of women. Depression was significantly related to CVD risk and comorbidity (odds ratios ranging from 1.12 for hypertension to 1.60 for history of stroke or angina). Among women with no history of CVD, depression was an independent predictor of CVD death (relative risk, 1.50) and all-cause mortality (relative risk, 1.32) after adjustment for age, race, education, income, diabetes, hypertension, smoking, high cholesterol level requiring medication, body mass index, and physical activity. Taking antidepressant medications did not alter the depression-associated risks associated. CONCLUSIONS: A large proportion of older women report levels of depressive symptoms that are significantly related to increased risk of CVD death and all-cause mortality, even after controlling for established CVD risk factors. Whether early recognition and treatment of subclinical depression will lower CVD risk remains to be determined in clinical trials.
dc.language.isoen_US
dc.relation<a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&list_uids=14769624&dopt=Abstract ">Link to article in PubMed</a>
dc.relation.urlhttp://dx.doi.org/10.1001/archinte.164.3.289
dc.subjectAged
dc.subjectAntidepressive Agents
dc.subjectCardiovascular Diseases
dc.subjectContinental Population Groups
dc.subjectDepression
dc.subjectDose-Response Relationship, Drug
dc.subjectEstrogens
dc.subjectExercise
dc.subjectFemale
dc.subjectFollow-Up Studies
dc.subjectHumans
dc.subjectLife Style
dc.subjectMiddle Aged
dc.subjectMotor Activity
dc.subjectPostmenopause
dc.subjectPredictive Value of Tests
dc.subjectPrevalence
dc.subjectProgesterone
dc.subjectProportional Hazards Models
dc.subjectProspective Studies
dc.subjectRisk Factors
dc.subjectStatistics as Topic
dc.subjectSurvival Analysis
dc.subjectTreatment Outcome
dc.subjectUnited States
dc.subjectWomen's Health
dc.subjectLife Sciences
dc.subjectMedicine and Health Sciences
dc.subjectWomen's Studies
dc.titleDepression and cardiovascular sequelae in postmenopausal women. The Women's Health Initiative (WHI)
dc.typeJournal Article
dc.source.journaltitleArchives of internal medicine
dc.source.volume164
dc.source.issue3
dc.identifier.legacycoverpagehttps://escholarship.umassmed.edu/wfc_pp/415
dc.identifier.contextkey437171
html.description.abstract<p>BACKGROUND: Subclinical depression, often clinically unrecognized, may pose increased risk of cardiovascular disease. Few studies have prospectively investigated cardiovascular events related to depression in older women. We describe prevalence, cardiovascular correlates, and relationship to subsequent cardiovascular events of depressive symptoms among generally healthy postmenopausal women.</p> <p>METHODS: The Women's Health Initiative Observational Study followed up 93 676 women for an average of 4.1 years. Depression was measured at baseline with a short form of the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale. Risks of cardiovascular disease (CVD) events were estimated from Cox proportional hazards models adjusting for multiple demographic, clinical, and risk factor covariates.</p> <p>RESULTS: Current depressive symptoms above the screening cutoff point were reported by 15.8% of women. Depression was significantly related to CVD risk and comorbidity (odds ratios ranging from 1.12 for hypertension to 1.60 for history of stroke or angina). Among women with no history of CVD, depression was an independent predictor of CVD death (relative risk, 1.50) and all-cause mortality (relative risk, 1.32) after adjustment for age, race, education, income, diabetes, hypertension, smoking, high cholesterol level requiring medication, body mass index, and physical activity. Taking antidepressant medications did not alter the depression-associated risks associated.</p> <p>CONCLUSIONS: A large proportion of older women report levels of depressive symptoms that are significantly related to increased risk of CVD death and all-cause mortality, even after controlling for established CVD risk factors. Whether early recognition and treatment of subclinical depression will lower CVD risk remains to be determined in clinical trials.</p>
dc.identifier.submissionpathwfc_pp/415
dc.contributor.departmentDepartment of Medicine, Division of Preventive and Behavioral Medicine
dc.source.pages289-98


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