The mission of the Tan Chingfen Graduate School of Nursing at UMass Chan Medical School is to prepare nurses who embrace diversity and promote health equity to improve the quality of life and human health in the Commonwealth and beyond by leading and innovating in education, research, health care delivery and public service. This collection showcases journal articles, posters, and other publications and presentations written by faculty, staff, and students of the Tan Graduate School of Nursing.


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Recently Published

  • E-Cigarettes - a review of the evidence - harm versus harm reduction

    Feeney, Susan; Rossetti, Victoria; Terrien, Jill M. (2022-03-29)
    The World Health Organization estimates there are 1.1 billion cigarette smokers across the globe and that tobacco related deaths number 7 million per year. Electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS) are available to contribute options for smoking cessation and include e-cigarettes, e-hookahs, vape pens, mods, and vaping. The growing use of ENDS, or e-cigarettes, in the US and globally across populations is dramatic. Although users may think that e-cigarettes are less harmful than combustible tobacco products, the evidence shows that there are known risks and harms for users. E-cigarettes have varying amounts of toxicants, nicotine, and carcinogens and put the user at risk for lung diseases and COVID-19 similar to smokers. Currently, most governing bodies have not approved e-cigarettes as a smoking cessation tool but do state if a person has failed conventional smoking cessation treatments that e-cigarettes used alone for the short term may help those to quit combustible tobacco and nicotine. A shared decision-making approach should be used when discussing e-cigarettes as a harm reduction tool. More studies and long-term data are needed to assess potential benefits and harms. What is known is that prevention efforts and policy are needed to avoid adolescents and other vulnerable populations from initiating tobacco or e-cigarette use.
  • Diving in: Using a “Shark Tank” approach to teach business skills to future DNP leaders

    Gravlin, Gayle; Fortunato-Habib, Mary; Gemme, Donna; Carney, Brittany; Dick, Karen (2022-03-21)
    Doctor of Nursing Practice (DNP) education prepares graduates to lead clinical improvement and innovation across practice settings. Advanced clinical knowledge, leadership skills, and the development of quality/safety competencies uniquely prepare the DNP program graduates to drive organizational change. Adding business and financial competencies to the skill set of DNP graduates strengthens the impact and value of their role on financial, quality, and operational outcomes. The Organizational Systems and Healthcare Financing course in a DNP program was redesigned to engage learners using an innovative approach to teach business and financial principles. This paper aims to (a) describe a novel “Shark Tank” approach whereby students develop and “pitch” their business proposals to a panel of healthcare executives; (b) share examples of impactful change projects by student teams; (c) report DNP course and program evaluations including students’ satisfaction and perceptions of value and knowledge gained in business principles; and (d) report opportunities for bidirectional mentorship, faculty recruitment, and succession planning. The success of this innovative team-based approach for teaching business/financial skills better prepares future DNP leaders and has implications for other DNP programs. Using this teaching strategy created opportunities for faculty recruitment, succession planning, and bidirectional mentorship of DNP-prepared nurse leaders.
  • Variability of Prognostic Communication in Critically Ill Neurologic Patients: A Pilot Multicenter Mixed-Methods Study

    Ge, Connie; Goss, Adeline L.; Crawford, Sybil L.; Goostrey, Kelsey; Buddadhumaruk, Praewpannarai; Shields, Anne-Marie; Hough, Catherine L.; Lo, Bernard; Carson, Shannon S.; Steingrub, Jay; et al. (2022-02-21)
    IMPORTANCE: Withdrawal-of-life-sustaining treatments (WOLST) rates vary widely among critically ill neurologic patients (CINPs) and cannot be solely attributed to patient and family characteristics. Research in general critical care has shown that clinicians prognosticate to families with high variability. Little is known about how clinicians disclose prognosis to families of CINPs, and whether any associations exist with WOLST. OBJECTIVES: Primary: to demonstrate feasibility of audio-recording clinician-family meetings for CINPs at multiple centers and characterize how clinicians communicate prognosis during these meetings. Secondary: to explore associations of 1) clinician, family, or patient characteristics with clinicians' prognostication approaches and 2) prognostication approach and WOLST. DESIGN SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: Forty-three audio-recorded clinician-family meetings during which prognosis was discussed from seven U.S. centers for 39 CINPs with 88 family members and 27 clinicians. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES: Two investigators qualitatively coded transcripts using inductive methods (inter-rater reliability > 80%) to characterize how clinicians prognosticate. We then applied univariate and multivariable multinomial and binomial logistic regression. RESULTS: Clinicians used four distinct prognostication approaches: Authoritative (21%; recommending treatments without discussing values and preferences); Informational (23%; disclosing just the prognosis without further discussions); advisory (42%; disclosing prognosis followed by discussion of values and preferences); and responsive (14%; eliciting values and preferences, then disclosing prognosis). Before adjustment, prognostication approach was associated with center (p < 0.001), clinician specialty (neurointensivists vs non-neurointensivists; p = 0.001), patient age (p = 0.08), diagnosis (p = 0.059), and meeting length (p = 0.03). After adjustment, only clinician specialty independently predicted prognostication approach (p = 0.027). WOLST decisions occurred in 41% of patients and were most common under the advisory approach (56%). WOLST was more likely in older patients (p = 0.059) and with more experienced clinicians (p = 0.07). Prognostication approach was not independently associated with WOLST (p = 0.198). CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: It is feasible to audio-record sensitive clinician-family meetings about CINPs in multiple ICUs. We found that clinicians prognosticate with high variability. Our data suggest that larger studies are warranted in CINPs to examine the role of clinicians' variable prognostication in WOLST decisions.
  • Variations in Sleep Characteristics and Glucose Regulation in Young Adults With Type 1 Diabetes

    Griggs, Stephanie; Grey, Margaret; Strohl, Kingman P.; Crawford, Sybil L.; Margevicius, Seunghee; Kashyap, Sangeeta R.; Li, Chiang-Shan R.; Rajagopalan, Sanjay; Hickman, Ronald L. (2022-02-17)
    CONTEXT: Short sleep duration and sleep disruptions are associated with impaired glucoregulation in type 1 diabetes (T1D). However, the mechanistic pathways between sleep and glucose variability remain unclear. OBJECTIVE: To determine within- and between-person associations between objective sleep-wake characteristics and glucose variability indices. METHODS: Multilevel models were used to analyze concurrent sleep and glucose patterns over 7 days in 42 young adults with T1D in their natural home environment. Young adults with T1D (mean age 22.2 +/- 3.0 years, HbA1c 7.2%, 32.6% male) for at least 6 months with no other medical or major psychiatric comorbidity were included. Sleep-wake characteristics were measured via wrist actigraphy and glucose variability indices via a continuous glucose monitor (CGM). RESULTS: Lower sleep efficiency predicted higher glucose variability (less time in range beta = 0.011 and more time in hyperglycemia beta = -0.011) within-person. A longer wake after sleep onset and more sleep disruptions were associated with higher glucose variability between persons (beta = 0.28 and 0.31). Higher glucose variability predicted poorer sleep within-person (delayed bedtime, waketime, mid-sleep time, and lower sleep efficiency), while higher glucose variability was associated with poorer sleep and more sleep disruptions between persons (lower sleep efficiency, longer wake after sleep onset, and a higher sleep fragmentation index). CONCLUSION: Clinicians can address the reciprocal nature of the sleep-glucose relationship by optimizing sleep and targeting efforts toward a euglycemic range overnight. Sleep habits are a modifiable personal target in diabetes care.
  • TeleICU Interdisciplinary Care Teams

    Welsh, Cindy; Rincon, Teresa A.; Berman, Iris; Bobich, Tom; Brindise, Theresa; Davis, Theresa (2021-12-01)
    Telehealth in intensive care units (TeleICU) is the provision of critical care using audio-visual communication and health information systems across varying clinical and geographically dispersed settings. The optimal structure of a TeleICU team is one that leverages expert clinical knowledge to address the needs of critical care patients, regardless of hospital location or availability of an onsite intensivist. Information related to the optimal TeleICU team structure is lacking. This article examines the optimal TeleICU team composition, which is one that incorporates the use of an interdisciplinary approach, leverages technology, and is cognizant of varying geographic locations.
  • Meta-analysis for individual participant data with a continuous exposure: A case study

    Darssan, Darsy; Mishra, Gita D.; Greenwood, Darren C.; Sandin, Sven; Brunner, Eric J.; Crawford, Sybil L.; El Khoudary, Samar R.; Brooks, Maria Mori; Gold, Ellen; Simonsen, Mette Kildevaeld; et al. (2021-12-01)
    OBJECTIVE: Methods for meta-analysis of studies with individual participant data and continuous exposure variables are well described in the statistical literature but are not widely used in clinical and epidemiological research. The purpose of this case study is to make the methods more accessible. STUDY DESIGN AND SETTING: A two-stage process is demonstrated. Response curves are estimated separately for each study using fractional polynomials. The study-specific curves are then averaged pointwise over all studies at each value of the exposure. The averaging can be implemented using fixed effects or random effects methods. RESULTS: The methodology is illustrated using samples of real data with continuous outcome and exposure data and several covariates. The sample data set, segments of Stata and R code, and outputs are provided to enable replication of the results. CONCLUSION: These methods and tools can be adapted to other situations, including for time-to-event or categorical outcomes, different ways of modelling exposure-outcome curves, and different strategies for covariate adjustment.
  • Secondary Precipitants of Atrial Fibrillation and Anticoagulation Therapy

    Ko, Darae; Saleeba, Connor; Sadiq, Hammad; Crawford, Sybil L.; Paul, Tenes; Shi, Qiming; Wang, Zi-Yue; Benjamin, Emelia J.; Walkey, Allan J.; Lubitz, Steven A.; et al. (2021-10-20)
    Background Atrial fibrillation (AF) commonly occurs in the setting of acute conditions. We aimed to identify the acute conditions associated with secondary AF (AF precipitants) including pneumonia/sepsis, pneumothorax, respiratory failure, myocarditis, pericarditis, alcohol intoxication, thyrotoxicosis, cardiothoracic surgery, other surgery in patients with newly diagnosed AF and determine their association with subsequent oral anticoagulant use. Methods and Results We assembled a cohort of patients in the UMass Memorial Healthcare system with a new diagnosis of AF with and without AF precipitants. We used combinations of International Classification of Diseases, Tenth Revision (ICD-10) codes, Current Procedural Terminology codes, laboratory values, imaging reports, and physician notes including discharge summary texts to identify AF precipitants. We then manually reviewed the individual charts to validate presence of AF precipitants. The study sample consisted of 185 patients with and 172 patients without AF precipitants. Pneumonia/sepsis, myocardial infarction, respiratory failure, and cardiothoracic surgery were the most common precipitants identified. In multivariable analyses adjusting for age, sex, patient comorbidities, left atrial enlargement, left ventricular ejection fraction, and antiplatelet use, patients with AF precipitants were less likely to receive subsequent anticoagulation therapy at 30 days after the initial AF diagnosis (odds ratio, 0.31; 95% CI, 0.19-0.52). The association was persistent after excluding men with CHA2DS2-VASc score < 2 and women with CHA2DS2-VASc score < 3. Conclusions Our study highlights lower usage of oral anticoagulant in secondary AF in contemporary clinical practice.
  • A policy analysis of nurse practitioner scope of practice in Massachusetts

    Cuccovia, Barbara Ann; Heelan-Fancher, Lisa; Aronowitz, Teri (2021-10-13)
    Nurse practitioner (NP) practice has evolved since inception of the role in 1965. Educational requirements have been standardized requiring a master's degree, yet variation in NPs scope of practice exists across the United States. As the population ages and more Americans have health insurance coverage, the demand for health care continues to increase. Shortages of clinical providers and changes in hospital models of care continue to burden the health care system. Nurse practitioners have been found to provide safe, high-quality patient care and are a potential solution to ease the burden on our health care system. Nurse practitioner scope of practice restrictions limit the ability for NPs to practice independently. The purpose of this article was to analyze the advanced practice registered nurse's (APRNs) scope of practice policy in Massachusetts (MA) where APRNs just recently obtained full practice authority. Legislation to remove NP scope of practice restrictions in MA had been presented several times but was met with resistance from physician advocacy groups stating that NPs lack the education requirements to practice independently. A recent report from the MA Health Policy Commission demonstrates the impact that NPs have on lowering health care costs and servicing individuals in underserved areas of the state. During the pandemic, restrictions on NP scope of practice in MA were temporarily removed. It was realized that if NPs can practice independently during a pandemic, then they certainly are competent to practice independently at other times. A reassessment of NP scope of practice to allow for full authority should be completed nationally.
  • Gut microbiota regulation of P-glycoprotein in the intestinal epithelium in maintenance of homeostasis

    Foley, Sage; Tuohy, Christine; Dunford, Merran; Grey, Michael J.; De Luca, Heidi; Cawley, Caitlin; Szabady, Rose L.; Maldonado-Contreras, Ana; Houghton, JeanMarie; Ward, Doyle V.; et al. (2021-09-07)
    BACKGROUND: P-glycoprotein (P-gp) plays a critical role in protection of the intestinal epithelia by mediating efflux of drugs/xenobiotics from the intestinal mucosa into the gut lumen. Recent studies bring to light that P-gp also confers a critical link in communication between intestinal mucosal barrier function and the innate immune system. Yet, despite knowledge for over 10 years that P-gp plays a central role in gastrointestinal homeostasis, the precise molecular mechanism that controls its functional expression and regulation remains unclear. Here, we assessed how the intestinal microbiome drives P-gp expression and function. RESULTS: We have identified a "functional core" microbiome of the intestinal gut community, specifically genera within the Clostridia and Bacilli classes, that is necessary and sufficient for P-gp induction in the intestinal epithelium in mouse models. Metagenomic analysis of this core microbial community revealed that short-chain fatty acid and secondary bile acid production positively associate with P-gp expression. We have further shown these two classes of microbiota-derived metabolites synergistically upregulate P-gp expression and function in vitro and in vivo. Moreover, in patients suffering from ulcerative colitis (UC), we find diminished P-gp expression coupled to the reduction of epithelial-derived anti-inflammatory endocannabinoids and luminal content (e.g., microbes or their metabolites) with a reduced capability to induce P-gp expression. CONCLUSION: Overall, by means of both in vitro and in vivo studies as well as human subject sample analysis, we identify a mechanistic link between cooperative functional outputs of the complex microbial community and modulation of P-gp, an epithelial component, that functions to suppress overactive inflammation to maintain intestinal homeostasis. Hence, our data support a new cross-talk paradigm in microbiome regulation of mucosal inflammation. Video abstract.
  • Sleep-wake characteristics, daytime sleepiness, and glycemia in young adults with type 1 diabetes

    Griggs, Stephanie; Hickman, Ronald L.; Strohl, Kingman P.; Redeker, Nancy S.; Crawford, Sybil L.; Grey, Margaret (2021-09-01)
    STUDY OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to describe objective sleep-wake characteristics and glycemia over 7-14 days in young adults with type 1 diabetes. In addition, person-level associations among objective sleep-wake characteristics (total sleep time, sleep variability, and sleep fragmentation index), daytime sleepiness, and glycemia (glycemic control and glucose variability) were examined. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, objective sleep-wake characteristics were measured via actigraphy and glucose variability via continuous glucose monitoring over 6-14 days. At baseline, participants completed the Psychomotor Vigilance Test, the Trail Making Test, and questionnaires on daytime sleepiness, sleep quality, and sleep disturbance including sleep diaries. RESULTS: Forty-six participants (mean age, 22.3 +/- 3.2 years) wore a wrist actigraph and underwent continuous glucose monitoring concurrently for 6-14 days. Greater sleep variability was directly associated with greater glucose variability (mean of daily differences; r = .33, P = .036). Higher daytime sleepiness was directly associated with greater glucose variability (mean of daily differences; r = .50, P = .001). The association between sleep variability and glucose variability (mean of daily differences) was no longer significant when accounting for daytime sleepiness and controlling for type 1 diabetes duration (P > .05). A higher sleep fragmentation index was associated with greater glucose variability (B = 1.27, P = .010, pr2 = 0.40) after controlling for type 1 diabetes duration and accounting for higher daytime sleepiness. CONCLUSIONS: Sleep-wake variability, sleep fragmentation, daytime sleepiness, and the associations with glycemia are new dimensions to consider in young adults with type 1 diabetes. Sleep habits in this population may explain higher glucose variability, and optimizing sleep may improve overall diabetes management.
  • Survey of Nurses' Experiences Applying The Joint Commission's Medication Management Titration Standards

    Davidson, Judy E.; Rincon, Teresa A. (2021-09-01)
    BACKGROUND: Critical care nurses titrate continuous infusions of medications to achieve clinical end points. In 2017, The Joint Commission (TJC) placed restrictions on titration practice, decreasing nurses' autonomous decision-making. OBJECTIVES: To describe the practice and perceptions of nurses regarding the 2017 TJC accreditation/regulatory standards for titration of continuous medication infusions. METHODS: A survey of nurses' experiences titrating continuous medication infusions was developed, validated, and distributed electronically to members of the American Association of Critical-Care Nurses. RESULTS: The content validity index for the survey was 1.0 for relevance and 0.95 for clarity. A total of 781 nurses completed the survey; 625 (80%) perceived titration standards to cause delays in patient care, and 726 (93%) experienced moral distress (mean [SD], 4.97 [2.67]; scale, 0-10). Among respondents, 33% could not comply with titration orders, 68% reported suboptimal care resulting from pressure to comply with orders, 70% deviated from orders to meet patient needs, and 84% requested revised orders to ensure compliance. Suboptimal care and delays in care significantly and strongly (regression coefficients > /=0.69) predicted moral distress. CONCLUSIONS: Critical care nurses perceive TJC medication titration standards to adversely impact patient care and contribute to moral distress. The improved 2020 updates to the standards do not address delays and inability to comply with orders, leading to moral distress. Advocacy is indicated in order to mitigate unintended consequences of TJC medication management titration standards.
  • Thematic Analysis of Nurses' Experiences With The Joint Commission's Medication Management Titration Standards

    Davidson, Judy E.; Chechel, Laura; Chavez, Jose; Olff, Carol; Rincon, Teresa A. (2021-09-01)
    BACKGROUND: For decades, medication titration has been within nurses' scope and practice. In 2017 The Joint Commission (TJC) revised elements for orders for the titration of continuous intravenous medications. OBJECTIVES: To explore the practice and perceptions of nurses regarding TJC standards for titration of continuous intravenous medications. METHODS: Nurses with experience titrating medications completed an investigator-designed, validated cross-sectional survey. Inductive thematic analysis was conducted in order to analyze the open-ended comments from that quantitative survey. RESULTS: From among 730 completed surveys, 159 comments were received. Analysis of the comments yielded 3 levels of abstraction. Two overarching themes were harm and professionalism. Additional abstraction for the harm theme revealed categories of erosion of workplace wellness, moral dilemma, and patient safety, which were coded as relating to workplace stress, workload, burnout/turnover, physical risk, inefficiency, demeaning/devalued, falsification of records, problematic orders, burden of documentation, suboptimal care, delay in care, individualized care, and provider availability. Within the professionalism theme, categories of autonomy and nurse proficiency were identified, with 7 associated codes: top of scope, critical thinking, overregulation, teamwork, education, registered nurse knowledge, and novice registered nurse guidance. CONCLUSIONS: The standards from TJC impose harm by eroding workplace wellness and introducing moral dilemmas and patient safety concerns. Professionalism is threatened through limits on scope and autonomy. Further advocacy is necessary in order to resolve unanticipated consequences related to the titration standards.
  • Predictors of irritability symptoms in mildly depressed perimenopausal women

    de Wit, Anouk E.; Giltay, Erik J.; de Boer, Marrit K.; Nathan, Margo; Wiley, Aleta; Crawford, Sybil L.; Joffe, Hadine (2021-04-01)
    OBJECTIVE: Irritability is a highly burdensome complaint, commonly, but not universally, linked with depressive symptoms. While increased variability in estradiol has been associated with depressive symptoms during perimenopause, more insight is needed into reproductive hormone dynamics and other factors that predispose perimenopausal women to irritable mood. METHODS: Among 50 mildly depressed perimenopausal women (mean (SD) age 48.4 (3.9) years), severity of irritability symptoms (on Symptom Questionnaire Hostility subscale, range 0-23) was assessed weekly for eight weeks, concurrent with potential predictors. Associations between these were examined using generalized estimating equating models. RESULTS: Most women (82.0%) reported having moderate to severe irritability at least once. However, the severity of irritability was highly variable from week-to-week (between-subject mean coefficient of variation [CV] 72.9% and within-subject mean CV 63.7%). In multivariate analyses, less variable serum estradiol levels (standardized beta within-person CV -0.23 95%CI [-0.32, -0.14], p < 0.001), greater depression severity (0.45 [0.35, 0.56], p < 0.001), younger age (-0.23, [-0.28, -0.09], p < 0.001), and more frequent vasomotor symptoms (0.14 [0.05, 0.23], p=0.002) were associated with more irritability. Depression severity explained the largest portion of the variance in irritability, but still not more than 20.3%. Neither crude values, weekly change in, or variability of progesterone or FSH levels were associated with irritability. CONCLUSIONS: Irritability was highly prevalent among mildly depressed perimenopausal women. In contrast to depressive symptoms, decreased rather than increased variability in estradiol levels was associated with more irritability. This highlights that irritable mood can be disentangled from depressive symptoms in perimenopausal women and might be linked with different estradiol dynamics.
  • Introducing The Science of Diabetes Self-Management and Care

    Fain, James A. (2021-03-25)
    Editorial introducing the journal The Science of Diabetes Self-Management and Care, renamed in 2021 by the Association of Diabetes Care and Education Specialists (ADCES) from The Diabetes Educator (TDE).
  • A Clinical Trial of a Video Intervention Targeting Opioid Disposal After General Surgery: A Feasibility Study

    Lewis, Joanne; Crawford, Sybil L.; Sullivan-Bolyai, Susan L; Poza, Ricardo (2021-01-30)
    BACKGROUND: The opioid epidemic continues and although some initiatives have shown promise in reducing the number of opiates prescribed, few studies have focused on education of general surgery patients about home storage and safe disposal. The purpose of this feasibility study was to explore the use of an online video intervention to prepare surgical patients to properly dispose of unused opioids. METHODS: Eligible patients undergoing elective general surgery between August and October 2019 were enrolled into this prospective randomized controlled feasibility study. Patients with reported opioid use preoperatively were excluded from the study. The control group followed usual care, and the intervention group received usual care plus a brief educational video guided by the theory of reasoned action describing safe storage and disposal practices of unused opioid pills. Measures were collected at baseline and 2 wk postoperatively. RESULTS: A total of 40 participants were enrolled in the study; average age was 44.7 (range 21-75 y); most were Caucasian, educated, and employed. Recruitment took 11 wk, and the retention rate was excellent at 85%. Differences in opioid disposal were not significantly different by age, sex, education, or type of surgery. The video intervention was positively received, but the majority (80%) still stored their pills unsecured. CONCLUSIONS: Results demonstrate that a video intervention addressing safe storage and disposal practices of unused opioids is feasible, and more research is needed to determine efficacy in increasing rates of secure storage and disposal of unused opioid pills.
  • Making explicit the development of PhD-prepared nurses to steward the discipline

    Morris, Nancy S.; Wassef, Maureen E.; Sullivan-Bolyai, Susan L.; Bova, Carol A.; Kane, Anne T. (2021-01-01)
    Leadership is a core curricular element of PhD programs in nursing. Our PhD faculty began a dialogue about being a leader, a steward of the discipline. We asked ourselves: (a) What expertise do PhD prepared nurse needs to begin to steward the discipline? (b) How do faculty engage PhD nursing students to assume responsibility for stewarding the discipline? Lastly, (c) How do we work with PhD nursing students to create their vision for how their work contributes to stewarding the discipline, from doctoral coursework throughout their career? We support the need for PhD graduates to have the skills to generate knowledge, conserve that which is important, and transform by disseminating new knowledge to a broad audience. Examples of nurses stewarding the discipline when pioneering research, critiquing traditional approaches to inquiry or trends in nursing practice, and developing policy, are highlighted along with examples of how PhD nursing students begin to steward the discipline.
  • Feasibility of an online cognitive behavioral therapy program to improve insomnia, mood, and quality of life in bereaved adults ages 55 and older

    Godzik, Cassandra; Crawford, Sybil L.; Ryan, Elizabeth (2021-01-01)
    The aim of the current study was to assess the feasibility and preliminary efficacy of utilizing an online Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Insomnia (CBT-I) program in bereaved older adults (ages 55 and older). Participants were randomized to receive either a 6-week online CBT-I program or six weeks of online psychoeducational modules on insomnia and grief. The sample included 30 adults with mild to severe symptoms of insomnia. Results suggest that the study was feasible to conduct, as evidenced by the brief 5-week recruitment time, 87% retention rate, and 100% completion rate of the intervention modules. There were no treatment effects by time difference shown in the study and no significant differences in study outcomes were found between the CBT-I and control groups, as both demonstrated similar improvements in insomnia. However, this study suggests that it is feasible to recruit bereaved older adults for an online educational program and successfully administer an online protocol targeting insomnia and well-being.
  • Psychosocial support for providers working high-risk exposure settings during a pandemic: A critical discussion

    Plasse, Mechelle J. (2020-12-31)
    Psychological first aid is a form of support designed to lessen disaster-related distress. In a pandemic, providers may need such support but with the high risk of exposure, such a program is offered only virtually. The research is scant for traditional post-disaster support and non-existent for virtual; therefore, by using related research this discussion considers the likelihood of providers accessing and benefiting from this program. The virtual platform is heralded as the responsible way to provide support in a pandemic but this standard may be ineffective and is inherently inequitable. As a global event, pandemics require containment strategies applicable on an international level; therefore, psychosocial support should also be developed with an international audience in mind. Online psychosocial support falls short of being such a strategy as it incorrectly assumes global internet access. Many low-income areas such as Sub-Saharan Africa will need support strategies which compliment local frontline staff and fit with community-driven initiatives, whereas wealthier countries may use a combination of onsite and online support. Provider psychosocial support needs in a pandemic, if articulated, are globally similar but how this support is offered requires contextually sensitive considerations not yet found in the literature.
  • HDL (High-Density Lipoprotein) Subclasses, Lipid Content, and Function Trajectories Across the Menopause Transition: SWAN-HDL Study

    El Khoudary, Samar R.; Chen, Xirun; Nasr, Alexis; Billheimer, Jeff; Brooks, Maria Mori; McConnell, Dan; Orchard, Trevor; Crawford, Sybil L.; Matthews, Karen A.; Rader, Daniel J. (2020-12-03)
    OBJECTIVE: The cardioprotective capacity of HDL (high-density lipoprotein) cholesterol postmenopause has been challenged. HDL subclasses, lipid contents, and function might be better predictors of cardiovascular risk than HDL cholesterol. Changes in these measures have not been characterized over the menopause transition (MT) with respect to timing relative to the final menstrual period. Approach and Results: Four hundred seventy-one women with HDL particle (HDL-P) subclasses (nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy total, large, medium, and small HDL-P and HDL size), HDL lipid content (HDL phospholipids and triglycerides), and HDL function (cholesterol efflux capacity [HDL-CEC]) measured for a maximum of 5 time points across the MT were included. HDL cholesterol and total HDL-P increased across the MT. Within the 1 to 2 years bracketing the final menstrual period, large HDL-P and HDL size declined while small HDL-P and HDL-triglyceride increased. Although overall HDL-CEC increased across the MT, HDL-CEC per HDL-P declined. Higher concentrations of total, large, and medium HDL-P and greater HDL size were associated with greater HDL-CEC while of small HDL-P were associated with lower HDL-CEC. Associations of large HDL-P and HDL size with HDL-CEC varied significantly across the MT such that higher large HDL-P concentrations and greater HDL size were associated with lower HDL-CEC within the 1 to 2 years around the final menstrual period. CONCLUSIONS: Although HDL cholesterol increased over the MT, HDL subclasses and lipid content showed adverse changes. While overall HDL-CEC increased, HDL-CEC per HDL-P declined, consistent with reduced function per particle. Large HDL-P may become less efficient in promoting HDL-CEC during the MT.
  • "Together We Can Return to Balance"-Eastern Woodlands Native Perspectives and Type 2 Diabetes: A Qualitative Study

    Sadlon, Penni P.; Charron-Prochownik, Denise; Sullivan-Bolyai, Susan L (2020-12-01)
    PURPOSE: To explore the perspectives of Eastern Woodlands Native people with type 2 diabetes (T2DM) in the context of health beliefs, T2DM disease self-management, and family and community connections. METHODS: A qualitative descriptive method using face-to-face or telephonic semistructured interviews was employed with Native people ages 18 years or older who have a diagnosis of T2DM (N = 12) from an unidentified Eastern Woodlands tribe. The PEN-3 Cultural Model guided the study initially. RESULTS: The overarching theme "together we can return to balance" corresponded to 5 subthemes: coming to know life paths with T2DM, acknowledging the imbalance, negotiating my way forward, making important connections, and sticking closer to Mother Earth. Dimensions within the subthemes suggest why Native people may not be reaching T2DM treatment goals. Reasons include incomplete diabetes knowledge, difficulty accessing resources, and contextual variations in adoption of conventional diabetes treatments. CONCLUSION: This study identified themes from Native perspectives about T2DM self-management and about prospects that may mitigate incomplete knowledge and support. Integrating indigenous health and wellness knowledge with conventional principles of diabetes care presents several opportunities for nurses to advance diabetes self-management (DSM) education and support. Including Native health concepts when educating patients about DSM should be viewed as desirable for holistic family and community involvement that is central toward preventing disease progression.

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