Respiratory signal estimation for cardiac perfusion SPECT using deep learning
UMass Chan AffiliationsRadiology
Document TypeJournal Article
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AbstractBackground: Respiratory motion induces artifacts in reconstructed cardiac perfusion SPECT images. Correction for respiratory motion often relies on a respiratory signal describing the heart displacements during breathing. However, using external tracking devices to estimate respiratory signals can add cost and operational complications in a clinical setting. Purpose: We aim to develop a deep learning (DL) approach that uses only SPECT projection data for respiratory signal estimation. Methods: A modified U-Net was implemented that takes temporally finely sampled SPECT sub-projection data (100 ms) as input. These sub-projections are obtained by reframing the 20-s list-mode data, resulting in 200 sub-projections, at each projection angle for each SPECT camera head. The network outputs a 200-time-point motion signal for each projection angle, which was later aggregated over all angles to give a full respiratory signal. The target signal for DL model training was from an external stereo-camera visual tracking system (VTS). In addition to comparing DL and VTS, we also included a data-driven approach based on the center-of-mass (CoM) strategy. This CoM method estimates respiratory signals by monitoring the axial changes of CoM for counts in the heart region of the sub-projections. We utilized 900 subjects with stress cardiac perfusion SPECT studies, with 302 subjects for testing and the remaining 598 subjects for training and validation. Results: The Pearson's correlation coefficient between the DL respiratory signal and the reference VTS signal was 0.90, compared to 0.70 between the CoM signal and the reference. For respiratory motion correction on SPECT images, all VTS, DL, and CoM approaches partially de-blured the heart wall, resulting in a thinner wall thickness and increased recovered maximal image intensity within the wall, with VTS reducing blurring the most followed by the DL approach. Uptake quantification for the combined anterior and inferior segments of polar maps showed a mean absolute difference from the reference VTS of 1.7% for the DL method for patients with motion >12 mm, compared to 2.6% for the CoM method and 8.5% for no correction. Conclusion: We demonstrate the capability of a DL approach to estimate respiratory signal from SPECT projection data for cardiac perfusion imaging. Our results show that the DL based respiratory motion correction reduces artefacts and achieves similar regional quantification to that obtained using the stereo-camera VTS signals. This may enable fully automatic data-driven respiratory motion correction without relying on external motion tracking devices.
SourceChen Y, Pretorius PH, Lindsay C, Yang Y, King MA. Respiratory signal estimation for cardiac perfusion SPECT using deep learning. Med Phys. 2023 Jul 31. doi: 10.1002/mp.16653. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 37523268.
Permanent Link to this Itemhttp://hdl.handle.net/20.500.14038/52450
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