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dc.contributor.authorHerbert, Carly
dc.contributor.authorShi, Qiming
dc.contributor.authorBaek, Jonggyu
dc.contributor.authorWang, Biqi
dc.contributor.authorKheterpal, Vik
dc.contributor.authorNowak, Christopher
dc.contributor.authorSuvarna, Thejas
dc.contributor.authorSingh, Aditi
dc.contributor.authorHartin, Paul
dc.contributor.authorDurnam, Basyl
dc.contributor.authorSchrader, Summer
dc.contributor.authorHarman, Emma
dc.contributor.authorGerber, Ben S
dc.contributor.authorBarton, Bruce A
dc.contributor.authorZai, Adrian
dc.contributor.authorCohen-Wolkowiez, Michael
dc.contributor.authorCorbie-Smith, Giselle
dc.contributor.authorKibbe, Warren
dc.contributor.authorMarquez, Juan
dc.contributor.authorHafer, Nathaniel
dc.contributor.authorBroach, John P.
dc.contributor.authorLin, Honghuang
dc.contributor.authorHeetderks, William
dc.contributor.authorMcManus, David D
dc.contributor.authorSoni, Apurv
dc.date.accessioned2023-10-11T13:49:17Z
dc.date.available2023-10-11T13:49:17Z
dc.date.issued2023-09-22
dc.identifier.citationHerbert C, Shi Q, Baek J, Wang B, Kheterpal V, Nowak C, Suvarna T, Singh A, Hartin P, Durnam B, Schrader S, Harman E, Gerber B, Barton B, Zai A, Cohen-Wolkowiez M, Corbie-Smith G, Kibbe W, Marquez J, Hafer N, Broach J, Lin H, Heetderks W, McManus DD, Soni A. Association of neighborhood-level sociodemographic factors with Direct-to-Consumer (DTC) distribution of COVID-19 rapid antigen tests in 5 US communities. BMC Public Health. 2023 Sep 22;23(1):1848. doi: 10.1186/s12889-023-16642-3. PMID: 37735647; PMCID: PMC10515232.en_US
dc.identifier.eissn1471-2458
dc.identifier.doi10.1186/s12889-023-16642-3en_US
dc.identifier.pmid37735647
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/20.500.14038/52618
dc.description.abstractBackground: Many interventions for widescale distribution of rapid antigen tests for COVID-19 have utilized online, direct-to-consumer (DTC) ordering systems; however, little is known about the sociodemographic characteristics of home-test users. We aimed to characterize the patterns of online orders for rapid antigen tests and determine geospatial and temporal associations with neighborhood characteristics and community incidence of COVID-19, respectively. Methods: This observational study analyzed online, DTC orders for rapid antigen test kits from beneficiaries of the Say Yes! Covid Test program from March to November 2021 in five communities: Louisville, Kentucky; Indianapolis, Indiana; Fulton County, Georgia; O'ahu, Hawaii; and Ann Arbor/Ypsilanti, Michigan. Using spatial autoregressive models, we assessed the geospatial associations of test kit distribution with Census block-level education, income, age, population density, and racial distribution and Census tract-level Social Vulnerability Index. Lag association analyses were used to measure the association between online rapid antigen kit orders and community-level COVID-19 incidence. Results: In total, 164,402 DTC test kits were ordered during the intervention. Distribution of tests at all sites were significantly geospatially clustered at the block-group level (Moran's I: p < 0.001); however, education, income, age, population density, race, and social vulnerability index were inconsistently associated with test orders across sites. In Michigan, Georgia, and Kentucky, there were strong associations between same-day COVID-19 incidence and test kit orders (Michigan: r = 0.89, Georgia: r = 0.85, Kentucky: r = 0.75). The incidence of COVID-19 during the current day and the previous 6-days increased current DTC orders by 9.0 (95% CI = 1.7, 16.3), 3.0 (95% CI = 1.3, 4.6), and 6.8 (95% CI = 3.4, 10.2) in Michigan, Georgia, and Kentucky, respectively. There was no same-day or 6-day lagged correlation between test kit orders and COVID-19 incidence in Indiana. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that online ordering is not associated with geospatial clustering based on sociodemographic characteristics. Observed temporal preferences for DTC ordering can guide public health messaging around DTC testing programs.en_US
dc.description.sponsorshipThis study was funded by grant 3U54HL143541-02S2 from the National Institutes of Health Rapid Acceleration of Diagnostics (RADx-Tech) program. The funder had a role in the design and conduct of the Say Yes! Covid Test intervention but no role in the design and conduct of the study; collection, management, analysis, and interpretation of the data; preparation, review, or approval of the manuscript; and decision to submit the manuscript for publication.en_US
dc.language.isoenen_US
dc.relation.ispartofBMC Public Healthen_US
dc.relation.urlhttps://doi.org/10.1186/s12889-023-16642-3en_US
dc.rights© The Author(s) 2023. Open Access: This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons licence, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article’s Creative Commons licence, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article’s Creative Commons licence and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this licence, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver (http://creativecom‑ mons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated in a credit line to the data.en_US
dc.rightsAttribution 4.0 International*
dc.rights.urihttp://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/*
dc.subjectCOVID-19en_US
dc.subjectDirect-to-consumeren_US
dc.subjectGeospatial analysisen_US
dc.subjectRapid antigen testsen_US
dc.subjectUMCCTS fundingen_US
dc.titleAssociation of neighborhood-level sociodemographic factors with Direct-to-Consumer (DTC) distribution of COVID-19 rapid antigen tests in 5 US communitiesen_US
dc.typeJournal Articleen_US
dc.source.journaltitleBMC public health
dc.source.volume23
dc.source.issue1
dc.source.beginpage1848
dc.source.endpage
dc.source.countryUnited States
dc.source.countryUnited States
dc.source.countryEngland
dc.identifier.journalBMC public health
refterms.dateFOA2023-10-11T13:49:20Z
dc.contributor.departmentCenter for Clinical and Translational Scienceen_US
dc.contributor.departmentEmergency Medicineen_US
dc.contributor.departmentMedicineen_US
dc.contributor.departmentMorningside Graduate School of Biomedical Sciencesen_US
dc.contributor.departmentPopulation and Quantitative Health Sciencesen_US
dc.contributor.departmentT.H. Chan School of Medicineen_US
dc.contributor.departmentBiostatistics and Health Services Researchen_US
dc.contributor.studentCarly Herbert
dc.description.thesisprogramMD/PhD


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© The Author(s) 2023. Open Access: This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which
permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the
original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons licence, and indicate if changes were made. The images or
other third party material in this article are included in the article’s Creative Commons licence, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line
to the material. If material is not included in the article’s Creative Commons licence and your intended use is not permitted by statutory
regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this
licence, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver (http://creativecom‑
mons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated in a credit line to the data.
Except where otherwise noted, this item's license is described as © The Author(s) 2023. Open Access: This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons licence, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article’s Creative Commons licence, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article’s Creative Commons licence and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this licence, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver (http://creativecom‑ mons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated in a credit line to the data.