Neighborhood-Based Socioeconomic Determinants of Cognitive Impairment in Zambian Children With HIV: A Quantitative Geographic Information Systems Approach
Adams, Heather R
Potchen, Michael J
Mbewe, Esau G
Kabundula, Pelekelo P
Menon, J Anitha
Birbeck, Gretchen L
Bearden, David R
UMass Chan AffiliationsPopulation and Quantitative Health Sciences
Document TypeJournal Article
MetadataShow full item record
AbstractBackground: Place-based inequalities, such as exposure to violence and access to nutritious food and clean water, may contribute to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-associated cognitive impairment. In this study, we investigated neighborhood effects on cognition in children and adolescents with HIV in Lusaka, Zambia. Methods: We conducted a prospective cohort study of 208 children with perinatally acquired HIV (ages 8-17) and 208 HIV-exposed uninfected controls. Participants underwent neuropsychological testing and interviews assessing socioeconomic status. Geographic regions with clusters of participants with HIV and cognitive impairment were identified using quantitative geographic information systems (QGIS) and SaTScan. Associations between location of residence and cognitive function were evaluated in bivariable and multivariable regression models. Mediation analysis was performed to assess direct and indirect effects of location of the residence on cognitive impairment. Results: Residence in Chawama, one of the poorest neighborhoods in Lusaka, was significantly associated with cognitive impairment in participants with HIV (odds ratio 2.9; P = .005) and remained significant in a multivariable regression model controlling for potential confounders. Mediation analysis found that 46% of the cognitive effects of residence in Chawama were explained by higher rates of malnutrition, lower school attendance, and poorer self-reported health. Conclusions: Place-based socioeconomic inequality contributes to cognitive impairment in Zambian children and adolescents with HIV. Neighborhood effects may be mediated by concentrated poverty, malnutrition, limited access to education and health care, and other yet unknown environmental factors that may be potentially modifiable.
SourceBuda A, Dean O, Adams HR, Mwanza-Kabaghe S, Potchen MJ, Mbewe EG, Kabundula PP, Mweemba M, Matoka B, Mathews M, Menon JA, Wang B, Birbeck GL, Bearden DR. Neighborhood-Based Socioeconomic Determinants of Cognitive Impairment in Zambian Children With HIV: A Quantitative Geographic Information Systems Approach. J Pediatric Infect Dis Soc. 2021 Dec 31;10(12):1071-1079. doi: 10.1093/jpids/piab076. PMID: 34437702; PMCID: PMC8719623.
Permanent Link to this Itemhttp://hdl.handle.net/20.500.14038/51975
Rights© The Author(s) 2021. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Journal of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: email@example.com.